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Full text of "The Fortnightly review (1912 - 1935)"

"IRSS'W.ISILtE 



Wtaf 







The Catholic 
Theological Union 
LIBRARY 
Chicago, III. 



Th. 



Fortnightly ReYiew 



Founded, Edited, and Published 

BY ARTHUR PREUSS 



JIOS' 
*30 



VOLUME XX: 1913 



/o- 



MISSION PRESS OF THE SOCIETY OF THE DIVINE WO 
TECHNY, ILLINOIS 




ARTHUR PREUSS 

Bridgeton, St. Louis County, 
Missouri 



'1 



TOPICS OF THE DAY 



FOR THE MITIGATION OF THE EUCHARISTIC FAST 

We are indebted to the Rev. Father A. Van Sever, of Rudolph, 
Wis., for a circular entitled "The Mitigation of the Eucharistic Fast," 
of which he has sent out 2,000 copies to bishops and priests. 

The object is to get expressions of opinion on the matter itself 
and also on the question how best to bring it before His Holiness 
at Rome. 

When the Holy Father knows, says the circular, that hundreds of thousands 
of communions are made impossible every year in this country by the rigorous 
law of the Eucharistic fast, when he is reliably informed that hundreds of 
priests and many thousands of the faithful are praying for a mitigation of 
that law under our circumstances, we believe that soon the question will be 
under serious examination at Rome. 

The objection that the Eucharistic fast is too venerable by its 
antiquity to be abolished, or even modified, is met as follows : 

We all realize that.... Still it is not a divine institution. And even a 
divine institution has been modified by the Church for good reasons in the 
matter of Communion under both appearances. ... The traditional fast is well 
calculated to foster reverence for the Holy Sacrament. But when this particular 
act of reverence becomes impracticable, we hope our Lord's representative 
will excuse us from it, and not allow an impossible and consequently unobserved 
fast to stand between us and our dear Lord.... If abuses are feared, on ac- 
count, for instance, of the use of alcoholic drink, they can be minimized or 
almost entirely prevented by proper legislation. 

The matter has been sufficiently agitated in this Review during 
the past year to make it unnecessary for us to declare our cordial 
sympathy for the movement inaugurated by Father Van Sever and 
his friends. We believe they are choosing the right means of agitation 
by appealing to the clergy, and especially to the bishops. A few 
expressions like that which the circular quotes from Rt. Rev. Msgr. 
Pascal, Bishop of St. Albert, Canada, will prove more effective than a 
hundred review articles. Bishop Pascal says : "The reasons which 
you give [for a mitigation of the Eucharistic fast] are quite con- 
vincing. I approve, of them fully. It belongs to the Holy See to 
decide whether the reasons brought forth in favor of the mitigation 
of the Eucharistic fast be sufficient to grant us this favor." 

A copy of the circular can be had for the asking from Rev. A. 
Van Sever, R. R. No. 2, Grand Rapids, Wis. 



4 THE FORTXIf.HTLY REVIEW 1913 

IMMIGRATION FIGURES 

The impression is widely current that our country receives, through 
immigration, an accession of a million or more a year to its population. 
The figures given in Secretary Nagel's latest report show that this 
impression is wrong. In point of fact, the net immigration into the 
United States — excess of aliens coming into the country over aliens 
going out of it — in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1909, was 544,000; 
in the year 1910 it was 818,000; in 191 1 it was 512,000; and in the 
fiscal year which ended June 30, 19 12, it was only 402,000. 

Of course, the immigration of the 5o's bore a vastly higher ratio 
to the home population ; but even the net immigration of the 8o's, 
when the change from Northern and Western to Southern and Eastern 
Europe had already in a great measure taken effect, was probably much 
larger in proportion to the home population than that which we have 
been getting in the past few years. 

OUR DISREGARD FOR HUMAN LIFE 

Our disregard for human life is again brought to the front by a 
report made to the Federal Bureau of Labor and published in the 
form of a bulletin, regarding lead poisoning in potteries, tile works, 
and the like. The reader will find a synopsis of this report in the 
December number of our useful contemporary the Centralblatt & 
Social Justice. 

Compared with British establishments of this sort, our own, with 
less than half the work-people, show almost twice as many cases of 
lead poisoning. 

Nor do these unfavorable figures tell the whole story, since, in the 
absence of legal requirements for the recording of such cases, it has 
been found impossible to make a complete census of them for the two 
years covered by the investigation. The salient fact that stands out in 
the report is that in foreign potteries and tile works there is recog- 
nition that the handling of lead glaze is a dangerous trade, and that 
the workman employed in it needs protection. Consequently, means 
of such protection are provided, ranging from clean, washable work- 
clothes to a monthly medical examination. All of these methods, says 
the report, could be introduced into our potteries without necessitating 
any change in the processes of manufacture. In certain branches of 
the industry as managed in Europe, leadless enamels are generally used, 
and they are believed to be superior in durability to those in which 
lead is used, while free from the dangers of the latter. 

The publication in authoritative form of these facts ought to be 
sufficient to end our shameful distinction in reference to them. The 



XX i THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 5 

fight against "phossy jaw," which is still fresh in the public mind, will 
operate as an aid in this direction. 

THE LESSON OF THE ELECTION 

Our esteemed contemporary the Ave Maria (Vol. 75, No. 23 ) 
calls attention to the fact that Mr. Wilson's vote in the late presiden- 
tial election was about the same as that cast for Mr. Bryan in 1896, 
while the two Republican candidates together polled no more votes 
than were cast for McKinley. 

When one considers the agitation since 1895 in the class of magazines 
known as the "muckrakers" ; the exposures of trust iniquities ; the increase 
in monopolies, and their increasing insolence; the iniquitous rise in the price 
of necessities ; the revelations concerning Wall Street, the railroad rebates, 
the stealing of public lands, forests, mines, and water powers; and the general 
ravages of Standard Oil, the Steel Trust, and the Money Trust, — this devo- 
tion of the common people to the old parties simply astounds the thoughtful. 
The people have not been moved by all this agitation. They do not connect 
either party with the abuses of the time. The Democrat voted the ticket 
of his father, and the Republican did the same, without apparently a thought 
of the tariff or the Alaskan robberies or the high prices of food. Like the 
main volume of water in the ocean, the "common people" remained motionless 
through the commotion of muckraking and exposure. What a lesson for the 
vivacious, energetic, impatient reformers of the time ! 

The Ave Maria has overlooked one important point — the growth 
of the Socialist vote, which, so far as we can see from the available 
figures, has more than doubled since 1896, when it showed an increase 
of something like 100 per cent, over 1892. If this phenomenal ratio 
of increase continues, it is but a question of time when the country 
will be ruled by Socialism. This, it seems to us, is the real "lesson 
of the election." 

A Stickler for Accuracy 

The Chicago New World, edited by Dr. Thomas O'Hagan, says 
(Vol. XXI, No. 16) : 

In the last Fortnightly Review our kind and suggestive friend, Arthur 
Preuss, discussing the character of the New York Independent says : "In these 
days of veniality and corruption," etc. Were it not that we have not joined 
Arthur's night school classes in English and logic, we would suggest to him 
that "veniality" is scarcely the word to be employed here. 

Of course not. The printer's devil obviously inserted a super- 
fluous "i" in the word which we had written, "venality." 

Immediately above the item just quoted from the editorial columns 
of our Chicago contemporary appears this statement : "There are 



6 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

critics who will not understand simply because they don't want to." 
Does Dr. O'Hagan belong to that unenviable class of criticasters? 

If we cared to join the Doctor's school of "critics who will not 
understand simply because they don't want to," we could print in 
every issue of the Fortnightly Review a dozen or more of brilliant 
witticisms like the following : 

"In the last New World our benevolent and facetious friend, 
Thomas O'Hagan, discussing the manner in which poets at times 
prostitute their gifts to unworthy causes, says: 'Indeed some of our 
Parmassian brethren have not been above little mundane bitterness 
and littleness of heart.' (The New World, editorial page, Vol. XXI, 
No. 16). Were it not that we had not joined Brother Thomas' night 
school classes in English literature and classic mythology, we would 
suggest to him that 'Parmassian' is scarcely the word to be employed 
here." 

Or, "The genial and accurate editor of the New World says: 
'We remember well when Grover Cleveland married Miss Fulsom and 
in due time a baby carriage was added to the equipment and furnish- 
ing of the White House' etc." (The New World, Vol. XXI, No. 16). 
This is the first intimation we have had that the late lamented President 
Cleveland was a bigamist. So far as we remember, the only lady 
he married while occupying the White House was Miss Frances Fol- 
som." 

And if we cared to be malicious, we could add that the ponderous 
Doctor might profitably attend a "night school class in English," as 
is painfully evident from such sentences as the following (quoted 
from the same number of the New World, same page, columns three 
and five respectively) : 

We are determined that the Catholic teachers of this city will not be 
insulted, either through the medium of tramp lecturers on art, or scoffing re- 
ligious acrobats, whose principles and sense of truth and honor are bound 
up in their pocket-books. 

The Extension is doing a good work in published a series of well written 
papers, admirably illustrated, on "The World's Great Painters." 

But it is impossible to be angry with an editor who ingeniously con- 
fesses (see the New World, same issue, same page, column four) 
that "there is nothing that we. . .lack more than the sense of minding 
our own business." 



XX i THE FORTXIGHTLY REVIEW 7 

"The Rosary" — A Parody on the Priesthood 

By a Catholic Dramatic Critic 

"The Rosary" is given this season by no less than six companies 
touring the country. We are told that Catholics flock to it ; that the 
play is "heartily endorsed by K. of C. Councils everywhere ;" that 
it "deserves the hearty support of all churchmen ;" that "it is a play 
which every Catholic young man ought to see;" etc., etc. 

"The Rosary" is perhaps not a bad play, but it is vulgar and 
impresses the thinking Catholic as a parody on the priesthood. 

The author, who is a non-Catholic, does not understand, and 
consequently does not and cannot bring out. the real meaning of the 
Rosary. 

The story is that of a newly married couple. The husband, 
an unbeliever, gives to his wife a pearl rosary and puts it on her 
neck. "Each bead is a prayer." In conversation with Father Kelly 
the husband promises within a year to build a chapel of the Rosary 
and in this chapel his wife is to play the magnificent organ. Now 
comes the devil of jealousy and estranges the husband from his 
innocent wife. Auxiliary love scenes are interwoven, in which Fa- 
ther Kelly shows his sympathy and wit and gets rather familiar witii 
some pretty women. Meanwhile the feud makes the husband ex- 
tremely miserable. But the chapel has been built, and on the day of 
the dedication the wife comes in mourning attire. The husband, re- 
duced to utter distress, appears, and also the culprit. By some power 
which, had he possessed it at all, he could have used to forestall the 
scoundrel, the priest sends the villain grovelling, whiningly confess- 
ing and begging for comfort. He is pardoned and Father Kelly's last 
words to the brute are : "Go and sin no more !" 

The whole thing has been aptly characterized as "a raw, half- 
baked dramatic effort." If Catholics really flock to it, this fact proves 
(1) that a low level of taste prevails among us, and (2) that many 
of our people grasp almost any excuse for frequenting the theatre. 

More than one intelligent Catholic has come from this play with 
a dim and twinkling suspicion that it is a parody on the Catholic priest- 
hood. This suspicion is confirmed by some non-Catholic critics. Thus 
the Toledo (O.) Neivs-Bee calls "The Rosary" "a ridiculous attempt 
to commercialize the reverence accorded to Catholic priests, because 
to its principal character, a priest, are ascribed powers with which 
only the superstitious would credit him." (Oct. 17, 1910). 



8 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

The Slav Countries and the Balkan War 1 

By R. F. O'Connor 

The most interesting route to the Near East, to which attention is 
now drawn, is that by Switzerland and the Tyrol. After following 
the valley of the Rhine as far as Feldkirch, the traveller turns ab- 
ruptly to the left and by a gentle aclivity reaches the Mountain of 
the Eagles (Arlberg) which marks the separation of the North and 
Black seas. While the western side is a tributary of the Rhine, the 
eastern side is intersected by a stream that flows into the Inn, a tributary 
of the Danube. After Nauders, the traveller clears the Reschen- 
Scheideck, one of the lowest passes in the Alpine chain. Soon appear 
three small lakes, from whence issues the Adige. It is still a country 
German in language; nevertheless die name Windischgau, given to this 
valley, indicates that it has been inhabited by the Vendes, that is to 
say, the Slavs. Goritza marks the entrance into the Slavonic regions 
of the southest, although the city has a very Italian appearance, 
several signboards are in Italian and the beggars beg in Italian. Go- 
ritza is one of the Slavonian foyers— one of the points where the 
Slav resists western influences ; otherwise there is nothing remarkable 
about it, except a ruined Gothic castle and the tomb of Charles N. 

Before reaching Trieste, the railway for a time skirts the Adriatic 
in the midst of a barren country, strewn with stones, devastated and 
wind-parched, extending rather far towards the north. The train 
makes long stoppage at Nabresina, before it branches off to Trieste. 
Nabresina is a Slavonic word. Generally when you meet in geograph- 
ical nomenclature a word ending in na, po, and za, you may be sure 
it denotes a Slav country. All the country around Trieste, and the 
lower classes in the city, belong to the Slavonian race and speak their 
language. It is easy to recognize the type. As a race they have known 
many masters. There was a time when the Avari harnessed Slav 
women to their cars, until Charlemagne liberated them from this sla- 
very. There is still pointed out a mound which had been made by At- 
tila, from which he could witness the burning of the city of Aquilea. 
Trieste is called Trst in the Slavonian language, which, like the Welsh, 
seems to exclude vowels ; seems only, for the Slavs assert that the 
letter r is a vowel. The Servians, for instance, call their country, erst- 
while so agitated by the expansionist policy of Austria, Srb, which 
looks like a contraction but is the name in full. 

Religious traditions are blended with other memories of the 
country's past in the popular imagination. One connected with the 
1 Cfr. this Review, Vol. XIX, Xo. 24, pp. 676 sqq. 



XX i THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 9 

Republic of Ragusa is worth noting. It is not forgotten that St. Fran- 
cis of Assisi stopped at Ragusa (Dubrovnik) on his way to the Sultan 
of Egypt, when the Senate of the Republic received him with the 
greatest honors. Impressed by the piety of the people, he gave his 
blessing to the Republic, predicting that it would preserve its independ- 
ence as long as it would not allow a schismatical church to be built 
on its territory. The remembrance of this prediction remained deeply 
graven in the minds of the patricians of Ragusa, who prevented even 
the construction of a schismatical chapel, despite the entreaties of the 
Slavs of the Greek Rite, who came in great numbers from Herzego- 
vina to take refuge in the territory of the Republic. The Empress of 
Russia, Catherine II, was greatly irritated by the boldness of the 
Senate, who would not even allow the Russian consul to have a 
chapel in his official residence. It was at the time when the Russian 
fleet, commanded by Alexis Orlow, made a naval demonstration off the 
coasts of the Peloponesus, in order to stimulate the uprising of the 
Greek nation. The occasion seemed favorable for oppressing the 
Ragusans. In 1768, the admiral commanding the squadron for the 
liberation of the Christians of the East, received the order to confiscate 
all the Ragusan vessels he should meet. Orlov even made a hostile 
demonstration against Ragusa. All Europe, whose interest was then 
awakened by the Russian war against Turkey, and influenced by the 
French philosophcs, attentively followed the movements of this gen- 
eral, deploring what seemed to them the folly and fanaticism of the 
Ragusans. The Empress was put to the shame of having displayed the 
strength of her immense Empire against a petty republic, with which 
she made peace the year following without having obtained any satis- 
factory results. When, however, French philosophism had made furth- 
er progress, the Senate found itself comprised of so-called enlightened 
people, esprits forts, who were sceptical of everything religious, and 
smiled incredulously at the prophecy of St. Francis. Several Bosnian 
and Servian schismatics having taken refuge in the hospitable terri- 
tory of Ragusa, they petitioned the Senate for authorisation to build 
a church of their own rite at their own expense. The Senate granted 
their request. The church was scarcely finished when the French 
occupied Ragusa. An aide-de-camp of the General presented himself 
one day before the Senate and bluntly announced that the Republic 
had ceased to exist. 

Another petty republic was that of Politza, founded in the Mid- 
dle Ages by some expatriated Bosnian lords against whom the peasants 
had revolted. It was situate where the river Cettina makes a detour 
before falling into the Adriatic near Almissa, and was composed of 



io THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

four parishes and a few thousand inhabitants, and its existence and 
independence was secured by the powerful protection of Venice when 
under the sway of the Doges. 

When the Austrian government first occupied Dalmatia, no change 
was made in the lot of the little estate ; only the lion of St. Mark dis- 
appeared to give place to the Hungarian standard. In 1807 the un- 
fortunate republic let itself be drawn into aiding the Russians, who dis- 
emuarKea at uaimatia to tight the French. Conquerors of the Rus- 
sians at Klobuk and Almissa, General Marmont's troops entered the 
territory of Politza. As he had not the least idea he was dealing with 
an independent state, of which no Frenchman had heard, he treated the 
armed Politzans as rebels. A few mali-kncses and parish priests were 
shot and the villagers were made to suffer a good deal. Thus perished 
the Republic of Politza. To-day the Politzans are simple moun- 
taineers. As descendants of nobles they object to being confounded 
with the Morlachian peasantry who laugh at their pretensions, accusing 
them of being as adroit and perfidious as Jews. They have a predilec- 
tion for the Hungarian costumes, and, like the Avari, wear a pigtail 
falling over their backs. 

The Bocchese, or inhabitants of the Cittoral known by the name 
of Bocche di Cattaro, live by the sea. They are the best seamen of 
Austria and have nearly three hundred vessels navigating all waters. 
So it is a very usual thing, it is said, to meet in the Gulf men who have 
frequented Smyrna, Constantinople, Odessa, and Alexandria ; many 
have gone as far as America and the Indies. They live for years 
away from home, but always return. They have a proverb — "One may 
go everywhere, provided he returns to the Bocche — with money." 

The origin of Cattaro dates back to the time of the Servian Em- 
pire, before the conquest of Turkey in Europe by the Osmanli. Stephen 
Douchan, Tsar or Emperor, had begun, the legend runs, to dig the 
foundation of Cattaro, when one of those Slavonian fairies the Serv- 
ians call Vila and the Bulgarians Samovila, appeared to him. She 
showed him that ships could not come up to the place he had chosen, 
and that there was not even space for a horse to turn round. Douchan- 
Tsar took the advice, and built the city quite near the sea, where it now 
is. A large excavation and a subterranean passage are yet seen in the 
neighborhood at the spot where they first began to dig. Douchan then 
invited all the Servian lords and the good Vila to a grand banquet. 
He boasted of the fine city he had built, forgetting to speak of« the ad- 
vice he had received and followed. Then the Vila, to humble him, 
told him that he had done nothing without her help, and the Emperor 
was so irritated that he struck her in the face with his hand. The Vila, 



XX i THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW" n 

to be revenged, poisoned all the springs in the country, and the guests 
all became mad. The Tsar entreated the Vila to restore his guests to 
reason and purify the springs. After many entreaties he obtained the 
cure of his guests, but the Vila would only purify one spring at the 
southern gate of the city. Since then it is the only fresh water spring ; 
from all the others flows salt water, particularly during the great 
summer heats. 

Milosch Obilitch, one of the heroes of the resistance to the Turks 
in the fourteenth century, lives in song and story. His name recalls 
the epoch when a successor of Douchan-Tsar yet reigned over all the 
Servian countries, and held under his rule the Bocche di Cattaro, whose 
inhabitants already were, as they now mainly are, Catholics and Latins. 
Nothing could make these people better known than their popular songs : 
their minds and hearts are in them. There is a song called "Milosch 
among the Latins," which relates that when the Servian Prince La- 
zarus sent his son-in-law, Milosch Obilitch, to collect tribute from 
the Latins, he was received with the honors due to a great noble, 
and led to the white church of St. Demetrius, to which the Latins 
pointed boastfully, telling the waywode Milosch that they had no such 
churches in his country. This aroused Obilitch"' s national pride, and he 
proceeded to enthusiastically enumerate the monasteries founded by 
the Servian princes for the salvation of their souls, and the mausoleums 
of their Tsars — the laura of Stoudenitza, near Novi-Bazar ; the Ladder 
of St. George, near the old palace of Degevo, the foundation of the fa- 
mous Tsar Symeon ; "the marvellous, the peerless, the white monastery 
of Kilindar, in the midst of the holy mountain of Athos," the founda- 
tion of St. Lava and his father Simeon ; Titcha on the Morava ; 
Sopotchani. at the source of the Ratchka, near Ifra, above 
Karanavatz, the foundation of the Servian king, St. Stephen ; 
the grand Papratcha, above Zvornik, at the sources of the Spretcha ; 
next the great mountain Borogova, the foundation of the Joupan Vou- 
kan; the lofty Detchani, near the fair city of Prisrend, foundation of 
King Stephen Detchanski; Ratcha, near Sokol, on the liver Drina ; 
the beautiful Tronoscha, close by Loznitza and the river Tronoscha, 
the foundation of the brothers Jougovitch ; the glorious Ravanitza, in 
the Resava below Paratchina, the foundation of the reigning hospodar, 
Prince Lazarus ; and several other Servian monasteries. Milosch lays 
a wager "of a thousand yellow ducats" that he will instantly fling his 
heavy plumed club over the church of St. Demetrius: then having 
begged pardon of God and the Church, and disclaimed any intentional 
irreverence, he swings the club into the air so vigorously that at once 
it disappears into the clouds. When "the winged club" having passed 



12 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

over the church, reappears, it strikes the palace of the Ban, four ad- 
mirals, and twelve high patricians. Milosch is seized and thrown into 
prison, and, looking through the barred window of his cell, he sees 
Costa, the Tsigan, whom he accosts "fraternally in God," and who, 
for three ducats, fetches him a blank sheet of paper upon which he 
writes to his father-in-law, Prince Lazarus, with blood drawn from his 
face. Lazarus, on perusing the missive, writes promptly to the Latin 
Seigniory, directing them to release his son-in-law, pay him the territorial 
tribute, and the thousand ducats, or, if they will not, he will raise all 
the Servians and Magyars, and ravage their entire country with fire 
and sword. The Latins instantly release Milosch. pay the territorial 
tribute, and the thousand ducats. 

At Cattaro they say the occurrence took place in that city, and 
point out a house built on the side of the Ban's palace. These legends 
convey the impression which the dominion of the Servian princes left 
in the Bocche di Cattaro and throw considerable light on the prevailing 
popular sentiment. 

The memory of the various religious foundations is preserved and 
perpetuated in other songs or legendary ballads. To have found a place 
in popular compositions evidences that the religious sentiment, at that 
epoch at least, must have been very profound in the Servian nation. 
The Kossovo war songs also show it. The princes before the Turkish 
conquest were not content with making foundations ; several retired 
into monasteries, and some became saints. The Mussulman conquest 
weakened the religious sentiment. The cyclical epic of Marko Kra- 
lievitch, reflecting the sentiments immediately following the struggle 
and the conquest, is far from being marked by so deeply religious a 
character as the war songs. 

When the Turks destroyed the Servian Empire, the Bocche di Cat- 
taro fell under the power of the Venetians, who, however, only occupied 
the zone in which their fleets could operate. The interior of the country 
remained in the hands of the Turks. The Republic of Venice never 
sought to impose its administration on the Slavs of the Bocche : it con- 
tented itself with occupying Cattaro and Budva, where it kept prove- 
ditors, subject to a proveditor-general residing at Zara, in Dalmatia. 
The Bocchese preserved their laws and customs ; their civil and criminal 
trials were conducted in the language of the country ; the magistrates 
were natives and elected every year by the population ; hereditary right 
was maintained where it had existed in the time of the Servians. The 
chiefs were free and proud ; they looked upon themselves as great 
personages ; it was commonly said of the four knezes of Gerbla'i that the 



XX i THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 13 

Doge of Venice would rise from his seat if he had seen them enter in 
their magnificent vesture and armour. 

Far from squeezing money out of them like the rapacious Turks, 
Venice brought it to them. Several petty chiefs, hereditary or elected, 
were in receipt of pensions from the Republic. Venice imposed no tax 
on the inhabitants, who were only kept to defend the country against 
the Turks, a duty of which they willingly acquitted themselves under 
the venerated and beloved banner of St. Mark. Venetian art reflects 
in brilliant features the dominant character of that famous Republic, 
religious and patriotic enthusiasm, as Rio shows in his work on Chris- 
tian art. No one will realize what Venice has been, says a French 
writer, if he has not long contemplated and admired pictures represent- 
ing so many Doges on their knees before the Blessed Virgin. Gazing 
on their noble life-like figures, one fancies he hears their lips uttering 
that verse once familiar in Venice, and still inscribed on the Vedramini 
Palace: "Non nobis, Dominc, 11011 nobis, scd noinini tuo da gloriam." 
"At all times," said J. B. Comaro in his profession of faith, "there were 
two altars erected in my heart — one to God, the other to my country." 
This serves to explain how it is that of all the standards that have suc- 
cessively ruled the seas, that of Venice has left the most abiding and 
moving memories. 

But in Venice, as elsewhere, the intellectual and moral degeneracy 
ushered in by the pestilential false philosophy of the eighteenth century 
extinguished religious and patriotic enthusiasm ; though populations, 
removed from the centre of corruption and decadence still, faithfully 
followed the luminous track when the sun had already disappeared 
below the horizon. 

At Perasto, when the order came to replace the Venetian flag by 
another, all the inhabitants assembled in the principal church, while with 
solemn and impressive ceremonies the banner of St. Mark was deposited 
under the high altar as a national relic. 

United Italy has not inherited the Venetian prestige in Dalmatia 
and the Bocche di Cattaro. The opposite effect has been produced: 
Italianism has resuscitated Slavism. The national sentiment all along 
the eastern coast of the Adriatic is one of violent hostility to Italy. 
The dominions that have held sway in Dalmatia after Venice have not 
effaced its memory. 

Servia, with ambitions to expand into an empire, strongly re- 
sents the intrusion of Austria, which blocks the way. It contains the 
most combustible elements, enough to produce a general conflagra- 
tion. The astounding victories achieved by the allied States in their life 
or death struggle with the decadent Ottoman Empire have intensified 
racial resistance to foreign interference. 



i 4 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

The Late Marriage Decree 

By the; Rev. A. Boutlou, Fairmont, W. Va. 

A great deal of unnecessary confusion has arisen from the fact 
that we in this country use the term "mixed marriages" in a much more 
extended sense than the Roman Congregations. By a "mixed marriage" 
we generally mean a marriage of a Catholic with a Protestant-, regard- 
less of whether the latter is baptized or unbaptized (infidelis). Such a 
marriage, as is well known, requires a dispensation mixtae religionis 
only for its lawfulness, not for its validity. 

The marriage of a Catholic with an unbaptized Protestant, or any 
other infidelis, requires for its validity a dispensation disparitatis cultns. 
Such a dispensation is never granted, and cannot be validly granted, 
without the prenuptial promises (sine debitis caiitionibus). If grained 
without these cautiones, not only is the dispensation invalid, but the 
marriage which may follow is null and void, even though a priest 
should lend his positive and active assistence. 

A bishop or his matrimonial court may at any time prone unce the 
nullity of such a union without recourse to the Holy See. This is 
plainly stated in decrees I and II of the same date, (June 21, 191 2) 
which immediately precede decree III, around which such a controversy 
has raged. Nowhere in these two decrees is mention of matri- 
monia mixta. The third decree, however, by which the Ne temere is 
modified, refers exclusively to mixed marriages in the strict sense of the 
term. This is clearly indicated in the very title of the decree. The 
modification is therefore for such marriages only in which both parties 
are baptized and which consequently require no dispensation for their 
validity. 

Even in these mixed marriages proper, no dispensation mixtae re- 
ligionis can be granted unless the prenuptial promises are given. When 
they are refused, no priest could, without sin, assist formaliter, i. e. 
asking and receiving the consent of the nupturients. By doing so he 
would cooperate in a sinful and sacrilegious act. 

By* the decree Ne temere, before its present modification, the 
active formal assistance of a priest having jurisdiction was required to 
ensure the validity of the contract (dummodo invitati ac vogati . . .rc- 
quirant excipiantque contrahentinm consensum.) This provision is 
abrogated by the decree of June 21st. The mere passive presence of 
a priest is allowed in certain cases where his active and formal assis- 
tance would be a sin. This, of course, applies only to countries like 
Hungary, where the priest's presence is obligatory under the civil law. 
There, the priest may or may not know whether the Protestant party 



XX i THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 15 

is baptized. If the Protestant party is baptized, the marriage is valid, 
though sinful but not on the part of the priest, who is merely a passive 
witness. If the Protestant party is unbaptized. the passive presence of 
the priest does not validate the marriage. No dispensation disparitatis 
citltus has been or could be validly obtained sine debitis caiitionibus; an 
impedimentum dirimens stands in the way; the contract is null and 

void. 

The above, in my humble opinion, is the simple and natural ex- 
planation of the three decrees of June 21st, 19 12, and their simul- 
taneous promulgation. 

* * * 

[We publish this explanation for what it may be worth. 
Strange that it has not suggested itself to a single one of the profes- 
sional canonists who have written on the subject. As one expert after 
another pronounces his opinion, the number of divergent views merely 
grows. Thus the canonical editor of Theologie und Glaube, a German 
theological review of high standing ( 1912. Heft 8, pp. 670 sqq. ) , de- 
clares that "the decree has no practical bearing except for Germany 
and Hungary, because everywhere else a mixed marriage not contracted 
in conformity with the decree Ne temere, would be invalid because 
of clandestinity. In Germany and Hungary it now becomes necessary, 
according to the provisions of the decree Ne temere, n. IV, § 3, and 
the new decree, to draw a clear-cut distinction between mixed mar- 
riages in which the required cautelae are given and those in which 
they are stubbornly refused." 

The writer (Dr. Klefner) goes on to say that even in the two- 
countries named no priest may lend his passive assistance to a mixed 
marriage of the last-mentioned kind unless "in Bcclesiae utilitatem et 
commune bomim vergere posse dignoscatnr," which must in each 
case be determined by the bishop. 

And there you are. In view of the fact that the experts disagree 
widely as to the meaning of the decree it will require an official inter- 
pretation to determine its real significance. 

To the ordinary Catholic it would seem that such confusion 
could be avoided and much harm of the kind deplored by Archbishop 
Glennon prevented, if the Roman Congregations would couch their 
decrees in plain and unmistakeable language. — A. P.] 

The Missionary Spirit in Our Colleges and Academies 

By the Rev. J. B. Kessel, S. J., Mankato, Minn. 

The Missionary Spirit must be trained and educated like the 
faculties of the soul and the body, and unless it is trained, it will 



i6 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

not be developed nor bear fruit, to the great detriment of one's self 
and of the cause of Christ and our fellow men. 

The children in our parochial schools are or should be made 
familiar with the needs of the poor heathen children and their mis- 
sionaries, and consequently should be induced to help them regularly 
and constantly, through the "Association of the Holy Childhood," 
every day by their Hail Mary, and every month by their one cent or 
more, which money they should be taught to give from their own 
spending pennies, as a personal sacrifice, not begging it from their 
mother. In somewhat the same way the boys in our colleges and the girls 
in our academies ought to be kept acquainted with the needs of our 
Catholic Missions at large and ought to be induced to join the truly 
Catholic, because world-embracing Society for the Propagation of 
the Faith: say daily an Our Father and Hail Mary with the invoca- 
tion "St. Francis Xavier, pray for us," and give regularly at least 5 
cents a month, or 60 cents a year. 

What a Catholic boy or girl attending a higher institution of 
learning cannot afford to give 5 cents a month for so noble a cause ! 
How many nickels are spent every month or even every week by them 
for baseball and other sports, for candy and ice-cream, for street car 
rides and different amusements, moving picture shows and the like. 

How much better would that money be spent for the cause of 
Christ and the propagation of our .holy Faith ! At least, how easily 
could they be induced — noble and generous as youthful hearts are — 
to spend at least five cents of their pocket money every month for 
the Catholic missions, to sacrifice just one street care ride a month 
for the missions, to walk the way on foot and offer this additional 
sacrifice together with the 5 cents saved for the propagation of the faith ; 
to put aside, at least once a month, 5 cents for which otherwise they 
would have bought candy or ice-cream, and offer up this little morti- 
fication of the palate together with this 5 cents saved for the poor 
and needy missions. They, singly, would not feel the loss of 5 cents a 
month, certainly not : and yet, if every Catholic boy and girl in our Cath- 
olic colleges and academies would contribute regularly every month five 
cents or 60 cents a year : what a considerable amount of money could 
be sent every year to the noble Society of the Propagation of the Faith 
to the greatest spiritual benefit of the givers and the advancement of 
God's kingdom on earth ! 

I would suggest, then, that all Catholic educators and all directors 
of schools, take up this matter in their respective classes and colleges 
and ( 1 ) organize on a solid basis the Society for the Propagation of 



XX i THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 17 

the Faith in their schools, and (2) arrange for a generous extra col- 
lection at Christmas time or during Lent for the same purpose. 

For particulars send in 5 cents to the Society for the Propagation 
of the Faith, 627 Lexington Ave., New York City, and get the latest, 
beautifully illustrated 48-page pamphlet by the Right Reverend Jo- 
seph Freri, D. C. L., on "The Society for the Propagation of the Faith 
and Catholic Missions" : an historical sketch of the Society, a complete 
description of its organization and administration, and an official report 
of that it has done for the missions since its foundation in 1822. 

If once the Society is well established in a college or academy, its 
missionary spirit should be kept alive by reading regularly and circulat- 
ing the Annals of the Propagation of the Faith, and especially by 
subscribing to and reading regularly the Catholic Missions, a magazine 
devoted to home and foreign missions and published every month at 
627 Lexington Ave., New York. Subscription Price one dollar. — 
Among those who read German, Herder's Katholische Missionen ought 
to find a wide circulation. It is an illustrated monthly, published by 
priests of the Society of Jesus and recommended by more than 60 pre- 
lates. For the United States apply to B. Herder, 17 South Broadway, 
St. Louis, Mo. Price, post free, $1.50. 

Our Leakage 

By a Catholic Missionary 

Under the nom de guerre "A Catholic Missionary," a contributor to the 
Fortnightly Review (Vol. XIX, No. 22) invites your readers "to examine the 
figures of a comparative table" exhibiting the number of Catholics and non- 
Catholics in German and English speaking countries (Germany, England and 
Wales, Ireland, Scotland, and the United States and English speaking Canada). 
From this table the writer has drawn the conclusion, that in the aforemen- 
tioned countries Catholics have multiplied over 200% during the nineteenth 
century, and non-Catholics over 400%; and upon this conclusion bases the 
alarming prediction, that if "Catholic Apostasy continues in the same propor- 
tion, the adherents of Protestantism [sic!] will, by the year 2000, surpass the 
number of Catholics all over the world." 

Now, while no one can gainsay that there is, as there has always been, 
a deplorable, possibly and alarming, number of defections from the Church's 
ranks here and abroad, the comparative table employed by "A Catholic Mis- 
sionary" to compute this condition by cold figures and ratios, not only does 
not bear him out in his conclusions, but actually leads to conclusions contrary 
to his. At first blush, his computations, seem to be correct, but a closer 
scrutiny of the figures of the individual countries on his list reveals the utter 
falsity of his conclusions. What he overlooked was, that a comparison, not 
of totals, but of the figures of each country, must fix the rate, by which the 
totals for the succeeding centuries may be forecast. In other words, if we apply 
the process of geometrical progression as we surely must do here, to the indi- 



18 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

vidual figures and not to the totals, we shall find that the rate of increase for 
Catholics, in three of the countries listed, will in another hundred years be so 
prodigiously greater than for non-Catholics, and the difference in the rate of 
increase or decrease in the other two countries so nearly equal, that our totals 
will show a far different ratio from the writer's. According to his computation, 
the totals of the five countries will show approximately a ratio of one Catholic 
to seven non-Catholics, whereas by the same table, correctly applied, the pro- 
portion of Catholics to non-Catholics will be I to 1%. 

To demonstrate : By the table in question, Catholics and non-Catholics have 
multiplied, approximately, during the past century, as follows : 

Catholics Non-Catholics 

Germany 209% 218% 

England & Wales 1500% 337% 

Ireland 70% 95% 

Scotland 850% 198% 

United States and j 9357% 38% 

English speaking Canada J u '" 

Assuming, as "A Catholic Missionary" himself does, that the rate of in- 
crease during the next one hundred years will be the same as that of the past 
century, the population will be the following by the year 2000: 

Catholics Non-Catholics 

Germany 39,780,045 77,424,388 

England & Wales 22,500,000 108,240,037 

Ireland 2,372,143 1,035,792 

Scotland 3,698,000 8,003,121 



United States and 

English speaking Canada 

Total 944,310,847 1108,393,623 



875,960,659 913,690,285 



Ergo, though by the table of "A Catholic Missionary," the proportion of 
Catholics to non-Catholics, has grown in the past century from 1 : 2 to 1 : 4, it 
will at the same rate of increase be 1:1% by the year 2000, a prospect, which 
instead of showing "an alarming state of affairs," is flattering beyond ex- 
pectation and, table or no table, beyond credibility. A Reader. 

I cannot but regard the above letter, which the Editor has kindly 
forwarded to me, as a joke. To what ludicrous results "Reader's" 
method of computation leads can be seen from the following. Sup- 
pose the comparative table given by me in No. 22 of the Review 
remained as it is except for the distribution of Catholics in 1800. Let 
us suppose the 14,150,682 Catholics all living in Germany, except one 
in England, one in Scotland, one in Ireland, and one in the U. S. 
Then suppose that during the 19th century they crossed to England, 
Ireland, Scotland, and the U. S., and apostatized. The question is not 
changed at all except that Catholics would have migrated more than 
they have done in fact. In the supposed case, as in the real one, 
according to the rational method employed by me in my article, the 
Catholics would have multiplied about 23/3 times and the non-Catholics 
nearly 4% times. According to the method employed by my critic, we 
should get the following amusing figures : In Germany Catholics would 



XX THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 19 

not have multiplied once, growing from 14 millions to only 19 millions. 
In England, on the other hand, they would have multiplied a million 
and a half times ! In Ireland, while the Protestants would have di- 
minished, (as they have in fact), Catholics would have multiplied 
3,377,775 times ! ! In the L T . S. they would have multiplied 9,359,277 
times ! ! ! 

This shows that the method of my critic must be wrong. 

He admits that there is a deplorable, possibly an alarming defec- 
tion from the Church. When souls are going to perdition by the 
million, instead of quibbling ought we not rather to unite forces and 
rush to the rescue by studying the true causes of the leakage and check- 
ing them as far as we can? 

On the Modification of the Eucharistic Fast. 

By Miss Sarah C. Burnett, San Francisco, Cal. 

The comments (in No. 23) on my article in No. 21 give me an 
opportunity publicly to answer certain objections which have been 
made in private by individuals who would not or could not come for- 
ward in print. 

That a large number of the faithful would strenuously resist any 
modification of the Eucharistic fast has long been to me a patent fact, 
and one very useful as a balance-wheel to my argument. The objec- 
tions to this change of discipline are largely based on the fear of open- 
ing the gates to a flood of abuses and laxity. But if the change is to be 
encountered by the resistance of most of the parties intended to be 
benefited, is there much danger of a sudden and widespread reign of 
irreverence? 

On the other hand, if there be anything in my surmise that a 
number of happy-go-lucky Catholics find the Eucharistic fast a good 
excuse for laxity of the opposite sort, then the question may easily 
become, not one of what the people want, but of what they ought to 
have. 

Father Schlathoelter's ready application of the invalids' dispensa- 
tion to the cases which I bring forward involves a liberality of con- 
struction which I have never before seen given to that concession. 
However, comment would be out of place from one unfamiliar with 
the wording of the decree and dependent mainly on translations. 

Now, as to the implied assertion that a certain "most exemplary 
Catholic father" of whom I spoke would have sacrificed the health 
of his little daughters for their or his own pecuniary advantage. To 
the personal issue involved I can easily reply by an emphatic negative. 



20 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

But the fact still remains that many Catholics actually do appear far 
more willing to make sacrifices for the sake of money-getting, etc., than 
for that of their religious duties. For this much-misunderstood class, 
I have, so far as the Eucharistic fast is concerned, already made a 
plea in Vol. XIX, Xo. 7, of this periodical. But, for fulness of de- 
tail, as well as strength of language, their best advocate is the Rev. 
C. J, Pernin, S. J., in the American Ecclesiastical Review for May, 
1912 (pp. 559 — 564). Had this writer (whom I have already quoted in 
these pages) spent the major part of his life behind the counter or 
beside the cooking-stove, he could not have imbibed a more thorough 
knowledge of the difficulties of secular life than he evinces in the 
article referred to. 

That Catholics of the past generation were capable of greater 
exertion in the way of religious and home duties than those of the 
present day I do not deny. But to set forth the reasons for this dif- 
ference, while it can be readily done, would simply mean to restate 
my whole case from start to finish, an entirely superfluous task. In 
the meantime, let me remind our readers of the theological truism that 
the sacraments are for men, — not men for the sacraments. 

Assuming as true that men can pray better when fasting — it must 
be remembered that I am not trying to set aside the Eucharistic fast 
altogether (as I am continually accused of doing) — I merely would seek 
relief for such cases where the fast is practically impossible. Then the 
question comes up, whether a higher spiritual standard is attainable 
by Communion without fasting, or by going without the Sacrament 
altogether. 

FLOTSAM AND JETSAM 



Homicide Statistics but in the decade 1902-1911 it rose 

Xo comfort can be got from the to j.2, an increase of more than 

statistical study of homicide in the 40 per cent. 

United States, by F. L. Hoffmann, This is a startling result; and, 
in the insurance journal, the Spec- while one cannot help suspecting 
tator. His survey covers the fig- that investigation might to some 
ures in the leading American cit- extent explain it away — as being 
ies for the past thirty years, and due, more or less, to changes in 
the showing by decades seems con- statistical arrangements — the in- 
clusive as to the increase of homi- crease is so large, and the number 
cide in the last ten years. The rate of years covered so considerable, 
per 100,000 in the aggregate of that it is hardly possible to doubt 
these cities — with a total popula- the general truth of the conclusion, 
tion in 191 1 of nearly 16,000,000 Moreover, the article takes oc- 
— was 5 per 100,000 in the decade casion to bring forward another 
1882-1891, and 4.9 in 1892-1901 ; aspect of the American homicide 



XX i 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



question, which is only too fa- 
miliar, and on which there is no 
room at all for doubt. This is the 
shameful pre-eminence of our 
country, as compared with other 
civilized nations, in the matter of 
homicide. The homicide rate for 
the "registration area" of the 
United States is nearly five times 
as great as that for England and 
Wales; and if there is any incom- 
pleteness in the statistics, this 
would only further emphasize the 
discrepancy, as the English fig- 
ures are unquestionably almost 
absolutely complete. 

Here is a phenomenon most 
discreditable to our country. For 
it the people cannot shift the re- 
sponsibility to the trusts or to 
malefactors of great wealth. 

Decay of the Arts in Japan 

The Fortnightly Review has 
during the last three years pub- 
lished a number of articles on the 
"new" Japan. In these articles 
attention was called to the fre- 
quently repeated remarks of un- 
prejudiced observers, that the 
"new" civilization has robbed the 
people of Japan of a great deal of 
their former happiness and joy 
of life. Even their art is differ- 
ent now and expresses itself in 
more somber forms than under 
the happy days of "l'ancien regi- 
me." Western culture, and all its 
multiplied agencies, making for 
merely material comfort, have evi- 
dently not brought a reign of 
"peace and good will" to the Land 
of the Rising Sun. Thus a critic 
of a late work on Japanese art 
writes as follows in the Neiv York 
Times Review of Boohs (Sept. 15, 
1912): 

There is something very saddening 
about these books, now appearing so 
frequently, dealing with the old arts 
of Japan. It was only a little over a 



century ago that Hiroshige died, and 
in that half century Japan has become 
a "great power" — and has lost her arts, 
her poetry, her romance, and her hap- 
piness. Some Japanese are trying to 
organize a "revival" of the ancient arts 
of their country. It is a vain hope, a 
beating of the wind. Modern "civiliza- 
tion" acts on art and on romance as 
a biting acid on a delicate substance, 
a miasma that withers and destroys. 
A hundred years ago the Japanese, de- 
spite the suppressions of the feudal sys- 
tem, were undoubtedly the happiest peo- 
ple in the world. Today the factories 
in their cities grind hundreds of thou- 
sands into neurasthenia and death more 
pitilessly than any cotton mill in the 
Southern United States. They are pay- 
ing for their "progress" — and they are 
paying dear. 



Methods of a Certain Insurance Company 

A priest of the Archdiocese of 
St. Louis writes to us : 

"There is an indemnity and ac- 
cident insurance company in Min- 
neapolis which sends its agents 
all over the country, producing 
numerous testimonials and get- 
ting contracts under the most 
glowing representations. They 
appeal especially to the clergy, to 
whom they make a reduced rate 
on the plea that a clergyman's 
name is a splendid advertisement. 
They tell you that in case of ill- 
ness or accident all you have to 
do is to send your claim, accom- 
panied by a physician's certificate, 
to headquarters, and you will get 
your insurance. The rates are so 
alluring that, however sceptic one 
may be, he is induced to take a 
policy on the strength of the rep- 
resentations made orally and 
black on white. But when the 
policy-holder gets ill, or meets 
with an accident, the promises are 
not kept. Blanks must be filled 
out, the physician is called upon 
for additional statements, and aft- 
er a considerable interval the pol- 
icy-holder is notified that his pol- 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



icy has been cancelled and his 
premium is returned. If the com- 
pany were honest in its dealings, 
why does it neglect to have an 
examination of the applicant's 
health made before issuing a poli- 
cy, as other insurance companies 
do?" 

How the Franciscans Own Property 

The Roman Rota, in the case 
of the disputed ownership of the 
Franciscan monastery at Wood- 
ford, England, has decided in fa- 
vor of the Friars Minor, and in its 
decision incidentally explains how 
the spiritual children of the "Po- 
verello" of Assisi can be said to 
"own" real estate. 

"It may seem strange that a 
question can arise as to ownership 
of property claimed by the Friars 
Minor, seeing that the Council of 
Trent (Sess. 25, c. 3) expressly 
excepts from the power of pos- 
sessing real estate 'the houses of 
the Friars of St. Francis, of the 
Capuchins, and of those known as 
Minors of the Observance' ; but 
it is to be remembered that the 
present controversy is one regard- 
ing property between the Duchess 
and the Friars Minors, who are 
asking that judgment be given 
them for that exclusive use of the 
estate which flows from the very 
right of ownership; if this is not 
to be assigned to the Duchess, it 
is to be declared as appertaining 
to the Friars Minors in such a 
way as to exclude the claim to 
ownership of the Duchess or any- 
body else. But the Friars Mi- 
nors, while claiming and keeping 
possession of the estate, as they 
now hold it, do not deny that the 
ownership of it rests not with 
them, but, according to the S. Con- 
stitutions, with the Holy See, 
which is therefore to be recognized 



as the lord of the estate in their 
name, by virtue of the Constitution 
Exiit of Nicholas III. Still, all 
the doctors assign to these relig- 
ious the actual use (usus facti) of 
the property which they inhabit, 
as Bouix shows, De Jur. Regul., 
Vol. ii, p. 535. Hence in the pres- 
ent action the question is one of 
ownership which can be legitimate- 
ly claimed even by the Friars Mi- 
nors — in whose name, however, the 
Holy See itself is to be considered 
as obtaining it, according to the 
rule (Reg. 72 jur. in VI) 'he who 
does a thing through another, does 
it himself.' " 

Heating a Church With Electricity 

A successful instance of elec- 
tric heating for a large church is 
seen in the St. Sebaldus Church 
at Nuremberg. The Scientific 
American (Vol. 107, No. 14) de- 
scribes it as follows : 

Individual heaters are used in 
each pew so that a good distribu- 
tion of heat results. This is done 
by mounting a long tube heater 
near the floor in front of the seat 
and along the back of the follow- 
ing pew, which acts as a foot 
warmer. The electric heating tube 
is a 3-inch iron pipe which con- 
tains a smaller tube wound with 
resistance wire. At each pew is 
a switch for cutting out the heat- 
er, and all the separate wires from 
the heaters run to connection box- 
es placed at different points under 
the floor. A perforated iron foot 
rest runs along above each heater. 
The church has a seating capacity 
of 1,200, and the length of pews 
is 1,750 feet in all. 

World-Speech 

The latest universal language is 
World-Speech, invented and pro- 
mulgated by the Rev. Edward P. 



XX i 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



23 



Foster, of Marietta, Ohio. It is 
Mr. Foster's contention that all 
earlier universal languages have 
failed because their inventors, in 
setting out to devise an artificial 
tongue, have not had the courage 
to be artificial enough. They have 
sought to compromise by rearing 
their mechanical structure upon a 
foundation of living word-roots, 
and so have hampered their own 
freedom. Mr. Foster's World- 
Speech takes the letter a as the 
sign of all pronominal word 
forms. To initial a he adds the 
next available letter b and so gets 



"ab" as the form for "I" and "me." 
Adding the second consonant to a, 
we get "ac" for "thou," "you," 
and in this manner proceeding ob- 
tain the following list : ab=I, me, 
ac=thou, you, ad=he, him, af= 
she, her, ag=it, and so on to ax= 
each other, ay=some, az=plural, 
azab=we, us, etc. The letter e is 
the sign of the verb; eb is the in- 
finitive, ec, imperative, ed, pluper- 
fect, ef, perfect, etc. All this and 
more is expounded in the first 
number of "World-Speech," pub- 
lished at Marietta, O. 



ET CETERA 



In a holographic letter address- 
ed to Provost Luigi Ciceri, who 
had inquired about the truth of 
certain malicious rumors, His 
Holiness Pope Pius X says (see 
Petrusblatter, 1912, No. 8., p. 93) : 
"I authorize you to declare. . .that 
the Pope in the administration of 
the Church enjoys the loving help 
of many Cardinals, but none of 
these would venture to do any- 
thing in the name of the Pope 
that has not been previously order- 
ed or agreed to by the Supreme 
Pontiff ; and that those who spread 
the rumor that the Church is being 
governed by three Cardinals [the 
reference is to Cardinals Merry del 
Val, De Lai, :.nd Vives y Tuto] 
belong to a class of Catholics, 
never absent in the Church, who 
refuse to give due obedience to 
the Supreme Pontiff and quiet 
their conscience by the thought 
that they are under no obligation 
to obey because it is not the Pope 
who commands." 



Basle, Switzerland, held its sess- 
ions in the old Catholic Cathedral, 
which has for many years been 
in control of a Protestant con- 
gregation. This was to some ex- 
tent at least a realization of the 
hope expressed by the Socialist 
New York Call, which after the 
election in Germany, depicted a 
"comrade" hoisting a red flag on 
the spires of the Cologne Cathe- 
dral. Delegate Adler of Vienna had 
the impudence to "rub it in," as 
the Appeal to Reason would put 
it. He said in an address delivered 
at theBasle congress : We are uni- 
versally regarded as enemies of the 
Church, and yet to-day the church 
portals are thrown open to us by 
men to whom the word 'Christian- 
ity' still means 'peace on earth'. 
To-day genuine Christians and 
genuine Socialists meet in common 
charity to protest against the awful 
slaughter of human beings, etc." 
Protestantism an ally of Socialism 
— the fact speaks volumes ! 



The international Socialist con- 
gress which recently took place at 



Here is an interesting news item 
from the C. P. A. cable service 



24 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



(see the Catholic Union and 
Times, Vol. XLI. No. 37) : 

On receiving in audience for the 
third time during their brief stay here 
the Rev. Mother General Teresa and 
the Rev. Mother Councilor Columba,. .. 
His Holiness spoke to them in English. 
This is the first time that a Pope has 
spoken in that language in giving au- 
dience. Since the beginning of his pon- 
tificate the Holy Father has been quietly 
studying English ; and he is now able 
to read documents in that tongue with 
little difficulty. But he never before 
ventured to engage in conversation in 
it while giving an audience. 

The Hon. Maurice Francis 
Egan may not be a great writer, 
but he is a clever politician. Now 
the Catholic press is again begin- 
ning to "boom" him, presumably, 
that he may keep his position in 
the diplomatic service. (See e. 
g. the Milwaukee Catholic Citizen, 
Vol. 42, No. 4). If President- 
elect Wilson will not heed the vox 
populi thus expressed, of course, 
this will be a clear proof that he is 
an enemy to the Catholic Church, 
as Dr. Scharf asserted from the 
beginning. They are nothing if 
not ingenious, these Catholic politi- 
cians ! 

Msgr. Russell, of St. Patrick's 
Church, Washington, D. C, has 
offered a reward of one thousand 
dollars to the person who will es- 
tablish the authenticity of the oaths 
recently circulated as part of the 
Catholic ritual by anti-Catholic 
publications (Jesuit's oath, cardi- 
nal's oath, bishop's oath.) The 
Monsignor does not include in his 
offer the alleged K. of C. oath. Is 
he afraid that particular specimen 
of anti-Catholic mendacity might 
possibly be genuine? 

The Catholic Union and Times 
(XLI, 36) reports Archbishop 



Keane of Dubuque as saying in 
a public address : "A quam bonum 
et jucundum est Labitere fratres 
in it nit in." Here is another case 
for Doctor O'Hagan. 

A correspondent asks "R. C. 
Gleaner," of the Catholic Colum- 
bian (xxxvii, 49), why "Catholic 
gentlemen of good standing and 
fair repute are so prominent.... 
on the first Sunday in December 
when the Elks have their memo- 
rial meeting, which verges on re- 
ligious service, for a parson is al- 
ways there to pray, and good 
sound Catholic theology and prac- 
tice says we must not take part 
in other worship." 

"Gleaner" refuses to answer 
the question or to discuss the sub- 
ject, on the plea that when he crit- 
icized these "prominent Catholic 
gentlemen" on a previous occasion, 
"it was like touching a match to 
powder" and the Columbian was 
made to suffer for it. He adds 
that "the day is soon approaching 
when some specific legislation must 
be enacted in this matter, for as 
it stands now, in the language of 
the day, 'we don't know where we 
are at.' " Perhaps, if the Catholic 
press had faithfully and courage- 
ously done its duty in the mat- 
ter, the necessary legislation 
would be already enacted, or, still 
better, no legislation would have 
become necessary. Our people as 
a whole are not sufficiently in- 
structed on the dangers of secret 
and semi-secret societies, espec- 
ially such as are frankly natural- 
istic and pagan in character, like 
the Elks. 

A certain popular play depicts 
a murder by means of a silent- 
shooting pistol. This leads Mr. 
Hiram P. Maxim to write to the 



XX i 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



25 



Scientific American (Vol. CVII, 
No. 23) that, while a silencer will 
give absolutely noiseless shooting 
on a rifle (provided the ammuni- 
tion used has a bullet velocity of 
less than 1,100 feet per second) 
neither a revolver nor an automat- 
ic pistol, the only two forms of 
pistol in use to-day, can be si- 
lenced by means of it. If a si- 
lencer is attached to a revolver, 
a serious gas leakage occurs in 
the loose joint between the cylin- 
der and the barrel, and instead of 
there being a flash of fire at the 
muzzle, there is one at the joint. 
In an automatic pistol the powder 
gases are caught and imprisoned, 
and when the automatic breech 
opens to eject the empty shell and 
throw in a new cartridge, these 
imprisoned gases are blown out 
backward into the face of the 
shooter, "a very dangerous ex- 
periment, which should never be 
attempted by those unfamiliar with 
firearms." 

Why will Catholic papers persist 
in giving prominent and flattering 
notice to marriages in which one 
of the contracting parties is not 



of the Catholic faith? This is put- 
ting a premium, as it were, upon 
mixed marriages, which the 
Church so emphatically disap- 
proves, and tolerates only where 
she is unable to prevent. We sug- 
gest that our contemporaries de- 
vote the space thus wasted to a 
discussion of the problem, "Why 
do the children of wealthy Cath- 
olics so often marry non-Cath- 
olics?" 

I. H. S. written thus as the ini- 
tials of three words, is one of the 
most singular and persistent er- 
rors in England, and the National 
Gallery catalogue is not immune 
from it. What really is intended 
is IHS, the monogram of the Ho- 
ly Name, which in its Gothic form, 
at all events, came from the me- 
diaeval spelling jhesus. IHS means 
no more than Jesus. Jesus Ho- 
minum Salvator, In Hoc Signo, 
etc., are late, forced and fanciful 
readings due entirely to those 
mischievous fullstops. True Brit- 
ons have even rendered the let- 
ters Jesus Holy Saviour ! — Mont- 
gomery Carmichael in The Month, 
No. 582. 



LITERARY NOTES 



— Messrs. Benziger Brothers 
have just published a catalogue of 
Catholic Books in English Now 
in Print in America and Europe, 
for which they solicit corrections 
and additions. The catalogue is 
fairly complete, so far as we can 
see, — more complete in fact than 
its title-page would indicate, in- 
asmuch as it includes the publica- 
tions of the regular Catholic pub- 
lishing houses not only of Amer- 
ica and Europe, but also of India 
and Australia, and many Catholic 



books brought out by non-Cath- 
olic publishers or issued by the 
authors themselves, etc. Pamph- 
lets, prayer books, and school 
books as well as books written by 
Catholic authors but not Catholic 
in contents, are professedly ex- 
cluded. No doubt Catholic book- 
sellers, authors, librarians, and 
the reading public generally will 
respond to the invitation of the 
editors to report errors and omis- 
sions, so that in course of time 
we shall obtain what has Ions 



26 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



been a desideratum, — a complete 
and reliable catalogue of English 
Catholic books now in print 
throughout the world. The bound 
edition of this catalogue is em- 
bellished with no less than 345 
miniature portraits of (mostly liv- 
ing ) Catholic authors. — A. P. 

— Die italienischen literarischen 
Gegner Luthers. Von Dr. Fried- 
rich Lauchert. (xv & 714 pp. 8vo. 
B. Herder. 19 12. $4 net.) For 
ten years Dr. L. has been system- 
atically searching the archives 
for data about those 16th century 
Italian writers who defended the 
faith against Luther. The infor- 
mation he furnishes in this stately 
volume is almost entirely of the 
hitherto unpublished kind. For 
with the exception of Cardinal 
Contarini and Ambrosius Catha- 
rinus. on whom special mono- 
graphs have been written, very lit- 
tle was known about any of these 
men. Most of them were not even 
mentioned in the biographical dic- 
tionaries. Dr. Lauchert destroys 
the hoary legend that contempo- 
rary Catholic Italy was blind and 
deaf to the heresies of Luther. 
No less than forty-seven Italian 
writers publicly combatted the Ref- 
ormation. Twelve of them were 
Dominicans ; six, Augustinians 
(the order to which Luther him- 
self belonged) : three Franciscans; 
six, members of other religious or- 
ders ; fourteen, secular priests, and 
four, laymen. Strangely enough, 
the Society of Jesus, which is be- 
lieved by many to have been estab- 
lished for the express purpose of 
combatting the Reformation, is not 
represented in this list at all. Be- 
sides the forty-seven authors men- 
tioned. Dr. Lauchert enumerates 
nineteen others who also combat- 
ted Luther, but whose works nev- 



er saw the light or can no longer 
be found. The book is of general 
interest because it contains bio- 
graphical sketches of such eminent 
men as Sylvester Prierias, Ambro- 
sius Catharinus, Cardinals Caje- 
tan, Contarini, Sadoleto, Grimani, 
Seripando, Bishop Tommaso Cam- 
peggio, etc. — A. P. 

— From G. Beauchesne & Co., 
Paris, we have received the second 
and concluding volume of Fr. F. 
Prat's learned and useful work on 
the theology of St. Paul (La Theo- 
logie de Saint Paid par F. Prat, 
S. J . Deuxicme Partie. viii & 579 
pp. 8vo. Price, 7 fr. 50). In the 
first volume, which we reviewed 
about four years ago, the author 
followed the chronological order 
of St. Paul's epistles. In the pres- 
ent volume he gives preference to 
the logical order. The introduc- 
tory chapter is devoted to the 
modern conceptions of Paulinism. 
The second develops the true 
Catholic idea. The following 
chapters group the theological 
teaching of St. Paul around what 
Fr. Prat conceives to be its central 
idea, viz. : "Christ, our Savior, as- 
sociates every believer with his 
death and His life." The treat- 
ment of each succeeding point is 
keen and exhaustive, and the au- 
thor shows such an insight into 
the sinuosities of the great Apos- 
tle's thought that his book will 
hardly be soon superseded. The 
notes, as in the first volume, are 
essays rather than notes and fair- 
ly bristle with erudition. The bib- 
liography is complete. A perfect 
system of summaries, indices, and 
cross-references makes the vast 
information stored up in this 
scholarly work easily accessible. 
Criticism in connection with such 
an admirable performance would 



XX i 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



almost seem ungracious, yet it 
seems to us that, had the author 
taken into account the results of 
the new science called history of 
religions, he would perhaps have 
modified somewhat his attitude on 
certain difficult points, e. g., the 
demonological problem. — C. D. U. 

— The Ninth Annual Meeting 
of the Catholic Educational Asso- 
ciation at Pittsburgh, Pa., last 
June, was in every respect as im- 
portant as any of its predecessors. 
The section meetings were well 
attended and the spirit of earnest- 
ness and devotion at the conferen- 
ces was much in evidence. The 
Report of the Proceedings and Ad- 
dresses will, therefore, well repay 
reading. Both in the variety of 
subjects discussed and in thor- 
oughness of treatment the papers 
of this Report compare favorably 
with those of preceding years. 
Those which gave rise to most dis- 
cussion at the time of the meeting 
last June, and which are well 
worth re-reading, are the Rev. Dr. 
McMahon's on "The Relation of 
the Pastor to our Educational 
Work" and the Rev. Dr. Yorke's 
on "The Family, the State, and 
the School." There is, as usual, 
a great variety of pertinent dis- 
cussion and suggestion for those 
interested in the different phases 
of our Catholic educational sys- 
tem : the College Department, the 
Parish School Department, and 
the Seminary Department. (Pub- 
lished by the Catholic Educational 
Association, 1651 East Main St., 
Columbus, Ohio.) — A. Muntsch, 
S.J. 

— We have before us the second 
volume of The "Summa Theolo- 
gica" of St. Thomas Aquinas Lit- 
erally Translated by the Fathers 



of the English Dominican Prov- 
ince. It comprises qnaestiones 26 
to 74 of the First Part of that 
great thesaurus of human and di- 
vine knowledge. The translators 
have been criticized for adhering 
too closely to the original. But in 
a translation claiming to be "liter- 
al" this is an excellence rather 
than a defect. No one familiar 
with the Summa, who will take 
the trouble to examine this Eng- 
lish version carefully, can fail to 
perceive that the English Domini- 
cans are doing their work very 
well indeed. We hope with our 
Holy Father Pope Pius X himself, 
(who has deigned to send the 
translators a letter of commenda- 
tion and encouragement through 
H. E. Cardinal Merry del Val) 
that the great work of populariz- 
ing St. Thomas may go on suc- 
cessfully and produce abundant 
fruit. Messrs. Benziger Brothers 
are the American publishers. Price 
of this second volume, $2 net. — 
A. P. 

— In Die Kirche und die Gebil- 
deten (B. Herder. 75 cts.) the 
Rev. Dr. John Chrysostom Schul- 
te, O. M. Cap., treats, mainly from 
the standpoint of pastoral theolo- 
gy, a problem that is decidedly 
more urgent in the "old country" 
than here, though in America, too, 
the growing number of educated 
lay men and women would seem 
to demand some special considera- 
tion on the part of pastors. There 
is no doubt that the cultured laity 
must be appealed to in a special 
manner, because they have their 
own problems to solve and their 
own peculiar difficulties to con- 
tend with. P. Schulte's sugges- 
tions are intended for Germany, 
but being based on the general 
principles that underlie the cure of 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



immortal souls, they could easily 
be adapted to our conditions. The 
work makes absorbing reading for 
all who are interested in the pecu- 
liar problems of to-day and de- 
serves a wide circulation. Typo- 
graphically the little volume is a 
gem. — A. P. 

— A Child's Rule of Life. By 
Robert Hugh Benson. With 
Drawings by Gabriel Pippet. 
(Longmans, Green & Co. 1912.) 
The aim and quality of the text- 
ual part of this attractive booklet 
may be judged by the introduc- 
tory lines : "Mr. Pippet and I — 
Have thought we would try — To 
make up a Rule for you all. — A 
Rule to keep straight by — Be in 
time and not late by — (And ev 'n 
meditate by!) — A Rule for big 
children and small. — I've made up 
these rhymes— Rather feeble 
sometimes - — But better than no 
rhymes at all. — Mr. Pippet here 
too — Has drawn it for you — To 
make it both simple and smart: 
— For a child that is good — Must 
have quite understood — The whole 
Rule, not only a part. — So if you'd 
be holy — Just read it through 
slowly — And then set and learn it 
by heart. — And then when you 
grip it — Say a prayer for G. Pip- 
pet — Who has made it to look 
like a game ; — Quite easy to see, 
too : — And also for me, too, — 
Who wrote it. . . . And — oh! yes, 
my name — I omitted to mention — 
Is Robert Hugh Benson, — So 
please will you pray for the same." 
We have shown the volume to 
some little tots and they were im- 
mediately interested in it, which is 
a good recommendation. — A. P. 

— Volume V of the Geschichte 
des deutschen Volkes vom drei- 
zeknten Jalirliundert bis sum Aus- 



gang des Mittelalters, by Fr. Emil 
Michael, S. J., of the University 
of Innsbruck, is devoted to the 
cultivation of the plastic arts in 
Germany during the thirteenth 
century. (B. Herder. $2.50 net). 
The author's characterization of 
the different styles of architecture 
and his description of the build- 
ing of the great cathedrals of the 
early Middle Ages, is especially 
interesting. Incidentally we may 
note that Dr. Michael takes the 
ground that Gothic architecture 
did not originate in mysticism or 
other aprioristic conceptions, but 
in purely empiric considerations. 
The present volume concludes the 
"Kulturgeschichte" of the German 
nation in the thirteenth century, 
and as such, is perhaps the most 
complete and at any rate the most 
satisfactory work of its kind in 
existence. The keynote of that 
time, as the author again and a- 
gain insists, was its Christian- 
Catholic faith. "The medieval 
world was penetrated by the con- 
viction that man is obliged to 
submit himself to his Creator and 
that he owes obedience to divinely 
constituted authority both in 
Church and State. . . . Especially 
the plastic arts are indebted for 
their finest efforts to the religious 
spirit. Not as if the Germans 
would have had no arts without 
the Church .... But that splendid 
artistic development which char- 
acterizes the thirteenth century, is 
conditioned upon Christianity and 
could not have taken place with- 
out the Church." (V, 426 sq.) The 
present volume is embellished with 
89 splendid engravings. In his 
next volume Fr. Michael will take 
up the political history of Ger- 
many at the beginning of the Mid- 
dle Asres.— A. P. 



XX i 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



— Die Jugend. Vortrage fur Ju- 
gendvereine. Hcrausgegeben vom 
Volksverein fur das katholische 
Deutschland. Zweites Heft: Staats- 
wid Gemcindeleben. (158 pp. 8vo. 
M. Gladbach : Volksvereinsverlag. 
191 2. M. i). Patriotism, the 
State and its functions, the rights 
and duties of citizens, taxes, laws, 
crimes, punishments, the police, in- 
ternational relations, the local com- 
munity, the duty of national de- 
fense, the navy, the protective 
tariff, the telegraph, the telephone, 
the railroad, shipping, and the 
press, — are the subjects expound- 
ed in this extremely useful vol- 
ume. While the treatment of most 
of the topics is particularly adap- 
ted to conditions in Germany, 
much of the discussion is of gen- 
eral interest and value, inasmuch 
as it deals with fundamental prin- 
ciples of politics, civics, and eco- 
nomics. Unfortunately we have 
no manual in use in our American 
Catholic schools or colleges to 
compare with this very practical 
and up to date treatise. — John A. 
Ryan, D. D. 

Herder's Book List 

[This list is furnished monthly by B. Herder, 
ij South Broadway, St. Louis, Mo., who keens 
the hooks in stock and to whom all orders 
should be sent. Postage extra on "net" books.] 

Songs, Sonnets, and Essays, Songs 
and Essays by D. O. Croivly,— Songs 
and Sonjiets by T. L. Croivly, net 1.00. 

Crowns and Palms. Drama in Four 
Acts, Adapted from the German of A. 
de Waal, net 0.25. 

The Communion of Saints, by Charles 
F. McGinn-is, net $1.50. 

The Woman Hater, by John A. Ca- 
meron, net $1.25. 

Psychotherapy, bv James J. Walsh, 
net $6. 

Selected Sermons, Second Series by 
Cardinal Newman, net 0.40. 

Socialism From the Christian Stand- 
point. Ten Conferences. By Bernard 
I'aughan, net $1.50. 



The Old Irish World, by Alice S. 
Green, net $1.60. 

Polemic Chat by Edmund M. Dun- 
ne, net 0.50. 

Reminiscences of A Diplomatist's 
Wife, by Mrs. Hugh Fraser, net $3. 

This and That and The Other, by 
H. Belloc, net $1.25. 

A Miscellany of Men, by G. K. Ches- 
terton, net $1.50. 

Dogmatic Canons and Decrees, net 
$1.25. 

Around the Crib, by Henri Perreyve, 
net 0.35. 



THISMONEY-MAKING 

BOOK IS FREE 



Tells of an Investment Safer and More 
Profitable Than^Bank or Rail- 
road stock. 



ENDORSED BY LEADING BANKERS, 
GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS AND THE 
CATHOLIC HIERARCHY AND LAITY. 



A valuable book of interest to and for 
circulation only among Catholics has just 
been issued, and will be sent free and post- 
paid to any reader of The Fortnightly 
Review who lias ij!20 or more to invest. 

The book tells of a line of business that 
has and is paying enormous dividends, and 
which is being supported by Catholics to the 
extent of §75,000,000 a year. It contains most 
complete facts and figures relating to this 
particular business and the astonishing div- 
idents paid stockholders. It shows how Cath- 
olics may, for the first time, now become 
stockholders and receive their share of the 
profits of this great business. The stock of 
old-established companies in this line is worth 
ten to twenty times par value, and original 
investors are receiving 100 per cent, divid- 
ends. 

This is not a get-rich-quick scheme, but 
a high-class, legitimate business enterprise, 
indorsed by leading banks and the Catholic 
hierarchy and laity. 

This is the opportunity of a lifetime to 
make a safe and profitable investment, and 
worth the attention and investigation of 
every conservative investor. 

If you would like to have a copy of this 
book, address Philip Harding, Dept. 99A, 
Box 1301, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mr. Harding requests that no one write 
simply through idle curiosity aud unless you 
are a member of the Catholic Church 
the book will be of no interest to you, be- 
cause only Catholics will be permitted to 
hold stock in this particular institution. 



30 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



Modrigali, by T. A. Daly, Illustrated, 
net $1. 

William George Ward and The Cath- 
olic Revival, by Wilfrid Ward, net $2.40. 

Life of St. Francis of Assisi, by 
Father Cuthbert, net $3.50. 

Modern Socialism, by H. Maeckel, 
S. J., net 0.05. 

Little Rymes for Little Folks by P. J. 
Coleman, net $0.30. 

Modem Progress and History by 
James J. IValsh, net 2.00. 

Course of Religious Instruction, by 
the Brothers of the Christian Schools. 

The Catechist's Manual, Brief Course, 
net 0.75. 

Saint Joseph of Leonessa, Capuchin 
Friar Minor. Biographical Sketch by 
Anthony Brennan, O.F.S.C., net 0.30. 

The Sugar Camp and After, by H. 
S. Spalding, S.J., 0.85. 

Spiritual Exercises for the Purga- 
tive, Illuminative, and Unitive Ways, 
by J. Michael of Coutances. Trans- 
lated, slightly abridged and re-arranged 
by K. D. Best, net 1.35. 

The Psalms. Translated from the 
Latin Vulgate, bv F. P. Kenrich, net 

o./5- 

Hospital Society Addresses, by H. S. 
Bozvden, net 0.70. 

The Ways of Mental Prayer, by Dom 
J 7 it alls Lehodey, net 1.75. 

Searching the Scripture, by T. P. 
Gallagher, net 1.75. 



FISCHER'S EDITION 

A new and Revised Edition 

of 

Mass in honor of 
St. Cecilia 

by 
C. Jasper, Op. 9. 

Arranged for Soprano and Alto, with 
Tenor & Bass ad lib. 

Jasper's Mass, containing no difficulties- 
whatsoever eithei in vocal part or in the ac 
companiment, stands highly recommended 
by Church Music Commissions everywhere. 

Can he rendered by a chorus of treble 
voices (Soprano & Alto, either juniors or 
adults) 

Soprano, Alto & Baritone 



Soprano, Alto, Tenor & Baritone 

Score 60 

Voice parts a 20 

Publisher 

J. PISCHER & BRO. 
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Mention "Fortnightly Review" 



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STUCKSTEDE BROS. 2735-2737 Lyon St., Cor. Lynch 

manufacturers of 
Church Bells, and Chimes of Best Quality 



XX i 



THE FORTXIGHTLY REVIEW 



31 



Bargains in Old Books 



ENGLISH 

Brann, Henry A., History of the 
American College, Rome. 19 10. New 
York. Illustrated. $1. 

Gatterer-Krus, S.J., Educating to 
Purity. Tr. by Rev. C. Van der 
Donckt. New York 1912. 75 cts. 

Dziekonska, K., The Journal of 
the Countess Frangoise Krasinska, 
Great Grandmother of Victor Em- 
manuel. Chicago 1896. 50 cts. 

Rickaby, Jos., S. J., Further Notes 
on St. Paul. London 1911. 85 cts. 

Pastor's History of the Popes, tr. 
by Kerr. Vols. VII, VIII, IX, and 
X. Each $1.50. (Like new.) 

Jesus All Holy. By Fr. A. Gal- 
lerani, tr. by Loughnan. New York 
191 1. 30 cts. 

Catholic Church Hymnal for Sanc- 
tuary, Choir or Congregational Use. 
Edited by A. Edmonds Tozer. Words 
and Melody. New York 1905. 35 cts. 

Crown Hymnal, Containing Eng- 
lish and Latin Hymns, Masses, Lit- 
anies, etc. Words and Music. Bos- 
ton 1912. 40 cts. 

Three Acres and Liberty. By Bol- 
ton Hall. New York 1907. 70 cts. 

Deterioration and Race Education. 
With Practical Application to the 
Condition of the People and Indus- 
try. By Samuel Royce. Boston 1878. 
45 cts. 

Mooted Questions of History. Re- 
vised Edition. By H. J. Desmond. 
Boston 1901. 50 cts. 

Lingard's History of England 
Newly Abridged and Brought Down 
to the Accession of King Edward VII. 
By Dom H. N. Birt, 0. S. B. Lon- 
don 1908. 75 cts. 

Roscoe, W., The Life and Pontifi- 
cate of Leo X. Four vols, quarto. 
Liverpool 1805. $2.50. 

Tingle, E. W. S., Germany's 
Claims upon German-Americans in 
Germany. Philadelphia 1903. (Like 
new.) 50 cts. 

Hosmer, James K., Short History 
of German Literature. St. Louis 1879. 
75 cts. 

Scharf, Col. J. Thos., The Chroni- 
cles of Baltimore. Baltimore 1874. $1. 

F. V. Holman, Dr. John McLough- 
lin, the Father of Oregon. With 
Portraits. Cleveland, 0. 1907. (Prac- 
tically new.) $1.25. 



Mirabeau, Comte de, Secret Mem- 
oirs of the Court of Berlin. (Uni- 
versal Classics Ed.) Washington 
1901. 75 cts. 

Marx, Karl, Capital. Untermann's 
translation. Vol. I. Chicago 1908. 
$1. 

The Works of Beaumont and 
Fletcher. (Cambridge English Clas- 
sics.) Ten Vols. Cambridge 1905. 
sics.) Ten Vols. Cambridge 1905 
sqq. $8. 

Fr. Thaddeus, 0. F. M., The Fran- 
ciscans in England. 1600- 1850. Lon- 
don 1898. 50 cts. 

P. N. Waggett, (Prot.), The Scien- 
tific Temper in Religion. London 
1905- 75 cts. 

A. H. Mathew, Ecclesia: The 
Church of Christ. London 1906. 40 
cts. 

H. Formby, Monotheism the Prim- 
itive Religion of the City of Rome. 
London s. a. (Like new.) $1. 

GERMAN 

Pohle, Jos., Lehrbuch der Dogma- 
tik. Vol. III. 3rd ed. Paderborn 1908. 
$1.50. 

Atzberger, L., Der Glaube. Apolo- 
getische Vortrage. Freiburg 1891. 
50 cts. 

Becker, Wm., Die Pflichten der 
Kinder und der christlichen Jugend. 
Freiburg 1895. 35 cts. 

Des Herrn Marins Geschichte Sa- 
ladins, Sultans von Egypten und 
Syrien. Zelle 1761. 75 cts. 

Attila, Konig der Hunnen. Von 
D. Fessler. Breslau 1794. 50 cts. 

Hilfsbuch fiir den Unterricht in 
der deutschen Geschichte. Von Dr. 
M. Mertens. Freiburg 1896. 50 cts. 
(Binding damaged.) 

Jean Paul's samtliche Werke. 
21 vols. Berlin 1826 sqq. $7. 

Die Verfolgung der Kirche in un- 
seren Tagen. Von Jos. Kleutgen, S.J. 
Freiburg 1866. 25 cts. 

Zeit- und Charakterbilder aus dem 
Mittelalter. Zweiter Band: 1. Lii- 
beck als Hauptstadt der Hansa. 2. 
Franz von Sickingens Leben. Ber- 
lin 1855. 25 cts. 

Gietmann G. (S. J.), Die Aus- 
sprache des Englischen. Freiburg 
1892. 25 cts. 



32 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



BARGAINS IN OLD BOOKS (Continued:) 



Stiirenberg und Steiger, Auskunft 
und Rat fur Deutsch-Amerikaner. 
New York 1888. 30 cts. 

P. Haffner, Grundlinien der Ge- 
schichte der Philosophie. Mainz 1881. 
(Like new.) $1.25. 

Heiner, Franz, Konfessioneller Gei- 
steskampf und Reformkatholizis- 
mus. Paderborn 1906. (Like new.) 
40 cts. 

LATIN 

Oliger, L., 0. F. M., De Origine Re- 
gularium Ordinis S. Clarae. 64 pp. 
Quaracchi 1912. 15 cts. (Brochure.) 

Gredt, Jos., 0. S. B., Metaphysica 
et Ethica. Editio altera, xix & 
447 PP- Freiburg 1912. $1.25. 

Lehmkuhl's Theologia Moralis. 
gth edition. Freiburg 1908. Two 
vols. $2.50. 

Aristoteles De Politia Carthagi- 
niensium. Ed. F. G. Kluge. (Latin 
translation, with commentary). 
Warsaw 1824. 50 cts. 

Heiss, M., De Matrimonio. Mo- 
nachii 1861. 50 cts. 

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TOPICS OF THE DAY 



THE SOCIALIST VOTE 

Complete returns of the late presidential election show that the vote 
for Debs, the candidate of the Socialist Party, was 898,000 — an in- 
crease of 477,000, or more than 100% over 1908. 

Of this increase, 76,000 came from California and Washington, 
where the Socialist vote of 1908 was almost trebled in 1912. In 
Illinois, Ohio, and Pennsylvania the Debs vote was much more than 
doubled, and its increase in these States was 46,000, 56,000, and 
47,000, respectively. In New York, the increase was 65 per cent, 
and amounted to 25,000; while Massachusetts and Rhode Island, 
where a striking increase might have been expected, show only a 
very small total — 13,000 and 2,000, respectively, being the poll made 
by Debs this year in these two intensely industrial States. 

We have seen no returns of the Socialist Labor Party, which 
also had a presidential ticket in the field. But the Socialist Party 
vote alone sufficiently indicates the drift towards Socialism manifesting 
itself throughout the country. This drift is sure to grow stronger, 
and unless extensive social reform measures are soon put into practice, 
it may some day overwhelm the country. 

COMING OF THE INCOME TAX 

The enactment of an income tax by Congress is nearer at hand 
than most people suppose. Ratification of the proposed constitu- 
tional amendment by only two more States is necessary, and many 
Democrats now expect that both this amendment and that authoriz- 
ing the direct election of United States Senators by popular vote 
will become effective during the administration of President Wilson. 
Thirty-four States already have ratified the income-tax amend- 
ment. It requires thirty-six to make the necessary two-thirds. Ten 
States have still to act, and in every one of them the legislature 
meets in January, so that between now and the extra session of 
Congress there will be time for action. 

Only four have definitely rejected the amendment: Connecticut, 
New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Utah. The ten which have still 
to act are Delaware, Florida, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New Mex- 
ico, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wyoming. 



M 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 



The income tax, in theory, is the justest of all taxes; but 
whether it can be fairly levied under our partisan system of gov- 
ernment administration is rather doubtful. 

ELEVATING THE STAGE 

Several of our papers are interesting themselves in the move- 
ment started in New York by Eliza O'B. Lummis, "to bring all 
classes, irrespective of creed, into a national union for the eradica- 
tion of immoral drama from the American stage." Bad plays are 
to be censured, good ones supported. 

The object is praiseworthy, but we have our doubts about the 
means chosen, or suggested, towards attaining it. Why multiply 
our societies? Why start associations on the interdenominational plan? 
The Federation of the Catholic Societies have been doing effective 
work towards elevating the stage. Why not strengthen this exist- 
ing agency and teach our Catholic theatre-goers discrimination — for 
it is discrimination they mainly lack, else thousands of them would 
not attend such worthless plays as "The Rosary" (see our last num- 
ber, p. 7), not to speak of destinctly immoral performances at which 
so many of us blush not to be seen. 

Immorality in the Army 

By C. D. U. 

In a recently published book the moral condition of our army 
is severely censured on the strength of some statistics published in 
this Review a few years ago. Lest the justice of the censure be 
challenged, we proceed to reinforce it from the latest report of 
the Secretary of War, Hon. Henry L. Stimson. 

Secretary Stimson asserts his belief that the so-called anti-can- 
teen legislation has been responsible for much vice, a statement which 
he reports by a recital of the results of his own inspection of nearly 
half of the forty-nine mobile army posts, where he found the military 
reservations adjoined by dives and resorts of the vilest character. In 
this connection the report says : 

The high percentage of venereal disease continues to be the reproach of 
the American Army, and the daily average number of those sick from that 
cause during the past calendar year was larger than the daily average number 
of those sick from all other of the more important diseases combined. Vig- 
orous efforts have been instituted by the Medical Corps, in cooperation with 
troop commanders, to meet the evil, but time has not yet sufficed to show 
the efficacy of the methods adopted. The more careful methods of inspection 
and diagnosis introduced during the past year by the Medical Corps have re- 



XX 2 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 35 

suited in producing a larger percentage of hospital admissions for syphilis than 
in former years, owing to the detection of cases heretofore latent and un- 
suspected. Under general orders, issued by this department May 31, 1911, all 
officers serving with troops were directed to do their utmost, through the 
encouragement of healthful exercise and by supplying opportunities for cleanly 
social and interesting mental occupations for the men under their command, 
as well as by personal instruction and effort, particularly among the younger 
men, to spread among their commands a better knowledge of the dangers of 
licentiousness and to instil better standards of continence and clean living. 
Lectures and instruction on the same subject are now given throughout the 
service by the surgeons attached to the different organizations. In my last 
annual report I recommended the stoppage of pay of officers and men during 
periods of disability caused by such misconduct, and I am glad to report that 
legislation to that effect was adopted at the past session of Congress and is now 
being vigorously enforced. It is hoped that these steps will result in a re- 
duction of the evil. 

Nevertheless, I believe that the ultimate causes which make the record of 
our Army in this respect shameful beyond that of the army of any other 
civilized nation are inherent in our own shortcomings as a nation in dealing 
with this matter. So long as in our civil communities, and particularly our 
larger cities, we continue to close our eyes to the magnitude and extent of the 
evil and refrain from attacking it with all of the weapons which modern scien- 
tific knowledge places in our hands, it cannot but be expected that the younger 
men in our army, leading the abnormal life of the soldier, will show the effect 
of the evil to a marked degree. In this respect I believe that the so-called 
anti-canteen legislation has been responsible for much vice. During the past 
year and a half I have visited personally and inspected nearly half of the 
forty-nine mobile army posts in the United States. In almost every instance I 
have found the military reservations adjoined by dives and ill resorts of the 
vilest charcter. The testimony of the officers of the army is almost unanimous 
to the effect that these establishments have arisen or greatly increased in number 
since the sale of light wines or beer at the post exchanges has been abolished. 
By that legislation the soldier is in effect deprived of the garrison club, where 
formerly it was comparatively easy to keep him for his amusements, and 
he now resorts for his liquor to places where every kind of temptation sur- 
rounds him. There may have been and probably were abuses in the methods of 
some of the so-called canteens as managed under the system now abolished by 
law; but these abuses were not necessary or inherent in the system, and I am 
very confident, from my personal investigation, that most of the post exchanges 
under that system constituted effective and practical instruments toward army 
temperance and cleanliness of living, and that a very considerable percentage of 
the evils from which the army is now suffering is directly attributable to their 
abolition. 

That the record of our army in respect of vice and venereal 
diseases is "shameful beyond that of any other civilized nation" 
is a brave utterance indeed, and one that would hardly increase en- 
listments if framed upon the walls of our recruiting stations. That 
this shameful condition of affairs is in large part due to the pre- 
valence of evil resorts near posts, and the absence of the beer can- 



36 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

teen, is, of course, merely one — the official — view. Unfortunately for 
those who hold it, there was a high percentage of venereal disease 
and many evil resorts near army posts, in the days of the can- 
teen, though perhaps not to the same extent. The root of the evil 
lies deeper. The average soldier, in this respect, is probably not 
much worse than the average civilian. The fact of the matter is 
that American morals are degenerating at a frightful pace. The 
causes are various. Chief among them we should rate our godless 
public school system, a licentious stage, and the low moral tone of 
the public press. It is these evils the social reformers will have to 
combat, and it is plain not much can be accomplished except with 
the effective aid of the Church. 

The Autobiography of a Modernist 

Miss M. D. Petre has recently published a two-volume work, 
entitled Autobiography and Life of George Tyrrell (London: Arnold). 
The autobiography was put together by Father Tyrrell in 1901, while 
he was still a Jesuit, and covers the period from his birth to the year 
1884. Miss Petre, in the second volume, takes up the story from 
that date. 

George Tyrrell was born in 1861, a few days after the death of 
his father. His mother, with the help of friends, managed to send her 
children to good schools. But George confesses that he was lazy and 
careless and soon evolved "scheming capacities to a very surprising 
degree of perfection." Already at school, he "led a secret, scheming 
life of his own." He was never a scholar in any sense of the term. 
With the help of the well known Anglican clergyman "Father" Doll- 
ing, he matriculated at Trinity College, but never got any further. 
At Dolling's suggestion he entered the Catholic Church and applied 
to be admitted as a Jesuit novice. He spent a year at Cyprus, and 
thence was transferred to Malta. To the members of the community 
Tyrrell appeared docile and devout — the habit of scheming had been 
bettered by practice — but his real feelings are made sufficiently clear 
in such passages as this : — 

Another marvel for me was, and still is, that disreputable book read in 
all our colleges and houses of study during supper, and called "The Menology 
of the Society of Jesus"— a series of the most vapid and fulsome eulogiums 
of deceased members, judged worthy to be held up as models for imitation. 
I am quite aware that the menologies of other and older Orders are still 
more reprehensible; but two blacks do not make a white. Of course the older 
and more critical laugh at these fables, if they listen to them at all; and the 
ear gets deadened to the oft-repeated phrases and forms. I hardly notice it 
now as strange, except when some outsider happens to be in our refectory 



XX 2 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 37 

and I see it reflected in his mind. But I remember the shock it was to my 
sense of sobriety and truthfulness when I first had to listen to such outrages 
on sense and reverence and veracity, read out gravely and listened to seriously 
by grown men, presumably sane and educated. 

Except the reader (Brother Prescott, now dead) all listened with sobriety 
and reverence. He showed signs of disgust, and once or twice I saw he was 
skipping — probably for my sake. I felt so outraged at having to sit under 
such nonsense, that, seeing the book one day on the top of a cupboard of 
some kind, I pushed it so that it fell behind, where it remained buried mys- 
teriously till the end of my stay at least. Of course no one ever suspected 
the quiet and pious postulant of such a deed of darkness. I say "pious" be- 
cause I was outwardly "observant" and religious at this time; not in any 
offensive or dramatic way, but simply because I had not yet learned the wis- 
dom of keeping one's seriousness to oneself, and wearing that light overcoat 
of indifference which good breeding and charity require. 

It may be asked, how could any man in these dispositions and 
holding these opinions want to go on as a Jesuit novice? "If his own 
account of himself is to be taken as correct," says a reviewer in the 
Tablet (No. 3785), to whom we are indebted for our quotations, 
"it is impossible to do more than plead in extenuation that 
at the time Tyrrell was penniless, had little business capacity, 
and no training for any profession, and so followed the line of least 
resistance. But it may be doubted whether in the autobiography he 
has really done justice to himself. It was written many years after- 
wards, at a time when he was at war with his friends and at war with 
himself. At any rate, one prefers to believe that the graver insincer- 
ities of his life began at a later period, and that he was in good faith 
at least when he entered the novitiate. However that may be, the step 
he then took was a mistake and had disastrous consequences."' 

While still a professed Jesuit, in 1901, after noting that he had 
never considered his own salvation as more than a slight probability, 
he wrote: "Sometimes I think it must be that, in the deepest depths 
of my self-consciousness, I believe nothing at all, and am self-deceived 
in the matter; and the recognition of the manner in which I have, all 
along, allowed the wish to believe to play upon me, rather confirms 
this melancholy hypothesis." It is perhaps more strange that his Jesuit 
superiors should have been so completely deceived as to the character 
and opinions of the novice. But it must be remembered he had made 
up his mind to stay, and so adjusted his conduct accordingly, and was 
outwardly devout and observant. 

But the conformity was of the letter and not of the spirit, and, 
writing at the age of forty, while still wearing the Jesuit cassock, he 
says : "I did not, after my Maltese experience, either love or reverence 
the Society — I never did at any time." Again he says in the autobiog- 



3 8 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

raphy : "Truth compels me to say that I look back with horror on the 
ideal that had been set before me at Manresa, and which I had forced 
myself to believe in and aspire to; that St. Aloysius makes me ill and 
St. John Berchmans makes me angry." 

As the years went on the habit of equivocation grew upon him until, 
in the end, he seems to have positively loved it. In 1900, six years before 
he left the Jesuits, he writes : "The censorship of my writings, the need 
of putting things carefully and inoffensively, has taught me subtlety, 
just as all oppressive governments make men crafty and deceitful — 
poisons that may be medicinal in small quantities." In another place 
he says : "I am writing perhaps more assiduously than when I was free 
— there is a charm of furtiveness that then was lacking." 

As he became more and more alienated from the Society to which 
he belonged, he had many opportunities of gratifying this taste for "the 
charm of furtiveness." We find him writing letters to newspapers 
under false initials, and then secretly publishing, first as "Dr. Ernest 
Engels," and then, when that device was exposed, as "Hilaire Bour- 
don." At times, however, his better nature seems to have revolted, and 
more than once he speaks with disgust of the insincerities into which 
his false position had betrayed him, thus : "The secrecy and diplomacy 
of my conformity has always been odious to me;" again he says, "I 
can deliver my soul and resume my self-respect." Light is thrown 
upon his practical life as a Catholic by such sentences as these. Speak- 
ing of the fear of hell or the desire of heaven as not having the slightest 
practical effect on his conduct, he adds : "Nor have I, as a Catholic, 
ever cared or tried to gain an indulgence." "If there is one place 
where I am never seen it is 'before the tabernacle.' " That was written 
some four years before he ceased to be a professed Jesuit. 

It would appear, however, that the final rupture came suddenly 
at last. It is pleasant also to know that the Fathers of the English 
Province treated Tyrrell generously and considerately, handing over 
to him the copyright of all his books. Indeed it is apparent from these 
volumes that he was treated by the English Jesuits from first to last 
with a kindness which bordered on weakness. In view of the foolish 
things which were written after Tyrrell's death, and the claim which 
was put forward for Catholic burial, the following decisive passages 
from his letters may be quoted : 

I am (between ourselves) very glad that they have played this false card 
and given me a good excuse to throw up my commission as a cleric. Were I 
reinstated it would be a new chapter of troubles. Having tasted the peace 
of divorce from a shrew, I am not at all anxious for a reconciliation. Perhaps 
in a future pontificate it might be worth my while to re-enlist, but not unde r 



XX 2 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW g 

the present Bedlam rule No doubt I believe in Catholicism of a sort; 

but, of course, it is not the Pope's sort, for I believe to some degree in every 
other religion as well — especially in the Church of England. 

A long talk with Hensley Henson yesterday about the Church of England. 
I am afraid things are hopeless there. Houtin and Loisy are right; the 
Christianity of the future will consist of mysticism and charity, and possibly 
the Eucharist in its primitive form as the outward bond. I desire no better. 

Needless to say that I entirely deny the ecumenical authority of the ex- 
clusively Western Councils of Trent and the Vatican and the whole medieval 
development of the Papacy so far as claiming more than a primacy of honor 
for the Bishop of Rome; and this, I suppose, is exactly the Old Catholic 
position. 

Sooner or later the historical lie of the Papacy must be realized by every 
educated Romanist, and in that day the whole Church will be Old Catholic. 
Providentially the existence of the Old Catholic Communion is a standing 
challenge and menace to Rome's pretensions. For that reason I am anxious 
to see it strengthened in every way. 

The closing chapters of the book, showing the drama moving to 
the inevitable catastrophe, are full of a poignant pathos. The sight of 
Tyrrell, ill in health, desperate, brought to bay at last, fighting with 
intangible and invisible foes, and grappling with problems for which he 
had no sufficient equipment in training or education, is one which cannot 
fail to stir the pity of the reader. 

For the rest, not Catholics alone, but sincere Christians everywhere 
who read this living lesson of what Modernism is and whither it tends, 
may well lay down Miss Petre's book with the conviction that the 
action of the Holy See and of the Catholic authorities in England has 
been more than justified. 

Present Status of Research Regarding the Vulgate Text of 
the New Testament 

By Arthur Prkuss 

In 1889, two English savants. John Wordsworth and Henry 
Julian White, began to edit a critical edition of the Latin New Tes- 
tament according to the revision made by St. Jerome. In course of time 
they published the Gospels, the Acts, and St. Paul's Epistle to the 
Romans, all with a large critical apparatus, comprising variants from 
more than thirty ancient manuscripts. 

Dr. Wordsworth, who was the originator of the undertaking and 
the moving spirit in its execution, died last year. In view of this 
loss and of the fact that a commission of Benedictine Fathers has 
but recently set to work under the auspices of the Holy See to carry 
out the reconstruction of St. Jerome's text, Professor White re- 
linquished the original plan, at least temporarily, and with the ma- 



40 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 



terials at his command issued a provisional edition of the entire Vul- 
gate, which he calls Editio minor. 

Up 1o St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans Dr. White, of course, 
gives the text finally adopted into the larger edition. The text for 
the remaining portions of the New Testament is based on wide re- 
search and approval critical principles, but by no means all available 
codices have been consulted. Of the seven that have been consulted 
the chief one is the Codex Amiatinus. 

Catholic theology is interested mainly in the question : How 
does this new critical text compare with that of Sixtus V and the 
official Clementine Vulgate? This question is easy to answer, since 
Dr. White notes all occurring variants in his foot-notes. 

It has hitherto been held that the official Latin text was nearly 
perfect and that critical research would disclose but few unimportant 
differences. Dr. J. B. Nisius, S. J., of Vienna, who has made a 
thorough study of the matter, says that this impression is not borne 
out by a careful comparison of White's recension with that of the 
Clementina and Sixtina respectively, but that the number of variants 
is "exceedingly great" and that we are forced to conclude that the 
official recension, which was the result of so much hard labor, is, 
from a textual point of view, extremely defective. 

"The reasons why the sixteenth-century revisors of the Vulgate 
did not attain to the perfection they aimed at," continues Fr. Nisius 
(Lit. Beila gc to the Kolnische Volkszeitung, 19 12, No. 37), are well 
known. Sixtus V's arbitrary interference with work of his learned 
commissioners rendered that work nugatory. The results at which 
the Commission had arrived, were buried in a little known Codex 
(the Carafmus), preserved in the library of the Barnabite College at 
Rome. It is there that we must look for the ripe fruit of the critical 
researches of the sixteenth century. The Bible of Sixtus V does 
not hold high rank as a monument of critical research. The editors 
of the Clementina (our present Vulgate) simply corrected the more 
flagrant errors of the Sixtina; they could not possibly comply with 
other critical demands, because, to avoid a sensation, this edition was 
published under the name of Sixtus V and consequently had to con- 
form to the latter's as closely as possible. Cardinal Bellarmine, who 
took a prominent part in this work, repeatedly says that many pas- 
sages in the Clementine edition, which seemed to need correction, 
were left unchanged." 

1 Novum Testamentum Latine se- copus Salisburensis et Henricus Julia- 

citndum Editioncm S. Hieronymi ad mis White, Editio Minor cnrante 

Codicum Manuscriptorum Fidem, Re- Henrico J. White. Oxford 191 1. 

censucntnt Joannes Wordsivorth, Epis- 



XX 2 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 41 

To judge what progress has been made in textual research re- 
garding the Vulgate version of the New Testament it is necessary to 
compare the very latest readings with those arrived at by the six- 
teenth century scholars and laid down in the Codex Carafinus. Dr. 
White neglected to make this comparison, and that is the chief defect 
of his work. 

It is all the more surprising that a comparison of his recension 
of 1 Cor. with that of the Codex Carafinus (this collation was made 
by H. Hupfl, O. S. B.) should show an almost complete agreement. 

In other words, the Biblical Commission of Pope Sixtus V, in 
the sixteenth century, arrived at practical the same conclusions as 
modern textual criticism in the person of Dr. White. 

It remains for the Benedictine Commission of Pius X, under 
the presidency of Abbot Gasquet, to go still farther back into the 
past and to reconstruct still more faithfully, if possible, the genuine 
text of St. Jerome. 

The Truth in Regard to Our Occupation of the Philippines 

By P. R. Gleaner 

In 1908, when the word Philippines was first printed in the 
newspapers of this country, few people had ever heard it before. 
Most of us had heard of the Philippians, but never of the Philip- 
pines. Informed that the Filipinos were half-savage people somewhere 
in the Pacific, crushed for centuries under Spanish misrule, which 
the United States had decided to bring to an end for humanity's 
sake, we were ready to believe it. We were told that the Filipinos, 
with the exception of a small minority of malcontents, desired noth- 
ing better than to be governed by the United States. It seemed more 
than likely. The malcontents, of course, had to be suppressed; which 
could be easily done ; which was done forthwith ; and a civil gov- 
ernment was established which transformed an oppressed race into 
a happy and contented people — we were told all this, and we be- 
lieved it. We believed it because we have never really cared whether 
the Filipinos were oppressed or not ; what has touched us is the belief 
that the United States must always be doing something heroic and 
splendid as an example to the nations of Europe. 

The facts have, of course, gradually leaked out. They are well 
summarized in a recent work by the Hon. James H. Blount, who 
has spent six years in the Philippine Islands — two years as an officer 
in the volunteer army, and four years as district judge under the 
civil government established there by President Taft. His experi- 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

ence as a judge brought him into direct relations with the Filipinos 
on the one hand, and with the government on the other; while his 
connection with both the army and the civil regime should enable 
him to judge impartially the disputes between the civil and military 
authorities. Besides, he has examined carefully all the official docu- 
ments necessary to an understanding of the policy of the United 
States government, and he has doubtless read most of the contro- 
versial literature on the subject. 

The truth, as Judge Blount sees it, is somewhat as follows : 
After the destruction of the Spanish fleet, the United States 
sought out Aguinaldo and made "a gentleman's agreement" with 
him that if the Filipinos would get up an insurrection on their own 
account and help us drive Spain out of the islands, we would not 
stand in the way afterwards if they wished to establish an inde- 
pendent government. The Filipinos, under the lead of Aguinaldo, 
thereupon organized, not only an insurrection, but an efficient gov- 
ernment and army, made themselves masters of the most impor- 
tant islands, and gave us much-needed assistance in taking Manila 
city. But long before this happy event the United States govern- 
ment changed its mind; it decided that it would be a 
good thing, both for the increase of trade and for the 
reputation of the republic, to take and hold the Philippines. 
Now it seemed hardly worth while to inform Aguinaldo of this 
to overthrow Spanish rule in the islands in order to set up the rule 
of the United States instead. Since we intend to take the Philip- 
pines anyway, it would simplify matters to let the Filipinos help us 
do it. This plan was adopted, and Gens. Anderson and Merritt were 
so instructed. When we had at last succeeded, with the aid of Agui- 
naldo, in getting rid of Spain, President McKinley informed the 
Filipinos that independence in their language meant the same thing 
as benevolent assimilation in ours. Unfortunately, the)- had never 
thought of it in that way; and it required 120,000 troops, six years 
of fighting, and $300,000,000 to assimilate the Filipinos benevolently ; 
and to tins day they remain assimilated only because we maintain in 
the islands a government that is despotic in fact, however "essen- 
tially popular in form." 

Why have we done all this? Is it a debt we owe the cause of 
humanity ? We give the Filipinos stable government and good schools ; 
but they prefer to govern themselves, and Judge Blount thinks they 
could do it very well; while if they really wish to be educated, they 
could find the way. 



XX 2 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 43 

But perhaps we have developed their economic resources ? It 
seems not. The sugar and tohacco industries are less flourishing 
than they were under Spanish rule, and the hemp market is con- 
trolled by the International Harvester Trust of America. At least, 
the Philippines are necessary to the United States for military pur- 
poses? Competent judges say they are worthless. Can it be, then, 
that we have raised an army of 120,000 troops and spent $300,000, 
000 in order to increase the profits of the Tobacco Trust, the Sugar 
Trust, and the International Harvester Trust? Judge Blount's ac- 
count of it would lead one to think so. 

Under the circumstances, the government of the Philippines 
must inevitably be a difficult business. But behind all the temporary 
conditions which make it difficult now, Judge Blount thinks he sees 
a fundamental obstacle which must remain so long as our form of 
government is what it professes to be : 

The weakness of the American colonial system, he says, has always lain in 
the fundamental unfitness of republican governmental machinery for boldly 
advocating and honestly enforcing doctrines which deny frankly ... .that gov- 
ernments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed Thus 

it is that to get home support for the policy, the supreme need of the colonial 
government is constant apology for its own existence, and constant effort to 
show that the subject people do not really want freedom to pursue happiness 
in their own way as badly as their orators say they do. 

This may not be Catholic doctrine, but there are many who hold 
that it is essentially American. As for the future of the Church in 
the Islands, we have no fear ; it is assured no matter who governs. 

An Educational Test for Immigrants? 

By Arthur PreJuss 

Some of our Catholic papers are voicing strong opposition against 
the educational test for immigrants provided by the Burnett bill. 1 
Much of what they say is undoubtedly true; but there are two sides 
to this, as to almost all political and economic questions. 

The "other side" is emphasized by that eminent sociologist, Mr. 
F. P. Kenkel, in the St. Louis daily Amerika. 

There was a time, he says, when a man could be a good citizen 

1 The House, by a vote of i;S to 52, tion are excepted, and an admitted 
has since passed the Burnett bill, alien is permitted to send for his 
which applies the illiteracy test to im- father, grandfather, mother, grand- 
migrants by providing for the exclu- mother, or his unmarried or widowed 
sion of all aliens over sixteen years of daughter, whether they can read or 
age who cannot read English or some not. The bill goes to conference with 
other language. Those who are seek- the similar Dillingham bill, passed by 
ing to escape from religious persecu- the Senate some time ago. 



44 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

without being able to read or write, but in our present age, when 
the people rule, or should rule, the citizens of a democratic country 
have a voice in the decision of many important public questions, con- 
cerning which a well-reasoned opinion can hardly be formed except 
by assiduous reading. 

For this and other reasons it is necessary to uphold, as a matter 
of principle, that every citizen ought to be able to read and write. 

If the illiterate immigrants, against whom the "educational test" 
of the Burnett bill is aimed, came to this country only as transients, 
the question might be left in abeyance. As it is, however, it is im- 
possible to know who will return home and who will stay, and in what 
situation the individual immigrant who stays will eventually find him- 
self ; whether, for instance, he will not acquire citizenship and exercise 
its prerogatives. 

It should also be taken into consideration that the era of social 
reform legislation upon which our country has entered, presupposes 
an intelligent working class, capable of informing itself with regard to 
the character and worth of the laws proposed for its benefit. An ille- 
rate laborer lacks one of the chief qualifications for informing himself 
properly on this and other subjects intimately related to our present-day 
civilization. 

Consequently, it is neither unfair nor inexpedient to prescribe 
an educational test for the mass of immigrants arriving at our shores. 
This test, however, should not be too rigid nor too general. There 
are exceptions to every rule. If a family of rustic immigrants who 
intend to follow agricultural pursuits, should happen to bring along 
an illiterate father, he should not be debarred. An exception should 
also be made in favor of all those immigrants who come over to do 
hard labor (such as building railways, digging canals, etc.) and who 
have no intention of remaining permanently. Over these some sort of 
control or supervision might be exercised by the federal government, 
to the end that their ignorance be not exploited during their stay in 
this country. In Germany all foreign day-laborers are compelled 
to leave the country each year at a certain determined date. If we 
cannot spare the services of the transient workingmen that come to 
our shores from Southern Europe, why not put them under govern- 
ment supervision and treat them after the German method ? 

These are sane and fair suggestions, which denote an intelligent 
and careful study of the question and should be adopted by the Cath- 
olic press of the whole country, as they will no doubt be adopted 
into the social reform programme of the Catholic Central Society, of 
whose Social Service Bureau Mr. Kenkel is the efficient director. 



XX 2 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 45 

The Apology of Facts 

By A. M. Schwitalla, S. J., St. Louis University 

In a recent number of La Cellule, edited at the Institut Carnoy, 
Louvain, Father Hermann Muckermann, S. J., an occasional 
contributor to the Fortnightly Review, publishes the results 
of a piece of biological research "Zur Anordnung, Trennung und 
Polwanderung der Chromosoinen in der Metaphase und Anaphase der 
somatischen Karyokinese bei Urodelen." After an amount of labor 
the greatness of which only the experienced can appreciate, Father 
Muckermann comes to certain conclusions regarding the position and 
method of division of the chromosomes in the process of cell-division, 
somewhat at variance with previous descriptions. The details of the 
work would hardly interest the general reader. 

And yet, despite its technical and highly specialised character, we 
venture to call attention to the article, which has been reprinted as a 
separate brochure. It suggests reflections which cannot fail to be of 
importance at the present time. We Catholics need scientific writers 
df various types. Besides popular writers who bring the results of 
scientific and philosophical research within easy reach of the people, 
we need others who can harmonize the explanations of newly dis- 
covered scientific facts with the accepted principles of sound philosophy. 
Of these latter, again, some will address themselves principally to 
those trained in Catholic schools and to whom the language of Scho- 
lasticism is easily intelligible; while others must try to influence non- 
Catholic scientists. To do this, however, those writers must conform, 
more or less, to the intellectual standards and demands of those whom 
they are trying to reach. 

It was as long ago as 1891 that Cardinal Mercier wrote: "Cath- 
olics resign themselves too easily to the role of mere retailers in 
science; too few of them have any ambition to work at what might 
be called science in the making ; too few aim at gathering and moulding 
the materials which must serve in future to form the new synthesis 
of science and Christian philosophy. .. .To train in greater numbers, 
men who will devote themselves to science for itself, without any aim 
that is professional or direct apologetic, such ought to be the aim of 
all who are solicitous for the prestige of the Church in the world." 
Recently he repeated the same thought more succinctly. "Problems 
of physics, chemistry, biology, and social economy are never to be 
studied with the preconceived object of finding in them a confirmation 
of our religious beliefs." 

And the reason for all this is obvious. The Catholic scientist, if 
he would be listened to at all, must establish his reputation among 



46 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

scientific men by genuinely scientific work. Then, and then only will 
he command attention if he criticizes current philosophical generalisa- 
tions. He must first have given proof, intelligible to those whom he is 
trying to influence, that he fully understands the experimental basis 
of the generalisation with which he is finding fault. 

At present, the Catholic scientist must do double work. When a 
theory that seems adverse to the faith is built up on undoubted ex- 
perimental facts, he must first raze this down to its observational 
foundation, and then, on that same foundation, build up a structure 
in harmony with what he knows from his philosophy to be the real 
general plan of the universe. And even then, is he always successful? 
And if successful, is he always convincing? It is hard for some people 
to get rid of the idea that the discoverer of a fact is its best interpreter. 
How much simpler would not the situation become, if the Catholic 
scientist could build up his theories at first hand, harmonising them 
at once with dogma and revelation. To do this effectively, he must 
become a discoverer, an investigator; he must work at "science in the 
making." 

We cannot, of course, take possession of the whole field of science", 
but we can concentrate our efforts at crucial points. We cannot hope 
to do away with all intellectual conflicts, but we may well lessen the 
number of our battles, and above all, we may expect to make our 
victory intelligible to those outside the fold. To quote Cardinal Mer- 
cier again : "It is imperative that in all these different domains we 
should have explorers and masters, who, by their own activity, by their 
own achievements, may vindicate to themselves the right to speak to 
the scientific world, and to be heard by it ; then we can answer the 
eternal objection that faith blinds us, that faith and reason are in- 
compatible, better far than by abstract principles, better far than by 
an appeal to the past; we can answer it by the stubborn evidence of 
actual and living facts." 

Hence, we welcome Father Muckermann's publication, and con- 
gratulate him upon it, not merely for its scientific value, but much 
more so for its value as a contribution to what we might call, ac- 
cording to the mind of Cardinal Mercier, "the apology of facts." 

The Pontifical Bible Institute at Rome 

By C. B. M., Rome, Italy 

The Pontifical Bible Institute, which is situated opposite the North 

American College in Rome, is entering upon the fourth year of its 

existence. Founded in May 1909 by Pope Pius X and entrusted to 

the Jesuit Fathers, its first classes were opened in November 1909 



XX 2 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 47 

temporarily in the Gregorian University and at the Leonine College. 
In 1910, owing to the generosity of a noble French family, 
the Holy See was enabled to buy the little palazzo Muti-Papazzurri 
on the Piazza Pilotta in the very centre of the city as a permanent 
home for the Biblical Institute. Although there was in the building 
besides rooms for the professors, space enough for class- 
rooms, study-halls, and a museum, yet a library and a conference 
hall had to be added. The library, on the Lipmann system 
of Strassburg, will soon be, without doubt, one of the best equipped 
libraries for Scripture studies in the world. It already contains 20 — 
25,000 volumes and 250 — 300 periodicals. It was solemnly inaugu- 
rated in February 1912, more than a year after the classes had been 
transferred to the new home. 

The specific end of the Biblical Institute is, to prepare for their 
work future professors, lecturers, and writers in the exegetical 
sciences. In the beginning the classes were designed to serve at the 
same time as a preparatory course for the examinations made before 
the Biblical Commission. But afterwards, for various reasons, a 
special plan of studies was mapped out for the Biblical Institute 
alone, its course, at the same time, being lengthened to three years. 
The Holy Father showed his benevolence anew this year, first by 
making the Biblical Institute the subject of the historical medal of 
1912, one side of the medal representing the new home of the In- 
stitute with Moses and St. Peter as representatives of the Old and 
New Testament. Besides, on June 2, he empowered the Biblical In- 
stitute to confer on students who have passed the three annual ex- 
aminations of the curriculum the title of Lector or Professor of 
Sacred Scripture. 

Be it remarked, this newly created title can be earned only by 
those that follow the entire course, i. e.. by the "alumni" and "au- 
ditors," alumni being such as have obtained the doctor's degree in 
theology, auditors those that have not taken this degree, but 
have finished successfully their philosophical and theological studies. 
There is a third class of students at the Institute, called "hospites," 
comprising all those who follow only one or the other course. The 
number of students enrolled last year was 135, of whom 39 were 
alumni, 15 auditors, 80 hospites; 81 were secular priests, 51 mem- 
bers of religious orders and congregations. There is also a sprink- 
ling of Americans among them. 

The programme of the Biblical Institute includes lectures and 
practical exercises. In the first year especially languages and intro- 
ductory branches are treated, in the following two years the chief 



4 8 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

subject is exegesis proper, besides the secondary branches, such 
as history, geography, archaeology, etc. In order to obtain the di- 
ploma the candidate must also write a dissertation. Later on ex- 
cursions to Palestine will be made regularly under the direction of 
the professors. 

So much as to the training of the students from al- 
most all parts of the world that frequent the lectures of the Biblical 
Institute, But the scope of this new school extends still farther. 
During the winter months the professors give lectures on more gen- 
eral subjects in the conference hall. As these lectures are intended 
for the public, they are delivered in the vernacular : Italian, French, 
Spanish, German, English, the respective colony being each time in- 
vited. The lectures of the regular courses are given in Latin. 

There exists, further, a small periodical: Acta Instituti Biblici, 
appearing at irregular intervals and giving notice of all the doings 
of the Institute. Besides a scientific magazine is planned and will 
soon make its appearance. So far also about half a dozen scientific 
works have been published by the professors. 

As may be gathered from the preceding, no connection exists at 
present between the Biblical Institute and the Biblical Commission 
except that by chance the actual president of the Biblical Institute, Fr. 
L. Fonck, S. J., is at the same time a member of the Biblical Com- 
mission, a post which he held long before. Yet many newspapers, 
as e. g. the Boston Transcript of March 9 of last year, confuse 
the Biblical Commission and the Biblical Institute. The Boston 
Transcript was also in error when it said that "the diploma 
of the Institute alone entitles to teach in other Biblical schools of the 
world." There is no obligation whatsoever enforcing attendance at 
the Institute. Lastly, it is not true that besides the President, there is 
but one more lonely professor, as the Boston paper would intimate. 
There are at present twelve lectures, five of whom teach exegesis 
proper and introduction to the S. Scriptures, five teach languages, and 
two lecture on history, archaeology, palaeography, and similar sub- 
jects. In course of time more professors will be added to the faculty, 
and the Pontifical Bible Institute will no doubt soon rival, not only 
the best Catholic schools, but also the many flourishing Protestant 
institutions of the same kind. 

Woman Suffrage and Religion 

By C. E. d'Arnoux 
To say the least, equal suffrage smacks of irreligion. Of course, 
it will be readily admitted that, on Rousseau's principle of universal 



XX 2 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 49 

equality, women have a right, and perhaps the duty, to vote and to 
take part in the government. But who to-day admits the correctness 
of this principle? 

History tells us that among well-regulated nations woman has 
ever been man's helpmate, not his equal ; it is only among a few savage 
tribes that she has usurped man's duties and rights (in Sylhet, Gachar, 
and Gurwahl, for instance). 

The Christian inter-relation of man and woman is best expressed 
by St. Paul when he says to the husband that he shall love his wife 
as Christ loved His Church ; and to the wife, that she must be subject 
to her husband. The Apostle here clearly destroys the fancy of in- 
born equality, as in fact the entire status of the Church destroys 
Rousseauism. All power comes from God ; there is no such thing 
as power derived from the majority; neither is there a de facto equality 
among men. 

According to Revelation this world is a theocracy, not a demo- 
cracy. Within the Church woman has never had a voice, nor did she 
ever appertain to the hierarchy. On the principles now in vogue 
woman ought to have equal rights also in the Church. 

When we look at the question closely we find that woman has 
obligations within the household that make it undesirable for her to 
her to lock for further duties outside. 

Poets have always conceived the relation of man and woman to 
the world's work in this fashion : Man must do the hard and laborious 
part of the work, while woman keeps the spark of love alive ; he goes 
out into inclement weather to provide for his wife and their progeny, 
while the mother remains at home keeping bright and hallowed the 
look for further duties outside. 

And this poetic concept is not far from the Christian idea. 
Some exponents of equal suffrage admit bluntly that married 
women with families are not likely to avail themselves of the franchise 
if granted The only ones to make regular use of it would be un- 
married ladies, those too young to marry and those who have missed 
marriage. But should we give either of these two classes the franchise? 
We are unfortunate enough to have elderly single women teaching 
our children, when everybody knows that the best, perhaps the only 
really good teachers are those who have or have had children of their 
own. Shall we put the welfare of the nation in the hands or at the 
mercy of unmarried women, such as they usually are? 

If women were willing to accept all the responsibilities of the vote 
and of political equality, (do jury service, be firemen, policemen, etc.) 
the vagary might be excused for the sake of enthusiasm. But women 

1110 






5 o THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

are neither physically nor mentally equipped to do the coarser part 
of the work needed in the body politic; and if they did do it, we should 
soon develop masculine women, and the "flower of the hearth" would 
be blighted. 

Time was when a woman appearing in public and exposing herself 
to the criticism of men, was considered to have lost the blush of 
womanhood, and to have become, as it were, public property. In 
French we no longer call such women Madame or Mademoiselle, but 
la, as "la Bernhardt." No womanly woman could bear the idea of 
being criticised in public, favorably or unfavorably. 

What has become of woman's modesty? 

The Church and Modern Languages 

Extracts from a Lecture: by the; Rev. Albert Muntsch, S. J. 

The teacher of any subject in the college curriculum naturally 
takes a just pride in that subject and perhaps believes that it is as 
important and efficient as any other in disciplinary and cultural values. 
Certainly the teacher of modern languages, French and German, 
or even Spanish and Italian, need offer no apology for being en- 
thusiastic in his field and for trying to arouse corresponding interest 
in those under his charge. It is after all mainly in their languages 
and literatures that the culture and civilization of these great nations 
are contained, and by them they will be preserved for future genera- 
tions. The Catholic language teacher has behind him the history and 
tradition of these nations, all of which have wrought splendid achieve- 
ment in art and literature, under the patronage and the tutelage of 
the Church, of which they have been loyal children. 

Our language teachers need recall this fact all the more be- 
cause the services of the Church in the development of modern lan- 
guage and literature are quite often overlooked, or even belittled 
by those who until now had almost preempted the work of preparing 
texts for our language classes. I was surprised to see that even so 
excellent an English philologist as Professor A. S. Cook, of Yale, in 
his booklet The Higher Study of English, makes bold to say that the 
Church discourages the study of modern languages. 1 It is true his 
words apply only to the study of English, but the Professor would 
no doubt be ready to repeat the charge with regard to the Church's 
attitude towards the other modern tongues. As to the attempted proof 

1 "Being thus democratic in origin, position of the Roman Church, the 

it is but natural that the systematic aristocracy, and the supporters of the 

study and teaching of English had to ancient classics." (p. 40.) 
contend with the indifference or op- 



XX 2 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 5* 

of his statement — namely, that few Catholic scholars have thus far 
been engaged in the editing or expounding of Old English and medieval 
English literature — this fact admits of ready explanation. It may 
be sought chiefly in the disability under which English Catholics so 
long labored and which debarred them from the English seats of 
learning, or at least did not permit them to use their advantages to 
the same extent as did their brethren separated from Rome. The 
Professor's acquaintance with the words being issued by the Early Eng- 
lish Text Society should have convinced him that a very large portion 
of what still remains of Old English literature owes its inspiration 
entirely to Catholic ideals — a fact which he grudgingly admits in the 
essay already alluded to as far as concerns "a great body of medieval 
English literature," which, he says, "is monastic or ecclesiastical in 
character." 

But even the literature of preceding epochs is to a great extent 
of this character. Eor what about Alfred and Aelfric, and Caedmon 
and Bede. to whom we owe practically all that remains of early Saxon 
prose and poetry? What does that charming tale so often repeated 
in our handbooks of English literature, about the marvellous manner 
in which Caedmon received the gift of song, teach us, if not the fact 
that the Church encouraged even secular song and profane literature 
in the vernacular? Does not the Anglo-Saxon version of Bede's 
Ecclesiastical History, which first tells this touching story, begin with 
the words: "In theosse abbudissan mynstre waes sum brodor syn- 
driglice mid godcundre gife gemaered"? and was not the nun Hilda 
the foundress and first abbess of this monastery at Whitby, to which 
Bede refers, and is it not supposed that Caedmon died as early as the 
year 680? Verily there is a Catholic spirit in the early monuments 
of English speech. 

And if there be question of the chief Romance languages — 
French, Spanish, and Italian — we may ask: Where did the trouba- 
dours of Provence find encouragement in medieval days. Was it 
not at the court of Christian kings and nobles? And where, and under 
what auspices, did Dante write his Dh'ina Commcdia? Was it not in 
cultured Catholic Florence and under the shadow of those mighty 
medieval cathedrals which embodied so much of the genial Catholic 
spirit of those happy days of faith and chivalry? 

And to turn to German song, what people was it that sang the 
"Volkslied," the songs and ballads, which are still loved and admired 
to-day, which are an inspiration to our poets and composers, and which, 
alas! must also furnish the subject for so many dry-as-dust, and just 
as interesting, doctor-dissertations at some American universities? 



52 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



Was it not the people of happy Catholic Germany before the clays of 
religious upheaval? A reference to Janssen's monumental Gcschichte 
des deutschen J^olkes — especially those chapters in which he treats 
the cultural and artistic life of the people before the great religious 
revolt — is sufficient to justify the claim that song and drama, and 
miracle and morality play, served for the delight and edification of 
the people, and were fostered and encouraged by the Church. And 
where sang the two representative court or minnesingers — Hartmann 
von Aue and Wolfram von Eschenbach, and also the greatest lyric 
poet of German medievaldom — Walther von der Vogelweide — whose 
songs and epics and inspiration are in the music and opera of to-day, if 
not in the courts of Catholic princes? 



FLOTSAM AND JETSAM 



A Plea for a Plural Suffrage 

The Evolution of Suffrage by 
Frank J. Scott (32 pp. New 
York, 1912) is a plea for a plu- 
ral suffrage. In our present sys- 
tem the only qualifications that are 
recognized in conferring the pow- 
er to vote are (in most States) the 
male sex and the age of twenty- 
one years. In the view of the 
author, several other factors 
ought to be given weight, name- 
ly, additional years, marriage, 
property, and character. He 
would have some persons endow- 
ed with possibly ten votes : one 
as an adult of twenty years (not 
twenty-one), one additional at 
the age of 30, 40, and 50 years, 
one at the first marriage, one on 
account of homestead ownership, 
and from one to four on account 
of exceptional character qualifi- 
cations, as determined by the 
annual choice of each neighbor- 
hood group of one hundred per- 
sons. Each adult of twenty years 
male or female, would have at 
least one vote. It is a rather 
elaborate scheme, but it has many 
elements of plausibility. Perhaps 
the most serious objections would 



be urged against the three addi- 
tional votes on account of age, 
and against the homestead qual- 
ification. Yet the principles un- 
derlying these provisions are 
sound. Perhaps if the additional 
age-votes were reduced to one 
(attainable at the age of forty) 
and if the property qualification 
were made very low, say, five 
hundred dollars, no believer in 
plural voting would dissent very 
strongly from the plan. At any 
rate, the pamphlet is interesting,, 
thoughtful, and suggestive. — John 
A. Ryan, D.D. 

A Catholic Press Auxiliary 

A correspondent writes : "To 
my surprise none of your many 
educated readers has expressed an 
opinion on the Catholic Daily 
Press Auxiliary plan advanced in 
the Review for Nov. 15th and 
endorsed by you in the succeed- 
ing number. 

One of the greatest advantages 
of such an organization would be 
its efficiency in shaking the fetich 
belief of our gullible masses in 
the pernicious secular dailies. 
The Goldstein tours of the Cen- 



XX 2 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



53 



tral Society have done much to 
disillusion people in regard to So- 
cialism and to break ground for 
constructive social work. Now 
why should not regular lecture 
trips on the part of an able speaker 
well equipped with the facts gath- 
ered by Will Irwin in his series 
of articles for Collier's last year, 
and with the revelations found 
in Dr. Eberle's Grossinacht Presse, 
be able to rouse our people to 
some realization of the enormous 
engine for evil represented by our 
secular press? After the awak- 
ening would come a demand — and 
then work — -for a clean, independ- 
ent press of our own. It is not 
malice but pure ignorance that is 
keeping most of our Catholics, 
clergy and laity, slaves of their 
greatest enemy. We need a cam- 
paign of enlightenment. Where 
Socialism, mixed marriages, and 
other evils rob the Church of one 
member, the immoral daily press 
shakes the faith and ruins the 
morals of ten others." 

Egan's Popular Life of St. Francis 

Maurice Francis Egan has gath- 
ered together in book form 
his Century magazine essays on 
"Everybody's St. Francis." As 
was to be expected, the book is 
a disappointment. Lest we be 
accused of prejudice, we shall 
quote the Sacred Heart Revieiv 
(Vol. 48, No. 25): 

"Dr. Maurice Francis Egan in 
attempting a 'popular' life of St. 
Francis of Assisi, has produced a 
book that is far from satisfying 
to the Catholic reader. In writing 
a biography that is history as well, 
accuracy of knowledge and accur- 
acy of expression are absolutely 
necessary. Nothing should be left 
for the reader to puzzle over and 
interpret as he may. No doubt 
Dr. Egan had clearly in mind what 



he meant when he described St. 
Francis as 'a pantheist of the 
highest pantheism,' but the char- 
acterization is none the less mis- 
leading. Again, what impression 
will the ordinary reader receive 
from such statement as 'to be a 
monk was to live personally poor, 
if you will, but as a part of a 
rich organization protected by all 
the panoply of war.' (P. 51). 
And what are we to understand 
from this : 'The ecclesiastics were 
clever and learned ; in later times 
Luther proved the force of his 
training by breaking great breach- 
es in the system which had train- 
ed him.' And again : 'The em- 
perors of the Saxon house and 
the Franconians, by enriching the 
clergy, were especially adept in 
using them as 'buffers' between 
themselves and pretentious princes 
or arrogant nobles.' Such a pic- 
ture of the clergy may be pleasing 
to certain readers of the Century 
magazine where "Everybody's St. 
Francis" was published in serial 
form, but it is not a picture that 
the Catholic reader will accept as 
a faithful portrayal." 

The literary value of the book 
is nil. Says the N. Y. Evening 
Post (Dec. 31st) : 

"There is a certain childishness 
in Mr. Egan's style, particularly 
in its enthusiasm for edibles — - 
'lucent sweetmeats,' 'luscious jel- 
lies tinct with cinnamon' — and in 
its frequent disregard of the or- 
dinary grammatical proprieties, 
the more interesting on the part 
of a professor (emeritus) of the 
English language. So long as Mr. 
Egan follows the 'Fioretti' his 
narrative runs along well enough 
■ — except when he relates (with a 
correspondingly labelled illustra- 
tion) how the people of Assisi 
fed the wolf of Gubbio. But when 
Mr. Egan essays literary remark 



54 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



or historical comment he moves 
uncertainly. "One is relieved to 
discover that the title, 'Every- 
body's St. Francis,' means only 
that St. Francis was a man who 
appealed to everybody — not, as 
might be inferred,, that this is a 
book which everybody ought to 
own. It is not ; it is only the ideal 
St. Francis for the parlor table." 

Suspension of a Socialist Daily 

This is how the Socialists of 
the Berger group at Milwaukee 
regard the suspension of the Chi- 
cago Evening World, formerly 
the Chicago Daily Socialist: 

The suspension of the Chicago Even- 
ing IV arid, following shortly on the 
abandonment of its morning edition, 
came as a surprise to a good many 
Socialists. . .The long and short of the 
paper's trouble was that it did not 
have as large a local movement be- 
hind it as such a tremendous under- 
taking as establishing a modern daily 
newspaper required. .. .The daily was 
started some seven years ago merely 
as a daily campaigner during a muni- 
cipal campaign. No one dreamed at 
the time of continuing it after the 
election. But once the election was 
past the temptation to keep its colors 
flying was too strong to resist and 
from that time on the struggle to 
keep the paper going was often most 
exhausting. Advertisers realizing that 
the paper did not represent a relative- 
ly large voting clientele did not make 
use of it to any great extent. At times 
its demands on the Chicago comrades 
were so great that they were forced 
to neglect agitation and organization 
work and in that way the movement 
suffered possibly more than it gained 
from the fact of having a daily. The 
outcome is regrettable, since the paper 
took Socialism to a good many people 
round the. country and to Chicagoans 
during its period of large circulation. 
The seed thus sown must have its 
effect sooner or later. — (Social-Demo- 
cratic Herald, No. 750.) 

There is a lesson in this for 
Catholics who advocate the esta- 
blishment of a Catholic daily, or 
a chain of Catholic dailies. A 



daily paper, to be successful, must 
have a strong local movement be- 
hind it. Its main support, in 
subscription and advertising, must 
come from the city in which it 
is published, with suburbs and 
perhaps a few near-by towns. And 
it must come, not from a small 
band of enthusiasts, but from the 
masses of the Catholic people. 

Why Catholics Must Not Join the Y. 
M. C. A. 

Archbishop Harty of Manila, 
in a circular letter to the clergy 
and laity of his diocese, succinctly 
and effectively states the main and 
fundamental reason why no loyal 
Catholic can identify himself with 
the much-lauded Young Men's 
Christian Association. He says : 

"Did the Y. M. C. A. confine 
itself to philanthropy, social ac- 
tivities or athletics, there would 
probably be no occasion for us to 
notice it. But it is, as constituted, 
a practical denial of the Catholic 
Church, a heretical cult and a 
danger to Catholic youths... Not 
only does it not recognize the Cat- 
holic Church as the pillar and 
ground of truth, and the successor 
of St. Peter as Christ's vice-gerent 
on earth ; but, on the contrary, 
on its own authority, it has organ- 
ized itself into a religious body 
entirely independent of the Cath- 
olic Church and its visible head. 
On its own authority also, it pre- 
scribes what must be professed and 
what belief snffices for its mem- 
bership; it holds religious services 
according to evangelical forms, 
and its preachers are either pro- 
fessedly laymen or else ministers 
of evangelical denominations. 

By setting up its test of mem- 
bership the Y. M. C. A., implicitly 
at least, distinguishes between 
truths necesary to be believed, 
and doctrines not of faith. Sin^lins; 



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55 



out one dogma to be held, it im- 
plies that all other doctrines, even 
though revealed, are not binding 
upon the assent of the mind ; or 
rather, since reason itself evinces 
that, if God revealed other doc- 
trines, they must be true and must 
be held, this society, by excluding 
them from its test, casts a doubt 
upon their revelation. 

Moreover, in exercising its pri- 
vate judgment as to what must, 
or need not be, believed, the Y. 
M. C. A. has planted itself on the 
basis of all Protestant sects, whose 
fundamental tenet is that in the 
choice of a religious creed the 
ultimate criterion of truth is, not 
the authority of the Church, but 
the individual judgment of every 
man. 

Admitting to its membership, by 
this standard, persons of different 
denominations, it fosters indiffer- 
entism in religion ; or rather it is 
an embodiment of that error. For, 
provided you profess faith in the 
divinity of Christ, it matters not 
so far as its membership is con- 
cerned, what else you hold or 
to what other sect you belong. 
This is to deny that it is man's duty 
to worship God by believing and 
practicing one true religion. It 
means that one Christian denom- 
ination is as good as another. 

Any Catholic, therefore, who 
joins or aids the Y. M. C. A. 
thereby sanctions all the errors 
against Catholic dogma contained 
in its structure ; and his action is 
tantamount to a confession on 
his part that the Catholic Church 
is not the sole authorized repre- 
sentative of Christ upon earth, 
nor the infallible guardian of rev- 
elation, not the ark of salvation. 
And if he takes part in the sec- 
tarian services of the Y. M. C. 
A. he breaks the divine and nat- 



ural laws which forbid participa- 
tion in heretical worship. 

The True Christian Notion of Penalty 
This shrinking from the in- 
fliction of physical pain in pun- 
ishment of crime is the offspring, 
partly of a sentimental human- 
itarianism, partly of a denial of 
the true Christian notion of pen- 
alty as the violent restitution of 
a moral order violently broken 
by sin. Punishment is deterrent — 
poena in paucos ut metus in o ni- 
nes, as the old maxim runs — ; 
thus it benefits society. It is also 
medicinal, meant to lead the cul- 
prit to recognize his guilt, and 
thus to benefit the individual. But 
it is primarily retributive, meant 
to exact satisfaction for a wrong 
done, a law violated, an assertion 
of self-will in rebellion against the 
Universal Will. Our modern util- 
itarians cry out against this idea, 
and refuse to recognize its justice; 
yet it is at the basis of all penal 
legislation, and was recognized 
even by the pagan philosopher 
who taught the imperative need of 
expiation. "The greatest of evils," 
said Socrates, "is for a guilty man 
to escape punishment." — The 
Month, No. 582. 

Tyrol and the Dolomites 

The growing interest in the 
Dolomite region is reflected in 
two volumes, Tramps Through 
Tyrol and Gates of the Dolomites, 
by Frederick Wolcott Stoddard 
and L,. Marion Davidson, re- 
spectively. (Stoddard's book is 
published by Little, Brown, & Co., 
Davidson's by John Lane Co.). 

Mr. Stoddard's account, while 
covering the whole of Tyrol, is 
devoted largely to those unique 
peaks which affect the beholder 
as no other mountains do. In his 
words, "the Dolomites amaze and 



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1913 



enthrall. They are totally unlike 
any mountains one has seen be- 
fore, or will ever see again. No 
two dolomites resemble each other, 
and it is impossible to describe, 
intelligently, their infinite variety 
of form and color. Towers, bat- 
tlements, obelisks, pinnacles, and 
the ruined masonry of ancient 
castles and fortresses appear to 
surmount the sheer walls, with 
their fissures and canons, which 
rise at times several thousand feet 
high. Varying lights produce 
strange transformation scenes a- 
mong the Dolomites ; the ravine 
becomes a pinnacle, and the battle- 
ment melts into a rocky chasm." 
Any one who has looked upon 
the statue of Walter von der Vo- 
gelweide, on the principal square 
of Bozen, and has seen the Dolo- 
mites from the incomparable Erz- 
herzog Heinrich promenade in 
Gries must have felt that Switzer- 
land offers no similiar combination 
of scenic beauty, poetic charm, 
and, let us add, physical comfort 
in walking. Only in Austria can 



you find rose-embowered paths, 
which zigzag so gently up moun- 
tain slopes a thousand feet in 
height as to give one a sense of 
walking on the level. Mr. Stod- 
dard has an equally keen eye for 
the wilder aspects of Tyrolese 
landscape, whose dangers hold no 
terrors for him, and he depicts 
throughout the land and its people 
with a skilful pen. His account 
of the Dolomites is a welcome 
addition to the literature of a 
region which, first disclosed to 
the English-speaking world in 
1864 by Gilbert and Churchill, 
and since made better known by 
Amelia B. Edwards — among many 
others — has not yet been sufficient- 
ly explored by the Alpine tourist. 
Mr. Stoddard's plea for the pro- 
nunciation in English of "Tyrol," 
with the German 0, in place of the 
uneuphonious "Tyr-ol," is well 
worth heeding, and he ought to be 
universallv followed in his omis- 
sion of "the" before the name of 
the country. 



ET CETERA 



The omission of a sentence in 
the first paragraph of Father 
Boutlou's article on "The Late 
Marriage Decree," in No. 1 of 
the Review, makes that paragraph 
erroneous. After the first two 
sentences, and before the words 
"Such a marriage," insert: "The 
Roman congregations mean by a 
'mixed marriage' exclusively the 
marriage of a Catholic with a 
baptized heretic or schismatic." 



The Catholic Columbian (Vol. 
37, No. 47) apologizes to a 
Louisiana correspondent for say- 
ing, in a previous issue, "From 



documents recently published it 
appears that Ferdinand Brune- 
tiere, the famous academician and 
litterateur, died a Catholic." The 
censuring correspondent asserts 
that "surely there can be no doubt 
in Brunetiere's case, that he died 
a Catholic, his conversion to Cath- 
olicism having taken place nine 
or ten years before his death." 
Nevertheless the Columbians 
original statement was strictly ac- 
curate. Brunetiere was for years 
friendly to the Church and con- 
vinced of the truth of a great 
part of its teaching, but it was 
only on his death-bed that he real- 
ly became a Catholic — a fact 



XX 2 



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57 



which was in doubt up to less than 
a year ago. # 

The Catholic Advance of Wich- 
ita, Kansas, is reproducing the 
"historical" scene in which Ben- 
jamin Franklin is represented as 
falling on his knees before the 
Papal Nuncio, kissing his hand, 
and with streaming eyes exclaim- 
ing: "Rome has saved my coun- 
try." Almost any fervent editor 
or orator can do these things now 
and not be rebuked. Martin I. 
J. Griffin is dead. — Sacred Heart 
Review, Vol. 49, No.i. 

Those who know Dr. James 
Gairdner from his books, espec- 
ially his history of Lollardy and 
the Reformation in England, from 
which we have at different times 
printed copious extracts, will re- 
gret to hear of the learned au- 
thor's death. Dr. Gairdner was a 
fairminded Protestant, and unlike 
the great majority of his co-relig- 
ionists, made an honest attempt to 
understand the Catholic side. His 
knowledge of English history rest- 
ed on means and methods of study 
which were utterly beyond the 
reach of Macaulay, Hume, and 
the earlier writers. It is said that 
he spent almost the whole of his 
life within the walls of the Pub- 
lic Record Office. Every Cath- 
olic ought to make a memento 
for this truth-loving historian. 

Messrs. Kenedy & Co. request 
us to call the attention of pastors 
and superiors of religious institu- 
tions to the urgency of sending 
in their reports to the respective 
diocesan chanceries in order to se- 
cure the greatest possible accuracy 
in the official Catholic Directory 
for 19 1 3. Under the system 
adopted by the publishers, the Di- 
rectory can be made nearly perfect 
if the reverend clergy and the 



sisterhoods will lend their co- 
operation and promptly return 
the blanks sent to them with the 
information requested. 

The revelation that there are 
no less than 1,700,000 decores of 
one sort or another among the 
citizens of the French Republic — 
about one in every twenty citizens 
— points to a remarkable output of 
ribbons. What is especially curious 
is the way in which this profuse 
decoration has been made possible. 
When the Third Republic started, 
the available orders had fallen in 
number to fourteen. A regime 
of democratic equality has brought 
them up to 65. 

Speaking of the Christmas mag- 
azines with their elaborately il- 
lustrated "messages," Father John 
Handly, C. S. P., says in the 
Southern Messenger (Vol. XX, 
No. 45): 

"Being good Catholics, we are 
pleased and flattered (as the pub- 
lishers expect) to find the sacred 
mysteries of the season featured 
in the popular periodicals. It gives 
us the same kind of sensation of 
having attention paid to us by 
the mighty of this world that we 
feel whenever we see an article 
on the Holy Father which is not 
too glaringly inimical. For we do 
venerate our secular press in this 
country. It is an element of the 
American atmosphere from which 
there is no escape, this docile rev- 
erence for the news-bringer in type. 
And we Catholics will let the 
wrapper stay on the Catholic peri- 
odical week after week while we 
bestow on the other kind the best 
that is in us, money, time, at- 
tention, credulity, sympathy; and 
dance to whatever tune the piper 
plays. I honestly believe that if 
we could get Catholic doctrine in- 



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1913 



to the pages of these periodicals 
Catholics would read it. Yes, and 
even grow enthusiastic about it, as 
they now wax warm over trust- 
busting, national forestry or La 
Follette." 



Domestic science instruction has 
become so important in Germany 
(that a special domestic science 
dictionary has been issued for the 
use of teachers and others in- 
terested in education for the home. 



LITERARY NOTES 



— Dr. Valentine Thalhofer's ex- 
cellent Handbuch der katholi- 
schen Liturgik (a well-known 
"standard work") has been per- 
fected and brought up to date by 
Dr. L. Eisenhofer of the faculty 
of Eichstatt seminary. (2 vols, xii 
& 716 and ix & 676 pp. 8vo. B. 
Herder. 1912. $6.25 net). The 
chapters on the ecclesiastical year, 
the sacraments, the sacramentals, 
and ecclesiastical vestments are 
entirely new. The work as a 
whole is now probably the most 
complete scientific treatise on li- 
turgies available in any language, 
and we heartily recommend it to 
all who are interested in this im- 
portant branch of ecclesiastical 
discipline. — C. D. U. 

— The second volume of Father 
Zephyrin Engelhardt's, O. F. M., 
standard work, The Missions and 
Missionaries of California, deals 
with the general history of the 
missions of Upper California un- 
der the administrations of Frs. 
Junipero Serra, Fermin F. de La- 
suen, and Estevan Tapis, that is, 
from about the year 1768 to 1812. 
It is to be followed, according to 
the preface, by two additional 
volumes of general and two of 
local history. There is a very val- 
uable introduction of twenty-six 
pages on "The Sources of 
Mission History." These sour- 
ces are mostly unpublished. Fr. 
Zephyrin has laid practically all 



of them under contribution — a 
truly herculean task! If his list 
of authorities is not as long as 
Hubert Howe Bancroft's, the rea- 
sons are, in the author's own 
words (p. xliv sq.) that "we 
have named only the original 
sources concerning the missions 
of Upper California" and "we 
are not given to hoodwinking the 
public." How much "hoodwink- 
ing" has been going on in connec- 
tion with the history of the Cali- 
fornia missions appears from Fr. 
Zephyrin's remarks in this and 
the preceding volume on the 
writings of Bancroft, Hittell, etc. 
,Fr. Zephyrin's own narrative is 
exceedingly well documented and 
written throughout with a pains- 
taking accuracy which inspires 
confidence. One cannot help think- 
ing that this work, when com- 
pleted, will be the definitive his- 
tory of the California missions. 
Certainly no historical library, 
public or private, can claim to be 
complete without it. Like its 
predecessor, the present volume 
is embellished with historically 
correct drawings that really illus- 
trate the text. It is to be regretted 
that Fr. Zephyrin did not succeed 
in his effort to procure genuine 
portraits of the early missionaries. 
We heartily renew our previous 
recommendation of this excellent 
work and pray that the reverend 
author may be spared to complete 
it. (xlvi & 682 pp. 8vo. San Fran- 



XX 2 



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59 



cisco, Cal. : The James H. Barry 
Co. 1912. Price $3.05 postpaid. 
For sale by the author, Rev. Zeph- 
yrin Engelhardt, O. F. M., Santa 
Barbara, Cal.)— A. P. 

— No. 9 of the Freiburger The- 
ologische SUidien deals with the 
ethical teaching of the Shepherd 
of Hermas, that most remarkable 
among the writings of the so-called 
Apostolic Fathers. (Die Ethik des 
Pastor Hermae. Von Dr. phil. et 
theol. Ansgar Baumeister. xiv & 
145 pp. 8vo. B. Herder. 1912. 
85 cts. net, in paper covers.) It 
is the first attempt ever made to 
systematize the ethics of this ob- 
scure author, — which is all the 
more surprising as the drift 
and proper purpose of the Shep- 
herd is distinctly ethical. Bau- 
meister's well written treatise will 
prove interesting and useful espec- 
ially to patrologists and those en- 
gaged in the study of the history 
of dogma. — A. P. 

- — The Dominican Year Book 
for 1913, like its predecessors, is 
devoted chiefly to chronicling the 
progress of the Dominican Order 
in the American Province. It 
also contains some general read- 
ing matter and a number of book 
reviews. (The Rosary Press, 
Somerset, O. Price 25 cts.) — 
F. R. G. 

— Besides the people's return en 
masse, so happily inaugurated, to 
the old-time Eucharistic practice, 
an index of the growing love of 
Catholics for the great Sacrament 
may be found in the ever-increas- 
ing popularity and splendor of 
the international Eucharistic con- 
gresses and the growing output of 
Eucharistic devotional literature. 
It was the Congress of Vienna 



that inspired the Reverend A. 
Schweykart, S. J., to publish, un- 
der the title Im Zeichen der Zeit, 
thirty-two lectures or conferences 
on the Blessed Sacrament. The 
author's purpose is twofold, first 
to show the connection between 
the Eucharist, the Sacrifice of the 
Mass, the Sacrifice of the Cross, 
Devotion to the Sacred Heart, and 
the world-wide Eucharistic move- 
ment of modern times ; second, 
to explain in all their diversified 
bearings the various decrees of 
Pope Pius X on Holy Commun- 
ion. The more familiar the peo- 
ple are becoming with the work- 
ing of these precious ordinances, 
the more eagerly will they drink 
at "the fountains of the Savior." 
Space will not permit us even to 
sketch the contents of this book. 
There is no empty rhetoric in its 
pages. and the hard-worked 
priest, who must never weary of 
preaching on the Eucharist, will 
gladly avail himself of its help 
and inspiration. (Innsbruck: F. 
Ranch. $1. American agents: 
Fr. Pustet & Co.)— A. K. 

— Another literary fruit of the 
Eucharistic spirit of the times is 
Encharistica, a splendid volume, 
both in contents and in make-up, 
containing Verse and Prose in 
Honor of the Hidden God, by the 
well-known American hymnolo- 
gist, Rev. H. T. Henry, of the 
Overbrook Seminary. There is no 
need to extol the many beauties 
of this choice gift of Dr. Henry 
to admirers of Eucharistic poetry. 
A very appreciative notice was 
published in the November issue 
of the American Ecclesiastical Re- 
view. Among other things, the 
Encharistica comprises seventeen 
original poems and one hundred 
translations, including antiphons 
and psalms of Corpus Christi, 



(,o 



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1913 



hymns in honor of the Sacred 
Heart and the Holy Name, etc. 
Our Catholic composers will here 
find something worthy of their 
musical skill. (The Dolphin Press. 
$1.25.)— A. K. 

— The Rev. Fr. Klimke, S. J., 
author of a searching criticism of 
the monistic movement (Der 
Monismus und seine philosophi- 
se hen Grundlagen) , has just pub- 
lished a lecture on his favorite 
subject (Monistische Binheitsbe- 
strebungen und katholische Welt- 
anschauung) in which he traces 
the monistic fad to its sources, 
shows up the errors underlying 
the system, and points out the du- 
ties of modern Catholics in their 
fight for the preservation of 
Christian faith and morals. The 
monistic movement is like a mael- 
strom of vast dimensions that 
sucks up the most diverse ele- 
ments antagonistic to Christian- 
ity. All in all a splendid lecture. 
(26 pages. B. Herder. 25 cts.) — 
C. C. P. 

— Dr. Nicholas Giehr's work, 
Das heilige Messopfer dogmatisch, 
liturgisch und aszctisch erklart, of 
which a good English translation 
exists under the title The Holy 
Sacrifice of the Mass: Dogmat- 
ically, Liturgically and Ascetical- 
ly Explained (B. Herder, 3rd ed., 
1908) has recently appeared in a 
new edition (nth to 13th), no 
less than 20,000 copies having 
been already sold. The venerable 
author has adapted it more to the 
use of the laity by eliminating 
many Latin quotations and provid- 
ing a more readable text all the 
way through. The ascetical char- 
acter of the book is now more 
pronounced than ever. No be- 
lieving: Catholic can read it with- 



out experiencing a pro founder love 
for the great sacrifice of the New 
Law and a burning desire to avail 
himself of its benefits as often 
as possible. (B. Herder, xix & 
687 pp. 8vo. $2.50 net.)— A. P. 

— The Sugar Camp and After. 
By the Rev. H. S. Spalding, S. J. 
(Benziger Brothers, 85 cts.) Fr. 
Spalding's previous books were 
notable for their local color, 
chiefly of the Kentucky region. In 
his recent work he has begun by 
shifting the scene from the hills 
of Kentucky to the "Windy City" 
on Lake Michigan. Father Spald- 
ing has been living for a number 
of years in Chicago, and those who 
know the city will admit that he 
has caught the atmosphere of 
"Jefferson Street" with its cosmo- 
politan life, Jewish vendors, etc. 
But the story also takes us to the 
fragrant woods. Anthing that 
comes from Father Spalding's pen 
in the wav of fiction, possesses 
not only literary merit but also 
a refreshing moral tone. It gives 
us great pleasure to recommend 
his latest book to those in search 
of interesting and wholesome 
"adventure stories" for boys. — A. 
M. 

Books Received 

[Even/ book or pamphlet received by the 
Fortnightly Review is acknowledged in 
this department; but we undertake to review such 
npblications only as seem to us. for one reason or 
another to call for special mention.'] 

ENGLISH 

Modern Socialism. By Rev. Herman 
J. Macckcl. S.J. (Publications of the 
Central Bureau. Brochure VI.) 16 pp. 
8vo. St. Louis, Mo. : Central Bureau 
of the Central Verein, 307-S Temple 
Binding. 5 cts. (Wrapper.) 

Polemic Chat. By Edmund M. 
Dunne, Bishop of Peoria. 154 pp. 8vo. 
B. Herder. 1912. Cloth, 50 cts.; pa- 
per, 25 cts. 



XX 2 



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6] 



The Catholic Encyclopedia. .. . Vol. 
XV: Tourn-Zwirner. Errata, xv & 
800 pp. royal 8vo. New York : Rob- 
ert Appleton Co. 1912. 

The Modern Language Course and 
the Choice of Suitable Texts. By Rev. 
Albert Muntsch, S. J., St. Louis Uni- 
versity. Reprinted from the Report of 
Proceedings etc. of the Ninth Annual 
Meeting of the Catholic Educational 
Association. 18 pp. 8vo. Columbus, O. : 
Office of the Secretary General, 1652 
E, Main Str. (Wrapper.) 

The Moiu Propria on Church Music 
and the Parochial Schools. By Mr. 
Joseph Often. Choir Master St. Paul's 
Cathedral, Pittsburgh, Pa. Reprinted 
etc. (as above). 10 pp. 8vo. Same 
publishers. 

Heaven's Recent Wonders, or The 
Work of Lourdes. From the French 
of Dr. Boissarie. Authorized Transla- 
tion by Rev. C. Van dcr Donckt. Sec- 
ond Edition. 385 pp. 121110. Fr. Pus- 
tet & Co. 1912. $1.50. 

The Dominican Year Book for the 
Year of Our Lord 1913. 144 pp. large 
8vo. Illustrated. Somerset, O. : The 
Rosary Press. 25 cts. 

The Teacher's Companion. By 
Brother De Sales, M.A.. Diplomate in 
Education. 204 pp. i2mo. Benziger 
Brothers. 1912. $1 net. 

Spiritual Progress. Lukewarmness 
to Fervour. From the French, xvi 
& 292 pp. i6mo. Benziger Brothers. 
90 cts. net. 

St. John's Institute and its U'orlc 
for the Deaf. By Rev. Stephen Klo- 
pfer. St. John's Institute for Deaf 
Mutes, St. Francis, Ji'is. Reprinted 
from the Report of the Proceedings 
and Addresses of the Seventh Annual 
Meeting of the Catholic Educational 
Association. 14 pp. Svo. Columbus, 
O. : Office of the Secretary General. 
1910. (Wrapper.) 

St. Augustine and the Deaf. By Rev. 
Stephen Klopfer. Reprinted from the 
Report of Proceedings and Addresses 
of the Ninth Annual Meeting of the 
Catholic Educational Association. 
12 pp. Svo. ibid. 1912. (Wrapper.) 

Literature. A Lecture by John Hen- 
ry Cardinal Newman. Edited with 
Notes and Studies by Gilbert J. Gar- 
raghau, S.J.. St. Louis University. 
xiii & 109 pp. i6mo. New York: 
Schwartz, Kirwin & Fauss. 1912. 

Saints and Places. By John Ays- 
cough. 477 pp. i2mo. Benziger Broth- 
ers. 1912. $1.50 net. 



Minor Orders. By Rev. Louis Ba- 
cuez, S.S. x & 380 pp. i6mo. B. Her- 
der. 1912. $1.25 net. 

Facts and Theories. Being a Con- 
sideration of Some Biological Concep- 
tions of To-day. By Sir Bertram C. 

A. Windle. 163 pp. 121110. London: 
Catholic Truth Society ; St. Louis, Mo. : 

B. Herder. 1912. 45 cts. 
Pioneers of the Cross in Canada. 

By Dean Harris. 242 pp. Svo. To- 
ronto: McClelland & Goodchild ; St. 
Louis, Mo.: B. Herder. $1.50 net. 

Two and Two Make Four. By Bird 
S. Colcr. xiii & 248 pp. Svo. New 
York: Frank D. Beattys & Co. 1912. 
$1.50 net. 

Manuals of Visual Instruction for 
Use with tlie Stcreopticon. Pictorial 
Catechism. 91 pp.; Pictorial Bible 
History, 42 pp.; Pictorial Church His- 
tory. 42 pp. Svo. Each 40 cts. (Wrap- 
per.) New York: Joseph F. Wagner. 

Short Sermons on Catholic Doctrine. 
By the Rev. P. Hehcl, S.J. II: The 
Commandments. 128 pp. Svo. New 
York: Joseph F. Wagner. $1 net. 

The Sacred Heart the Source of 
Grace and Virtue. Sermons for the 
Devotion of the Sacred Heart. By 
Rev. Arthur Devinc, C.P. 122 pp. 
i2mo. Joseph F. Wagner. 75 cts. net. 

The Excellence of the Rosary. Con- 
ferences for Devotions in Honor of the 
Blessed Virgin. By Rev. M. J. Frings. 
75 PP- i2mo. Toseph F. Wagner. 75 cts. 
net. 

Conference to Children on Practical 
Virtue. From the French of Abbe 
P. Verdrie. 65 pp. 121110. Joseph F. 
Wagner. 60 cts. net. 

Sermon Plans for all the Sundays 
of the Year. With a Chapter on Ho'zv 
and What to Preach. From the French 
of Abbe H. Lesctre. xx & 100 pp. Svo. 
Joseph F. Wagner. $1 net. 

Outlines for Conferences to Young 
W 'omen. From the French of Abbe 
M. F. Blanchard. 34 pp. 121110. Joseph 
F. Wagner. 40 cts. net. (Wrapper.) 

Orcmus. The Priest's Handbook of 
English Prayers for Church Services 
and Special Occasions, vi & 177 pp. 
Svo. Joseph F. Wagner. $1.50 net. 
(In flexible leather binding.) 

POETRV AND FICTION 

The Road Beyond the Town and 
Other Little Verses. By Michael Earls, 
S.J. 151 pp. i2mo. Benziger Broth- 
ers. 1912. $1.25 

Up in Ardmnirland. By Rev. Mi- 



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1 91 3 



chael Barrett, O. S. B. 316 pp. 8vo. 
Benziger Brothers. 1912. $1.25 net. 

GERMAN 

Allgemeine Dekrete der romischen 
Inquisition aus den Jahren 1555 — 1597- 
Nach dem N otariatsprotokoll des S. 
Uffizio zum erstcn Male veroffentliclit 
von Ludivig Pastor. 71 pp. 8vo. B. 
Herder. 1912. 40 cts. net. (Wrapper.) 

Die Kirche nnd die Gebildeten. Zeit- 
gcschichtliclie Erwdgungen nnd Pasto- 
ral-theologische Anrcgungen von P. 
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TOPICS OF THE DAY 



"FIREBUGS" AND FIRE PROTECTION 

One fire in every four in New York is of incendiary origin, set 
by "firebugs." These professional firestarters get paid for destroying 
property. They set these fires so that the owners can collect the in- 
surance. In one block in New York in the last two years and a half 
eighty-five fires have occurred — an average of almost two and one-half 
fires a month in a single block. 

In Germany, if a fire breaks out, a careful examination is made 
by the authorities to find out whether the owner has taken due pre- 
cautions against such a catastrophe. The government holds, and justly 
so, that a conflagration not only destroys a man's private property, 
but endangers that of his neighbors. In consequence of this attitude 
incendiary fires are as rare in the Fatherland as murders. Every 
man is, as it were, his own fire insurance company. If a person 
knows that in case of fire he will not only lose his property but be 
haled into court, in addition, he will be doubly vigilant. 

JUVENILE DIVISIONS OF THE A. 0. H. 

There was a time when our Irish co-religionists frowned upon 
the attempts of the German Central Verein and other "foreign" 
organizations to keep alive in their members a love for the "old 
country," its history, tongue, and traditions. Now the Ancient Order 
of Hibernians, through its national organizer Mr. James T. McGinnis, 
has issued a circular in which we read : 

We must organize our Irish Catholic youth throughout the broad confines 
of the land, into bands of patriotism, where they may be taught the glorious 
history and achievements of their forefathers in Ireland, a history unparalleled 
and unequalled, whether it be at the altar, in the battlefield, in the forum, 
in legislative hall, or at the shrine of learning and culture. Too long have 
we neglected to inform our offspring of the essentials of our racial greatness, 
which has given the world its object lessons in piety, valor, learning and law. 
Every boy of school age should be compelled to study our historical primer, 
which opens up into the literary avenue of our bards and authors. When they 
shall have known some of the greatness of the land of their fathers, they 
necessarily will become proud of their race and thus readily become whole- 
some, energetic, loyal Hibernians. When the proof of our deeds and the 
centuries of our loyalty to creed and country are impregnated in any Irish 
Catholic, but little remains to hold him firmly in the ranks of Hibernianism, 
which has ever stood for the best traditions and sentiment of Irish integrity 
and brotherhood. 



66 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

No sensible person will blame the Irish for trying to imbue 
their young people with the spirit of their fathers. Nor is such 
"nationalism" in any wise incompatible with American patriotism. 
But is it necessary or even advisable, to go for a model to the Boy 
Scout movement, as the Ancient Order of Hibernians proposes to do? 

SLOW SAFETY 

Just as many ocean travelers now take slow boats to avoid a 
swift rush through ice-infested seas, people are beginning to look to 
safety and comfort rather than speed in journeying by rail. This 
is recognized by one of the Eastern trunk lines, which advertises 
luxurious service and then adds that the train "runs at comparatively 
low speed." A few years ago a train like this, which includes drawing 
room and stateroom cars, a club car, an observation car, terminal 
telephone service, barber, bath, ladies' maid, stenographer and every 
other convenience, would have been keyed up to swift motion as a 
matter of course. If we are finally developing a class of travelers 
who prefer safety and comfort to speed, we are making some progress 
toward civilization. 

TO STAMP OUT LEAD POISONING 

Following the success of its efforts to have Congress enact a 
law preventing the manufacture of "phossy-jaw" matches, the Amer- 
ican Association for Labor Legislation intends to begin a campaign 
for the prevention of lead poisoning. The remedy for lead poisoning 
is simple, there is no need for costly and long experiments as was 
the case with phosphorus poisoning. Cleanliness of workrooms and 
workers, the use of hoods and exhausts to eliminate fume and lead 
dust, will do here what they have done in England and on the Con- 
tinent and what they are doing to-day in Illinois. 

Investigations of comparable American and foreign factories show 
that a German white-lead factory had two cases of plumbism among 
150 men, while an American white-lead factory had 25 cases among 
142 men. An English white and red-lead factory employing 90 men, 
had no case of poisoning in five successive years, but an American 
factory of about the same size had 35 men "leaded" in six months, 
among a force of 85. Another English firm had no case among 182 
men for 191 1, while an American factory for the same year had 
60 cases among 170 men. 

This is a scandalous condition of affairs, and no doubt the Amer- 
ican Association for Labor Legislation will in this new campaign have 
the cordial and active support of all Catholic social reformers, es- 
pecially of the Central Bureau of the Catholic Central Verein, which 



XX 3 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 67 

so effectively aided the movement for the prevention of "phossy jaw" 
last year. 

A NEW CONSUMPTION CURE 

The Friedmann discovery for the cure of consumption has been 
widely heralded by the American press. According to the Journal of 
American Medicine, this method of treatment is not based on any new 
principle, — as the lay reader may have concluded from the newspaper 
articles, — but simply represents another effort to utilize for curative 
and preventive purposes the antigenic substances in the tubercle bacillus, 
without at the same time introducing any toxic or harmful ingredients. 
The treatment lacks an experimental basis, except in so far as the 
injections made by Dr. Friedmann seem to indicate that the fluid 
injected is harmless to children. We have no evidence that it 
will prevent or cure tuberculosis. The alleged curative effects do not 
seem to be more pronounced or definite than those obtained with the 
various forms of tuberculin, when properly used. Besides, the use 
of this fluid is probably not without danger. 

In view of these considerations there is not sufficient warrant 
for any other attitude toward Friedmann' s treatment than one of 
critical neutrality and sceptical reserve. 



A Film Fake 

By C. D. U. 

The Western Watchman (Vol. XLVII, No. 39, p. 18) prominently 
advertises a "special feature film for church exhibitions called 'Death 
and Resurrection,' or 'From Pope to Pope,' " and recommends this 
film to the reverend clergy as "suitable for church entertainments." 

If, as is more than probable, this film is identical with the one 
described by the Sacramento Catholic Herald, the reverend clergy will 
do well to let it severely alone. Says our California contemporary 
(Vol. VI, No. 44): 

We have had exhibited in this city during the current week films purport- 
ing to picture the death of Leo XIII and the election of Pius X, his successor. 
Probably no one was ignorant enough to suppose that they pictured actual 
scenes, and they might be passed over in silence were it not for their gross 
historical inaccuracies and their absurd and ridiculous treatment of the subjects 
they pretend to illustrate. Leo XIII, who was a thin, asthetic [ ?] man, is shown 
lying in bed, his prototype being a rather stout individual who does not bear 
the slightest resemblance to the late Pontiff. The room is crowded with ex- 
traordinarily garbed ecclesiastics. Leo names Cardinal Rampolla as his suc- 
cessor. The name, as he mentions it, causes a shudder to pass over the 
ecclesiastical spectators and the hatred and malignity shown in their faces would 
do credit to the archfiend himself. Leo dies and Rampolla throws himself in 



68 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 



a paroxism of grief on the bed beside the corpse. The historical mallet taps 
are given on the head of the dead Pope, and then every one is ordered from 
the room by the Cardinal who gave the taps. Rampolla being slow to leave, 
is ordered out and leaves with a threatening look on his face after a scene 
with the other Cardinal that resembles nothing so much as two children pre- 
paring to fight. The funeral of the Pontiff follows. On this occasion, and 
during the remainder of the views, the members of the Sacred College, which 
apparently numbers several hundred, parade around continually with mitres 
on their heads. The present Pope, who is described as "the Bishop of Venice," 
is now shown in the person of a very stout man asleep in a chair, attended 
by his sisters and a priest, who continually wears his biretta. A telegram 
announcing the death of Leo XIII arrives, the "Bishop" of Venice is awakened 
and leaves for Rome. The Conclave resembles an ante-convention gathering 
in the lobby of a hotel at first, except that every one wears a mitre and later 
it bears many points of resemblance to a warm debate in the French Parlia- 
ment or the Hungarian Congress. The "Bishop" of Venice gets a letter from 
his sisters urging him to decline the papacy, as they prefer to live m Venice. 
However the "Bishop" accepts his election and is crowned in the most ex- 
traordinary manner, a cope being slipped over his head and a tiara placed 
upon it by the Cardinals, who all still wear their mitres. Later the new Pope s 
election is announced by a mitre-bearing Cardinal, and His Holiness goes on 
a parade, walking with the Cardinals, all wearing mitres, through St. Peter. 
On the trip he meets Cardinal Rampolla, who is furious at being defeated, and 
who gives the Pope a look that naturally alarms the latter. 

The Catholic Herald is perfectly right in denouncing this film as a 
fake and in calling upon Catholics to show their disapproval of such 
traveties on their religion by staying away from those places where 
it is put upon the canvas. 

The Western Watchman, on its part, in consideration of a few good 
round dollars, recommends .this fake to the clergy ! ? ! 

Catholic Immigration in Canada 

By the Rev. Albert Muntsch, S. J., St. Louis University 
In Vol. XIX, page 458, of the Fortnightly Review the present 
writer showed how Canada is taking care of her Catholic immigrants. 
The work of the Catholic Immigration Association of Canada, under 
the direction of Abbe P. H. D. Casgrain, was described, and it was 
pointed out how the Society is safeguarding the faith of poor Catholic 
immigrants. 

Rev. Father Casgrain has lately issued a Report of the work of 
the Association he is so ably directing, and in a letter to the writer 
he states that "from the letters I receive, I find that it is being widely 
read." Some of the facts given in this Report will, no doubt, prove 
interesting to readers of the Fortnightly Review. 



XX 3 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 69 

Speaking of the objects of the Association, Fr. Casgrain says: 

To Catholics of all nationalities who desire to come to Canada, it under- 
takes to furnish reliable information to enable them to select for their future 
homes, places which not only offer the best chances of success, but also the 
least danger for their faith. It tells them the truth about certain regions, 
which some agents are apt to describe in too brilliant colors. 

There can be no doubt that immigrants thus enlightened are more likely 
to succeed than those who set out without first ascertaining whether they 
are fitted for the work they propose to undertake and who, when they fail, 
drift to the towns and become discontented spirits, ever ready to join in any 
Socialist agitation. 

The Fortnightly Review has several times referred to the danger 
of our Catholic working people falling victims to the "Socialist agita- 
tion" unless properly instructed and safeguarded, and we believe that 
were the Catholic Immigration Association of Canada to do nothing 
more than protecting those foreign Catholics who "drift to the towns," 
it would be performing an excellent service "for God and country," 
in accordance with its motto, "Pro Deo et Patria." 

The Reverend Director keeps a record of the number and na- 
tionality of the Catholic immigrants who land at the various Canadian 
ports. These numbers show what a great problem confronts the eccle- 
siastical authorities in Canada — a fact we mentioned in our former 
article on the work of the Association. 

The statistics for the season which has just ended at Quebec are as 
follows: Number of Catholic immigrants who landed at Quebec from the 
20th April to 20th November, 1912: 

English, Irish and Scotch 5.318 

French 1,1 77 

Germans 776 

Italians 1, 193 

Belgians 574 

Poles 4,729 

Ruthenians n,353 

Other nationalities 1,845 

Total 26,955 

When one considers that in addition to these 26,955, thousands of Catholic 
immigrants are entering Canada through Halifax, St. John, Portland, New 
York, and other ports, and also across the American border, one realizes 
the magnitude of the problem which confronts the Church in Canada, and the 
most serious feature of it is that the number of Catholic immigrants to this 
country is not likely to diminish for some years to come, for I recently made 
a tour in the West and everywhere found the settlers so prosperous that they 
will doubtless invite their friends from the old countries to come and share 
their prosperity, and therefore it seems more probable that the number of 
immigrants will rather increase than decrease. 

It is hardly necessary to say more to emphasize the need of some great 
Catholic organization, to deal with such a grave problem, and it is hoped 



70 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

therefore that all Catholics will co-operate in the great social work which the 
Catholic Immigration Association has undertaken. There is much to be done, 
but I will only mention at present the three most urgent needs, viz. : The 
establishment of Catholic information bureaus in our principal cities ; secondly, 
the provision of homes for the reception of Catholic immigrants, and thirdly, 
the formation of classes among our young foreign Catholics to teach them 
English and show them that we take a real interest in their welfare. 

All this is social work which could be arranged and carried out locally, 
according to the needs and resources of each locality. It should, moreover, 
be taken in hand without delay, for in Canada, like everywhere else, Socialism 
threatens to paralyze every industry, and unless our foreign immigrants are 
properly looked after and warned against this menacing evil, they will surely 
fall an easy prey to the Socialist agitator. 

It is our duty, therefore, both as Catholics and as Canadians, who have 
the welfare of their country at heart, to do our utmost to properly educate 
our foreign immigrants, and no organization can do so more effectively than 
the Catholic Church, with the active co-operation of the laity. 



Why So Many Catholics Seek the Playhouse 

By Adolph B. Suess, Editor of the; East St. Louis (III.) Gazette: 

The deduction made by a "Catholic Dramatic Critic" (Eortnight- 
Ly RLviLw, XX, 1 ) that Catholics must be of a low taste who frequent 
such plays as "The Rosary'' is not correct. Many good Catholics at- 
tend this and similar plays, because of their advertised "religious" char- 
acter, and many more do so because, belonging to the "elite," they 
simply follow where the Knights of Columbus lead, since these are 
the fashion arbiters, and art critics, and musical connoisseurs, whose 
Imprimatur stamps all things they espouse as "Excello." 

A specific reason for the attendance of many Catholics at plays 
of a morally indifferent character is the fact that on the Catholic am- 
ateur stage, under the supervision of the clergy, so much rot is per- 
petrated that eventually the thoughtful man and woman absent them- 
selves from these halls of amusement, and, being socially inclined, and 
needing diversion in these humdrum work-a-day times, they seek the 
non-Catholic playhouse. 

Only ' too frequently have I heard it said by Catholic men in 
authority, when advancing the claims of a "better" drama or comedy 
on the Catholic amateur stage, that "our people want only the light 
and frivolous," when, as a matter of fact, these people were soul- 
hungry for substantial food, instead of the husks crammed down 
their unwilling but passive throats. 

The bad example set by the Knights of Columbus, in St. Louis 
and vicinity, with their "Geisha Girl" performances, under the direction 
of a celebrated organist, is a direct cause of the attitude adopted by 



XX 3 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW -i 

many thinking Catholics in absenting themselves from theatricals of- 
fered under Catholic auspices and presented under the direction of Cath- 
olic organists and music teachers, and turning to the secular theater 
for true art of a non-pagan character. These are facts, plainly 
stated. This article may cost me my bread and butter, but facts are 
facts, and from the facts I have stated correct deductions can be made 
as to the attendance of Catholics at plays heralded as "religious'' in 
non-Catholic playhouses ; and also as to the attendance of thoughtful 
Catholics at other theatrical or musical performances given under non- 
Catholic auspices. The latter are, in the majority of instances, pref- 
erable; artistically, dramatically and musically superior. — Here in 
East St. Louis even the colored children of the public schools present 
better entertainments than do some Catholics. 



Bishop Lawler on Ideal Womanhood 

By a Catholic College: Professor 

On January 6th the Right Reverend Bishop Lawler delivered be- 
fore the Guild of Catholic Women of St. Paul an address which will 
repay discussing in the meetings of our Catholic women clubs all 
over the country. 

The distinguished prelate rightly insists that the Catholic woman's 
proper sphere of influence is the home, but that, in order to make her 
home a nursery of Christian virtue, she must herself be a practical 
member of the Church. There are two indispensable requisites to 
practical membership: a thorough knowledge of our religion and the 
exercise of Christian virtue. "The Catholic woman of today needs to 
be well-informed concerning the doctrine and practices of her reli- 
gion. I would have our Catholic women be foremost in intellectual 
attainments, as Catholic womanhood has ever been first in all the 
Christian virtues. Let our Catholic women be made more learned, but 
let them be made more religious as well. Let them become polished 
members of society w r ith all the graces of culture, but let them also be 
ornaments in that other society in which the soul is the chief con- 
cern. Let them cultivate the faculties of the mind to the highest 
pitch, but let them not neglect to control the inclinations of the heart. 
Well balanced characters are what we need." 

We are glad to note that Bishop Lawler brings out forcibly the 
need of religious training at school. It is a notorious fact that Catholics, 
especially of the wealthier class, are often quite foolishly averse to 
sending their children to Catholic schools. Now right here is where 
the practical side of a Catholic mother's religion will show itself. 



12 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 



While often enough the fault lies with an indifferent, careless father, 
we also know that frequently it is the would-be fashionable mother that 
abhors the Catholic school. Let her listen to Bishop Lawler and sober 
up a little: "If the Catholic mothers of to-day were to plan deliberately 
to rob their posterity of this blessed heritage [the faith], they could not. 
accomplish the result more successfully than by sending their children 
to institutions of learning which are deficient in the most essential ele- 
ment of true and complete education, religious training, and by en- 
couraging them to associate almost exclusively with those of other re- 
ligions of no religion at all." 

Indeed, attendance at non-Catholic schools brings with it the mani- 
fest danger of associating with those not of the faith. How many of 
our Catholic children, especially in the cities, have non-Catholic chums ! 
With what levity and thoughtlessness these friendships are formed! 
How few Catholic parents will pause to think that in the matter of 
friendship the point of religion makes all the difference in the world. 
No doubt, we labor under a great disadvantage in this country, where 
our lot is cast amid an overwhelmingly non-Catholic population. But 
this condition of affairs is by no means a new and solitary instance in 
the long history of the Church. Was not the Church born into a pagan 
world? St. Paul saw clearly the danger which threatened the faithful 
from their contact with a heathen environment. There was but one 
remedy for the early Christians — separation. "Bear not the yoke with 
unbelievers. For what participation hath justice with injustice? Or 
what fellowship hath light with darkness? Or what concord hath Christ 
with Belial? Wherefore, go out from among them, and be ye separate, 
saith the Lord." It is not necessary, in the pages of this Review, to 
state explicitly that, if we advocate a certain aloofness from those out- 
side the fold, it is not because we hate them, or because we are unwill- 
ing to co-operate with them for the moral, social, and political uplift 
of the country. Far from it. Catholics should come forward and take 
their rightful place in every department of public life. We have a def- 
inite mission in the world and will yield to no one in true patriotic zeal 
for our common country. But we shall help neither the world nor our- 
selves if we substitute so-called worldly wisdom for the principles of 
faith. There are few things which blunt the edge of our Catholic prin- 
ciples more easily than constant and intimate association with non- 
Catholics. This is important for mothers to remember: "As long as 
prominent [and, for that matter, any] Catholics train their children to 
seek their companions among non-Catholics and unbelievers, they are 
not doing their full duty toward their children." 



XX 3 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 73 

The question may be raised, Why do so many Catholic women 
keep aloof from their co-religionists? One answer is: There is not suf- 
ficient social life among Catholics. The following is Bishop Lawler's 
answer : "Well, whose fault is it ? There never will be sufficient Cath- 
olic social life if those who are in a position to cultivate it fail to do 
so. The fault lies in great measure in the neglect, indifference, snob- 
bishness, and unsociableness of some of our Catholic people, who have 
climbed to a plane of importance themselves, but who have 'scorned 
the base degrees by which they did ascend.' If our Catholics of wealth 
and culture and influence and assured position continue to regard it as 
a greater privilege to be tolerated as insignificant members of outside 
organizations than to be active, leading, honored members of Catholic 
society, our social life will necessarily suffer and develop slowly." 

There are probably few priests in this country who cannot from 
their own experience point to one or several instances of a mixed mar- 
riage which with its usual train of evils was clue to the ambitions of a 
foolish Catholic mother. "It happens not un frequently that some non- 
Catholic young women who in all but their polished manners and fault- 
less appearance are religious and moral non-entities, are sought after 
and invited to some of our best Catholic homes by ambitious and world- 
ly mothers who fawn on wealth, while our young men and women with 
less means but of more manhood and womanhood are not considered 
worthy to be invited. What benefit do such mothers expect their chil- 
dren to derive from such associates? Do they expect them to become 
better, purer, nobler? Experience says no. The mothers whose ambi- 
tion it is to marry their children into the wealth of outsiders of this 
character, are ready to endanger the gift of faith for a mess of pottage, 
and remind one of the query of Judas contemplating the betrayal of his 

master : What will you give me and I will deliver Him to you ? Such 

mothers are forgetful of their dignity as Catholics." 

Finally, the Catholic woman of today should not be slow to assert 
her patriotism. Why should others be allowed to claim a monopoly of 
patriotic devotion? In view of the fact that, from the landing of Colum- 
bus down to our day, Catholics have always been among the foremost 
in patriotism and unswerving loyalty to the flag during all the years of 
our national existence, "is it not strange that a persistent effort'is made 
in some quarters to stigmatize us as aliens in our own country? Why 
are the Murphys and Schneiders and the LaFontaines and the Ba- 
binskis and the Tomeks and the Bandinis and their children and chil- 
dren's children considered aliens from generation to generation, down 
to the latest day, while the Doolittles and non-Catholics generally are 
called Americans as soon as they land on our shores and their children 



74 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

are known as the Americans of the Americans? If you seek the cause, 
you will find that it is partly the work of those who wish to create a 
prejudice against the Church by presenting her to the American public 
as a foreign institution out of harmony with her surroundings. That 
outsiders should take this attitude to establish on our free soil a non- 
Catholic ascendency, such as they have maintained for centuries in cer- 
tain countries of the old world, is not surprising; but that some of our 
own people should be willing to acquiesce in such a discrimination is 
a mystery. And some of our own people seem to be guilty. Is not 
the remark frequently made: 'What will the Americans say of it?' 
They who speak thus simply mean, What will their non-Catholic neigh- 
bors say of it, as if their non-Catholic neighbors were the only true 
Americans. The implication is absurd. Are we not to the manner born 
as well as they?'' Indeed, we may add, there was a time within the 
memory of man when the native savage was the only true native 
American. 

These are bold and timely words, and the Catholic women not only 
of St. Paul but of the whole country have reason to thank Bishop 
Lawler for telling them the truth. 

Catholic Federation and Its Influence on Politics 

By the Rev. Claude Mindorff, O. F. M., St. Francis College, 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

The indifference and ignorance shown by many of our Catholic 
citizens in public affairs, is an unpardonable neglect of duty. Catholics, 
as well as other citizens, have not only the right, but also the duty to 
make their influence felt in politics, both national and local. 

In our world of to-day, however, this influence, to be effectual, 
demands two factors, unity and leadership. 

In union there is strength. Union is the foundation of all public 
activity, - and unless we unite politically, we shall never have any 
political influence. It is not necessary, nor even advisable, that we form 
a distinct political party, in opposition to all others. But we should 
have a determined object in view and work together to obtain it, es- 
pecially by supporting only those candidates who have shown them- 
selves fair to Catholics and have pledged themselves to defend our 
cause. As I take it, this is the main object of our Catholic Federation, 
and thus far it has succeeded. By forming a unity, which the politicians 
will have to reckon with, it has gone a good way towards protecting 
Catholic interests and exercising a Catholic influence in politics. 

But it is chiefly in leadership that the American Catholic body is 
sadly deficient. We want leaders, both among the clergy and among the 



XX 3 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 75 

laity, — men who are able and intelligent enough to grasp the importance 
of political issues and the trend of political platforms, who know which 
are the best candidates for office, who give their time and labor to such 
study, and who can thus direct the Catholic vote and induce all to take 
an active and intelligent interest in public affairs. This too we might 
rightly expect from the Catholic Federation. But have such expecta- 
tions been fully realized? Has the Federation established a Catholic 
daily or taken any steps in that direction? Does it send out timely 
political information to help the voters make intelligent use of the bal- 
lot? Has it given us efficient leaders who know whafs what and who's 
who in politics? 

Certainly, it would be unjust not to recognize the many and suc- 
cessful efforts of the Federation in the cause of decency, public morals, 
education, and kindred questions, but to all appearances it has as yet 
hardly developed beyond the stage of motions and resolutions. We 
need more than that. It is the ballot that counts. Resolutions and 
protests will remedy many an injustice, and restrain some unworthy 
officials from abusing their power, — but an ounce of prevention at the 
polls is worth a pound of cure. Moreover, if these same officials see 
that the society sending such protests does not in any more effectual way 
direct the votes of its members, resolutions and protests will soon 
lose their force. Of late, the Federation has begun to work, at least 
locally, along these very lines, and its efforts deserve to be encouraged 
and imitated. By lectures and pamphlets and newspaper articles the 
people could be told what measures and what candidates would be in- 
jurious to the Catholic cause, and how to vote accordingly. 

This does not imply that Catholics must vote only for Catholic 
candidates. On the contrary, those who vaunt their Catholicity to 
catch the Catholic vote, the socalled political Catholics, are very often 
nothing but dish-rags who would do more harm than good. The only 
guiding principle in the choice of a candidate should be the question : 
Who will give us our rights? Who will be just to all alike? The answer 
will point out the worthy candidate. And who can give us this answer 
with more certainty and less bias than men who make a special study 
of the question? And who is to produce these men, and with proper 
authority circulate their statements, if not the Catholic Federation? 

Thus by uniting our forces and giving us competent leaders who 
will call our attention to the public issues and instruct us how to cast 
our ballot for the common good, the Federation would become for 
American Catholics what the Centre party has been in Germany, — an 
impregnable wall of defense, capable of resisting all the encroachments 
of the enemy. 



-6 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

Care of Consumptive Wage Earners in Germany 

By Frederick L. Hoffman 
Under the German compulsory invalidity insurance law which went 
into effect on January 1, 1900, provision was made that — 

If an insured person is so ill that incapacity to earn a livelihood is to be 
apprehended as a consequence of the illness, which would constitute a claim 
to a pension in accordance with the laws of the Empire, the insurance institu- 
tion is entitled to cause him to undergo a cure to the extent it may think 
desirable in order to avert this loss. The insurance institution can effect the 
cure by placing the sick person in a hospital or in an establishment for con- 
valescents. If the sick person is married, if he has a household of his own, 
or if he is a member of the household of his people, his consent to this step 
is required. 

For the systematic treatment and care of tuberculous wage earners 
a chain of special sanatoria was gradually established by the invalidity 
insurance institutions. Commencing with 1 in 1895, the number of 
sanatoria by 1902 had increased to 15, and by 1909 to 37. In addition 
thereto, a number of public sanatoria were established by provincial, 
communal, and other authorities, largely out of funds provided at low 
rates of interest by the invalidity insurance institutions. In 191 1 there 
were 99 of these public sanatoria for the treatment of tuberculous wage 
earners in the German Empire. 

Commencing with 3,334 tuberculous wage earners provided with 
systematic institutional treatment in public sanatoria in 1897, the number 
had increased to 16,489 in 1902 and to 42,232 in 1909. During the 
period of 1897 to 1909, in the aggregate, 272,480 tuberculous wage 
earners were treated and cared for, and of this number 194,787 were 
males and 77,693 were females. 

The 37 sanatoria owned and operated by invalidity insurance in- 
stitutions in 1909 provided 3,134 beds for males and 1,289 beds for 
females. The cost of the ground occupied was 2,256,438 marks 
($537,032) ; the cost of buildings, 38,238,124 marks ($9,100,674) ; and 
the cost of installation, 4,349,854 marks ($1,035,265). The annual cost 
of maintenance during 1909 was 7,820,388 marks ($1,861,252). The 
number of male patients treated was 16,593, and of female patients, 
6,141. 

The average cost of treatment per patient per annum in all institu- 
tions was 386.05 marks ($91.88). The cost for male patients was 
404.22 marks ($96.21) and for female patients 344.97 marks ($82.10). 
The average cost per patient per day was 5.41 marks ($1.29), or 5.77 
marks ($1.33) for males and 4.29 marks ($1.02) for females. 

The average duration of treatment was 73 days, having been 70 
days for males and 80 days for females. 



XX 3 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 77 

The economic results of institutional treatment and care on account 
of tuberculosis of the lungs are determined by means of special inquiry 
for a period of five years subsequent to the patient's discharge. By 
economic results is meant the restored wage-earning capacity to the 
extent, at least, of 33,3 per cent of the patient's wage-earning ability 
previous to the disease. 

The tendency is distinctly toward an improvement in the econom- 
ic results as is made evident by the fact that while of the male 
patients treated in 1897 only 68 per cent were discharged with their 
earning capacity restored, the corresponding proportion for 1909 was 
83 per cent. For female patients the results were exactly the same. 

The antituberculosis movement throughout the German Empire 
is thoroughly organized and sustained by ample funds. The results 
of systematic treatment and institutional care have been quite satis- 
factory and, as far as known, sufficient to reimburse the insurance 
institutions by the release of funds that would otherwise have been 
required for the payment of disability annuities. 

Largely as the result of the general movement against tuberculosis 
and the provision for instutional and dispensary care, the general tu- 
berculosis death rate of German cities has progressively declined. 
From an average of 23.08 per 10,000 during 1895 — 1899 the rate for 
the German Empire as a whole has declined to 21.16 during 1900 — 1904 
and 18.45 during 1905— 1909. The mortality from tuberculosis of 
the lungs in German cities has declined from an average rate of 34.6 
per 10,000 of population during 1880 — 1884, to 27.4 during 1890 — 1894, 
to 21.0 during 1900 — 1904, and finally to 17.9 during 1905 — 1909. 

The marvelous results achieved in the German Empire through 
the intelligent coordination of public and private agencies enlisted 
in the effort to reduce the mortality from tuberculosis to a minimum 
entitles the German experiment, as the first and most successful of 
its kind, to the admiration of the entire civilized world. Whether 
what has been done has paid for itself in a strict financial sense is 
wholly secondary to the social results which have been achieved, and 
which have unquestionably conferred an infinite amount of good upon 
the German people engaged in German industry in successful compe- 
tition with the economically more advantageously situated wage-earn- 
ers of many other lands. From the social, economic, and medical 
points of view the treatment and care of tuberculous wage earners 
in Germany is a subject well deserving of intelligent and sympathetic 
study as a distinct contribution to the civilization of the present time. 

[For a full treatment of the subject the reader is referred to 
Bulletin No. 101 of the U. S. Bureau of Labor.] 



78 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

! 

The Ethics of Interest-Taking 

By C. MeurEr, Editor of the "Arkansas Echo," Little Rock, Ark. 

I read in No. 21 (1912) of the Fortnightly Review an article 
by Rev. Dr. John A. Ryan, of St. Paul Seminary, entitled : "Interest 
on Industrial Capital," which gratified me very much. I have studied 
this question for forty-five years and believe it to be the root of the 
social question. I seldom find any one to share my views ; therefore 
I am pleased to note Dr. Ryan's emphatic denial of the justice of in- 
terest-taking. 

Interest is the accumulation of value without work. 

It is Christian teaching that every man who is able to work must 
do so. The Apostle says: "If any man will not work, neither let 
him eat." (2 Thess. iii, 10.) In his First Epistle to the Corinthians 
he writes : "Know you not, that they who work in the holy place, 
eat the things that are of that place ; and they that serve the altar, 
partake with the altar ; so also the Lord ordained that they who 
preach the gospel, should live by the gospel." 

But the common phrase says: "Capital creates interest." Capital 
is a lifeless thing; lifeless things have no duties; consequently, they 
cannot have rights. In the phrase, "capital" stands for "capitalist." 
There is a reason for this. All the rights we have are God-given. 
God gave equal rights to all men. The first of these is the right to 
work, and thereby make a living. But if the capitalist can make 
a living without work, he is exempted from the law of God. Has 
God made any exemptions? Now we see the reason why pople say 
"capital" instead of "capitalist." 

The first commandment given by the Creator to Adam was an 
injunction to work. "And the Lord God took man and placed him 
in the paradise of pleasure, to dress it and to keep it." (Gen. xi, 15.) 
And to this duty, toil, fatigue, sickness and death were added after 
the fall. This punishment was for all men, but some unjust men 
shifted their own rightful share of toil onto the shoulders of 
their fellowmen. They would also shift sickness and death on others 
if that were possible. These men are, today, represented by the 
capitalists, who say that their capital works for them. The taking 
of interest in many forms has grown to such enormous proportions 
that the question arises : Does interest-taking conform to Christian 
teaching or not ? Many have answered this question in the affirma- 
tive, and have tried to find reasons for it. One of these reasons is, 
that the nature of money has changed, that it has become productive. 
This assertion has never been proved. There is a fairy tale of a 



XX 3 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 79 

dollar which invariably produced another dollar in its owner's pocket. 
Other tales relate how men became wealthy without work, by the 
help of the devil, to whom they sold their immortal souls. These 
stories give evidence that the people used to believe money should 
be acquired by honest labor. 

Today vast fortunes are made by accumulating different kinds 
of interest. People have forgotten that even Luther called interest- 
taking usury and that the Catholic Church prohibited it in the twelfth 
century under penalty of excommunication. 

All that is forgotten and no one asks : What is the origin of 
interest-taking? Moses prohibited it to the Israelites. We find men- 
tion of it on tablets excavated in Ninive and Nippur, on papyri found 
in Egypt, written long before Abraham's time. The kings of that time 
had absolute power. They and their successors possessed the land and 
the natural resources which God had created for all men. Our Maker 
has given the faculty of work to men and linked and bound this faculty 
to the materials created by Him. By his work man himself became 
a creator, an image of God. He should never have forgotten His 
creator, because all the materials he used were gifts of God. 

If the right to work exists for every one, then everyone must 
have access to the materials he needs. These materials the old kings 
took as their own and held them by force, for the purpose of dom- 
ineering over their fellowmen. The excavated stones tell us that they 
called themselves vicars of God and executors of His will. These 
were the reasons they gave to the people for their acts, but Ham- 
murapi's laws prove to us that the people did not believe in them 
from the first. Therefore they were compelled to obey by bloody laws. 

When we compare Genesis with the account of the creation on 
the tablets found in Ninive, it becomes clear that an early king falsified 
the tradition to serve his purpose. So these kings invented gods to. 
suit them, and later they became gods themselves. Here is the ex- 
planation of pagan mythology, why the gods had sons by mortal women ; 
it furnishes the reason for the power of the kings. So we understand! 
why in Egypt the priests declared each Pharao the son of a god. 
His power was proof sufficient. 

The oldest kings knowingly deceived the people, but later kings, 
really believed themselves to be of divine origin. This becomes clear 
when we read the tablets which relate the history of the Assyrian 
kings. These self -constituted men-gods usurped all the rights of 
the Creator and deeded them to others. Here we find the source of 
"absolute property right," the source of interest-taking. 



80 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

The old Romans were more honest ; they called interest "usuria," 
payment for the use. Property belonged to them as if they had created 
it. Their authority was derived from the divine emperors, to whom 
the whole world belonged, who were absolute masters. 

As soon as the Catholic Church had abolished the infamous legacy 
of paganism, she prohibited the taking of interest. It is a historical 
fact that Barbarossa tried to regain all the power once possessed by 
the old Roman emperors and that the Pope defeated his project. 
This power became the goal of all the sovereigns of Europe, it 
remained in the possession of the emperor of Constantinople. In 
his provinces the old Roman right continued to constitute the law. 
Consequently, the people, though professing to be Christians, acted 
like pagans. To this cause may be attributed the schism, and the 
success of Mohammed. 

When the Turks took Constantinople, Greek lawyers came to 
European courts, and, with the approbation of the sovereigns, taught 
the Roman law. After the Reformation had broken the power of 
the Church, these pagan laws were reintroduced, and with them inter- 
est-taking became legal, property once more became absolute. Black- 
stone says : "Pleased as we are with the possession, we seem afraid 
to look back to the means by which it was acquired, as if fearful 
of some defect in our title; or, at best, we rest satisfied with the de- 
cision of the laws in our favor, without examining the reason or 
authority upon which those laws have been built. We think it enough 
that our title has been derived by the grant of the former proprietor, 
by descent from our ancestors, or by the last will and testament of 
the dying owner, not caring to reflect that (accurately and strictly 
speaking) there is no foundation in nature or in natural law, why 
a set of words upon parchment should convey the dominion of land; 
why the son should have the right to exclude his fellow creatures 
from a determinate spot of ground, because his father has done so 
before him, or why the occupiant of a particular field, or of a jewel, 
when lying on his death-bed, and no longer able to maintain pos- 
session, should be entitled to tell the rest of the world, who of them 
should enjoy it after him. These inquiries, it must be owned, would be 
useless and even troublesome in common life. It is well if the mass 
of mankind will obey the laws when made, without scrutinizing too 
nicely into the reasons of making them." (2 Bl., Comm. 2). 



XX 3 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 81 

Need of a New Science of Evidence 

By F. R. Gleaner 

In No. 298 of the Dublin Review Monsignor R. H. Benson pleads 
for a new science of evidence. "We need it to be made plain to all 
men, once and for all," he says, "that while every branch of knowledge 
has a right to exist, and a right to be imperative and final within its 
own province, it has no right to be imperative anywhere else — and, 
above all, that while every branch of knowledge must use evidence 
proper to itself, it has no kind of right to demand that other branches 
of knowledge should use any evidence except their own." 

He illustrates this by an instance taken from the sphere where 
theology meets psychology. 

Certain popular traditions of religion have been profoundly modi- 
fied by recent discoveries in psychology, which has shown the cure 
of certain kinds of diseases, hitherto considered to be miraculous, to 
be not necessarily miraculous. Suggestion, even apart from religion, 
can accomplish some of these things, and therefore the psychologist 
claims that these particular cures are natural. 

In making this claim, says Msgr. Benson, "the psychologist is per- 
fectly within his rights, though I do not say he is necessarily correct 
in his claim.... But it is necessary to object very strongly indeed 
to his advancing beyond his province and making, in the name of 
science, what is really a sublime and childlike act of faith. 'I have 
shown,' the modern psychologist tends to say, 'that I can cure 
St. Vitus' dance by hypnotic suggestion. Therefore, though I cannot 
at present do it, I am sure that an instantaneous cure of lupus can 
also be accomplished by hypnotic suggestion. I believe in Nature, 
Creator of all things visible and invisible. . .by whom all things are 
done.' ,: The psychologist may be justified, from his own point of 
view, in making such an act of faith; if only he will "remember and 
confess that it is an act of faith, and not a conclusion of science — 
in fact, that he is no longer acting as a psychologist, but as a humble 
believer." 

The case is similar with biology. The scientist is at liberty in 
tracing all animal life to protoplasmic slime — if he really has es- 
tablished the genealogy to his own satisfaction. "But he is not at 
liberty, since he is no longer within his own province, in declaring 
in the name of science that, therefore, protoplasm is eternal." If he 
wishes to make an act of faith to that effect, well and good; but let 
him not put it forth as a scientific conclusion. 



Nj 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



In all these provinces, therefore, which various sciences share in 
common, disputes must be fought between the sciences, but no one 
must lay tyrannous hands upon what is not in his province. 

"We need, therefore, a new science of evidence. We need that 
men generally should recognize that every science has its own pro- 
vince, within which it has a right to dictate terms; and, what is 
above all important, that each science has its own particular kind of 

evidence when this distribution of provinces is fully recognized, and 

the new science of evidence established indisputably, not only will 
there be comparative peace, but that which is the corollary of peace 
— progress. At present we are all nervously engaged in trying to 
translate the evidences of our own particular province into the langu- 
ages of other provinces, instead of simply adding our contributions, 
together." 



FLOTSAM AND JETSAM 



Superstition in the Making 

A study of superstition in the 
making: might profitably be made 
apropos of the case of "Mme. de 
Thebes, the well-known Parisian 
seeress," to whose prognostica- 
tions for the year 1913 a con- 
spicuous place was lately given in 
a number of prominent newspa- 
pers. She "has predicted many 
notable events," we are told, 
among them the assassination of 
King Humbert of Italy and the 
death of Edward VII." 

There are probably few who 
see this statement that are not 
more or less impressed with it — 
not that they really believe the 
woman has the power of foresee- 
ing the future, but they have a 
vague, uneasy feeling that there 
is something queer about the mat- 
ter. 

Well, let us see what the 
seeress predicts for 191 3. Ger- 
many will be involved in a dis- 
astrous war, the Austrian Em- 
peror will die, the King of Eng- 
land will die, England will pass 
with success through "the great- 



est crisis of her naval history," 
Abdul Hamid will be restored,, 
there will be a great political ca- 
taclysm in Russia, there will be 
a new Pope — and perhaps a dozen 
other things are included among 
her predictions for the coming 
year. 

Naturally there is a good chance 
that one or two of them will come 
true — especially when we remem- 
ber that Francis Joseph is in his 
eighty-third year and Pius X in 
his seventy-eighth. Nobody is re- 
minding us of the prophecies that 
failed of fulfilment in the years 
when Humbert was assassinated 
and when Edward VII died, nor 
in all the other years between 
1900 and 1912; but if one or two 
of the many spectacular happen- 
ings scheduled by the seeress for 
191 3 should come to pass, there 
will be people who will gravely 
shake their heads next year, and 
the year after, and attend with 
more or less seriousness to what 
she may have to tell about the 
coming twelvemonth. 



XX 3 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



83 



The Sadness of the Agnostic 

When one glances through (who 
in these busy days could read a 
work of over 600,000 words?) 
the recent three-volume Life of 
Mark Twain, one is constantly re- 
minded of St. Paul's phrase in 
1. Thess., "that ye be not sorrow- 
ful like those around you zt'ho have 
no hope." An overwhelming sad- 
ness seems to have permanently 
haunted the most widely celebrated 
jester that ever used the English 
tongue. Wealth, health, friends, 
family affection, fame, — all that 
the world can offer its most favor- 
ed children was his, and together 
with these gifts a most poignant 
sense of their utter insufficiency. 
Like St. Augustine's, his heart was 
restless in spite of them, but un- 
fortunately it never found its true 
repose. Less imaginative, less 
sensitive, less exigent natures can 
feel satisfied for a time with 
earthly interests, but the soul- 
hunger of this gifted man seem- 
ingly forbade any such content- 
ment. His life is a valuable ob- 
ject-lesson of the results of ex- 
tinguishing the lights of heaven. 
What peace can the materialist 
offer the exiled soul of man? — 
The Month, No. 582. 

The Governor of South Carolina on 
Divorce 

Governor Cole L. Blease of 
South Carolina has been unmerci- 
fully berated by the press for his 
views on the negro question, in 
fact he has been denounced by 
such eminent journals as the In- 
dependent as an irresponsible 
crank and a dangerous fanatic. 
We do not know how correct this 
estimate of his character is, but 
we can hardly take it at its face 
value, seeing what sane and ra- 
tional views Gov. Blease holds on 
divorce. In an address before the 



Governors' Conference recently 
held at Richmond, Va., the Gover- 
nor of South Carolina said : 

"The question in which South 
Carolina stands alone and in 
which, in my opinion, she is su- 
perior to all the States of the Am- 
erican Union, written in the fun- 
damental laws of my State by a 
constitutional convention compos- 
ed of men of both races, in 1868, 
and even more emphatically in 
1895 by the white people of South 
Carolina, are the words, 'No di- 
vorce from the bonds of matri- 
mony shall ever be granted.' It 
may be, sirs, a hardship in some 
cases, still I say to this audience 
this afternoon, and I say it with 
pleasure, that the only correct rule, 
following both the Biblical 
injunction and the injunction of 
man, is that which South Caro- 
lina follows when she says, 'Those 
whom God hath joined together, 
let no man put asunder.' 

"If there be one thing in the 
American Union that is a disgrace 
to American civilization, it is the 
sale of American womanhood for 
wealth ; if there be another, it is 
the wholesale and unwarranted 
granting of divorces because, for- 
sooth, some woman or some man 
has not got as much money by 
their marriage as they expected 
when the marriage ceremony was 
performed. 

"My State stands alone. We 
grant no divorces ; we recognize 
no divorces. If a man leaves the 
State of South Carolina, and goes 
into another State and obtains a 
divorce from his wife, he may 
come back into South Carolina 
and live, but if he again marries 
and moves back within the State 
with the second wife, we hold him 
and his wife guilty of adultery 
and punish them accordingly ; and 
if there are children born to the 



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1913 



union after the divorce the Su- 
preme Court of South Carolina 
has stated the opinion that they 
are illegitimate and cannot in- 
herit the property of the parent. 
"That, I say, may seem to some 
of you a hardship; but, my dear 
friends, it is far better that in a 
few instances some good woman 
may suffer or some man may be 
caused to suffer than to lay down 
a law which would bring and 
which is bringing today into dis- 
repute the solemn bonds of matri- 
mony, which under any con- 
ditions or any circumstances 
should only be contracted for 
love sanctioned by a divine power. 
"We are glad of the distinction 
that we hold; we are proud that 
it is written in our fundamental 
law, so that no legislature elected 
possibly by a wave of excitement 
or from other causes, can change 
it; it is so written that it is im- 
possible to change, and of that 
we are proud. 

"Now we cannot follow this 
rule of desertion all the way 
through, but in South Carolina 
when a white man deserts his wife 
and she is without children, it is 
a criminal offense to fail to sup- 
port that wife or to fail to sup- 
port the children, if there be such. 
Consequently, the wife can go in- 
to a court of justice and prose- 
cute her husband for non-support 
of herself and for non-support 
of her children and we punish 
him as a criminal for failing to 
do his duty to that woman, to 
those children, to society and to 
his State. Therefore we have but 
little trouble on this score. 

"Sometimes we have a citizen 
who drifts to Reno; sometimes 
we have a citizen that crosses to 
Augusta, only going across the 
Savannah River, but when he 
realizes that when he comes back 



into the State a criminal prose- 
cution will hang over his head 
for the desertion of that woman 
who has sworn not only before 
man, not only for her love of him, 
not only for the devotion which 
she has for her State and nation, 
but for her belief in the hereafter 
and in the God that gave her life 
that she would stand by him in 
health and in sickness, old South 
Carolina says to him, 'As she 
stands by you, you have got to 
stand by her.' We are proud of 
it ; we love the distinction." 

A Weak Spot in the Direct-Legislation 
Programme 

The official election figures of 
the State of Washington, accord- 
ing to the N. Y. Evening Post, re- 
peat the familiar tale of interest 
in the presidency on the part of the 
voters coupled with comparative 
indifference to changes in the Con- 
stitution. The greatest party gain 
was made by the Socialists, whose 
vote of 40,000 is little short of 
three times their vote of 1908, 
and is almost exactly 12 per cent 
of the entire vote. Of the 320,- 
000 men or women who marked 
ballots for president, however, 
fewer than half expressed any 
opinion upon the initiative, refer- 
endum, and recall. Consequently,, 
the 110,000 who voted for the first 
two of these amendments, and the 
112,000 who voted for the last, al- 
though constituting a minority of 
even that part of the electorate 
which went to the polls, was en- 
abled, by virtue of its superiority 
over the still smaller minority of 
44,000 who voted against these 
changes, to write them into the 
organic law of the State. 

An interesting provision of these 
direct-legislation clauses is that no 
measure may be passed under 
them unless at least a third of the 



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8c 



total number of voters express 
themselves one way or the other 
about them. While it is true that, 
even so, as small a portion as one- 
sixth of the electorate can carry a 



measure, the limitation is a strik- 
ing recognition by direct-legisla- 
tion advocates of one of the weak 
spots in their programme, as re- 
vealed in practice. 



ET CETERA 



The Central Bureau of the Ger- 
man Central Society, at St. Louis, 
is keeping a watchful eye on the 
moving picture shows. It period- 
ically forwards the suggestions of 
the National Board of Censorship 
to the Catholic press and takes up 
reports and complaints of their 
non-observance. We trust that in 
course of time the Bureau will set 
up a censorship of its own. Much 
that the National Board passes is 
unfit for public production. The 
whole film and moving-picture 
business stands in need of con- 
trol and surveillance. Those will- 
ing to assist the Central Society 
in this important matter should 
communicate with its Director, 
Mr. F. P. Kenkel, 307-8 Temple 
Buildfng, St. Louis, Mo. 

Messrs. Andrew. T. Kaletta & 
Co., the well-kown sculptors, dec- 
orators, and importers, of St. 
Louis, have given up their Temple 
Building show rooms and opened 
extensive and still larger show 
rooms at their factory, 3715-21 
California Ave. The factory can 
be conveniently reached with the 
Bellefontaine and Seventh Street 

car lines. 

% ^ * 

The Rev. D. S. Phelan, in the 
Western Watchman (Vol. XLVII, 
No. 39) violently denounces the 
Monitore Bcclesiastico, published 
in Rome under the aegis and with 
the co-operation of His Eminence 
Cardinal Gennari. "This maga- 



zine," he says, "has a miserable 
practice of selling opinions. Any 
man who wants an opinion can 
get it by paying from four to five 
lire. Its opinion on the late [mar- 
riage] decree was of the six-bit 
kind. It was written by some 
proofreader or supply writer on 
the magazine. It was dashed off 
at random and was taken as the 
opinion of Cardinal Gennari." 

The Monitore Bcclesiastico and 
Cardinal Gennari are well able to 
defend themselves against this 
charge and the vile insinuation it 
embodies. The Watchman's attack 
on this highly respected Roman 
review is as malicious as it is 
undeserved. 

A few dozen plays dealing with 
criminals and graft are now run- 
ning on the American stage. This 
may be the beginning of our long- 
awaited national drama. 

Times have changed since Cap- 
tain Burton, sixty years ago, made 
a pilgrimage to Mecca at the peril 
of his life. A recent account of 
such a pilgrimage, by Mr. A. J. 
B. Wavell, says that with a pass- 
able knowledge of Arabic and of 
Moslem ceremonial, and with due 
precautions as to avoiding pilgrims 
from the country to which one 
pretends to belong, "the pilgrim- 
age to Mecca may be made in dis- 
guise without running any risk 
worth mentioning." 



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When Phillips Brooks was go- 
ing abroad, says "Spectator" in 
the Outlook, a friend railed him 
about discovering a new religion 
and bringing it back with him. 
"You had better be careful, Bish- 
op," he said ; "it might be difficult 
to get a new religion through 
the custom house." "I think not," 
observed Mr. Brooks. "Any re- 
ligion popular enough to import 
would have no duties attached to 
it." 

One probable effect of work- 
men's compensation legislation up- 
on the status of the legal profes- 
sion has been pointed out by the 
dean of the Boston University 
Law School. Personal injury liti- 
gation in those States that have 
not adopted a workmen's insu- 
rance law constitutes a consider- 
able part of the lawyers' business, 
as also that of the courts. It is 
particularly among the younger 
and the less well-trained members 
of the profession that accident 



and negligence practice flourishes. 
If the adjustment of such claims 
should be made largely automatic, 
something like a crisis will super- 
vene in a profession that is al- 
ready much overcrowded. Ac- 
cording to our Boston authority, 
there are in that city no less than 
a thousand lawyers whose income 
is less than that of a boss car- 
penter. This condition is due in 
part to the fact that there are too 
many lawyers altogether, and that 
too many are unfit for the higher 
branches of their calling. It is a 
situation which recalls the rather 
grim jest that death from special 
causes can never be abolished, 
since, when everybody in the com- 
munity enjoys perfect health, the 
doctors will be starving. 

It must make the venerable 
Bishop von Ketteler turn around 
in his grave to know that in 
America his honored name has 
been ursurped by a branch of a 
secret society. 



LITERARY NOTES 



— Vol. XV (Tourn-Zwirner) 
completes the Catholic Encyclo- 
pedia, that monumental work of 
Catholic scholarship which has 
elicited the interest and co-opera- 
tion of the entire Catholic and no 
small portion of the non-Catholic 
world. A list of Errata at the 
end calls attention to the more 
important typographical and other 
mistakes that have unavoidably 
crept in. Considering the rapid- 
ity with which the volumes were 
prepared and issued, one wonders 
that the errata are so few. What 
is now needed to make the treas- 
ures stored up in this encyclope- 
dia more readily available is a de- 



tailed index like the "Register- 
band" to Herder's Kirchenlexikon. 
Such an index is already in pre- 
paration. We congratulate the 
Robert Appleton Company on the 
completion of its great work and 
sincerely hope that the Catholics 
of English speaking countries will 
make every effort to put the Cath- 
olic Encyclopedia on the shelves 
of every important public library. 
It is there that it will do the most 
good. Later on, perhaps, a con- 
densed edition in two or three 
volumes, could be prepared, after 
the style of Buchberger's Kirch- 
liches Handlexikon, which would 
extend the Encyclopedia s sphere 



XX 3 



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87 



of usefulness still further and en- 
able many to subscribe for the 
complete work because of its bulk 
and its necessarily high, though 
by no means immoderate, price. — 
A. P. 

— Les Socictcs Secretes et les 
Juifs. Par Louis Daste (68 pp. 
i2mo. Paris: La Renaissance 
Francaise. 1912. o fr. 50). In 
this little brochure M. Daste, who 
is a wellknown anti-Masonic 
writer, summarizes a series of arti- 
cles which he published in La 
Bastille during 1908, 1909, and 
1910. His thesis is that the an- 
cient secret societies of the Gnost- 
ics, the Manichaeans, the Ismael- 
ites, etc., down to the Rosicrucians, 
who were the progenitors of mod- 
ern Freemasonry, were establish- 
ed by Jews or judaisants and pro- 
pagated Judaeo-kabbalistic doc- 
trines. If this thesis can be sus- 
tained, it would explain the ex- 
istence in present-day Freemason- 
ry of numerous kabbalistic ideas 
and traditions (see e. g., Ch. IX, 
"American Freemasonry and the 
Kabbalistic Jehovah," in our Study 
in American Freemasonry). M. 
Daste relies mainly on secondary 
compilations. We recommend his 
brochure to all those interested in 
the history of secret societies, to 
which it is an entertaining and 
plausible, if not entirely convinc- 
ing, contribution. — A. P. 

— To the excellent little volumes 
of popular exegetical sermons or 
conferences: Sonnenkraft and 
Das neue Leben, has lately been 
added a third, Charakterbildung, 
J'ortrdge iiber den Jakobsbrief 
von Dr. Ludivig Baur und Adolf 
Remmele. With the unusual in- 
terest now attaching to such topics 
as personality, the culture of in- 
dividuality, directors of sodalities, 



for whom the volume is primarily 
intended, as well as others engaged 
in similar work, should welcome 
these solid and well worked out 
"talks" as valuable material for 
that most important of works, the 
direction of youth. The somewhat 
academic character of the nine 
conferences contained in the vol- 
ume, though it be less desirable 
to the average worker, does in 
no wise detract from their intrin- 
sic value and excellence. (B. 
Herder. 55 cts.) — James PrEuss,. 
S. J. 

— The Black Brotherhood and 
Some of its Sisters. By the Rev. 
R. P.Garrold, S.J. (Benziger Bros. 
$1.35 net). Father Garrold, known 
to readers of fiction as the author 
of the "Freddy Carr" series, pre- 
sents us in his latest work with 
a study of the "English school- 
boy." The book adds to his re- 
putation as one of the best mod- 
ern English Catholic writers of 
fiction. Any one who has read 
the opening chapter, wherein is 
described the first prank of the 
three members of the Black 
Brotherhood (and thereby "hangs- 
the tale" of this interesting book) 
will follow the further adven- 
tures of William and Aleck and 
Tommy to the end, and then, like- 
Oliver Twist, call "for more." 
We have no special concern to 
learn the attitude of non-Catholic 
literary journals towards individ- 
ual Catholic writers, but the Nezv 
York Times Review of Bookx 
(Nov. 3, 1912) gives a neat notice 
of the book which we quote for 
the benefit of our readers : Father 
Garrold's story of the adventures 
of "The Black Brotherhood" is a 
very interesting tale for boys. 
Tommy, William, and Aleck are 
very real boys, and their doings-. 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



are both funny and pathetic. There 
are few books of such wholesome 
atmosphere in this particular class ; 
the author has been very success- 
ful in presenting his small heroes 
in their more serious moments, 
and has avoided any appearance of 
mawkish and unreal sentiment. 
We endorse these remarks and 
congratulate Benziger Brothers 
for having added such a fine story 
of "school-days" to their list of ju- 
veniles. — Albert Muntsch, S. J. 

— Under the title Oremns, the 
firm of Joseph F. Wagner, New 
York, has issued a "Priest's Hand- 
book of English Prayers for 
Church Services and Special Oc- 
casions." It contains the prayers 
to be said after low mass, the 
Stations of the Cross, the Gospel 
of St. John as read at the end of 
the ordinary mass, acts of faith, 
hope, and charity, renewal of the 
baptismal vows and other exer- 
cises customary at first commu- 
nion, prayers for confirmation, de- 
votions to the Sacred Heart of 
Jesus, the Blessed Virgin, St. 
Joseph, and the Guardian Angels, 
prayers for the sick and for the 
dead, occasional prayers, and elev- 
en litanies. The book is well 
printed and bound in flexible 
leather, (vi & 177 pp. 8vo. $1.50 
net).— S. 

— Minor Orders. By Rev. 
Louis Bacuez, S.S. (x & 380 pp. 
i6mo. B. Herder. 1912. $1.25 
net). This book is evidently a 
translation from the French. It 
was written to meet the special 
requirements, in the line of in- 
struction, meditation, and spirit- 
ual reading, of ordinandi in sem- 
inaries. — A. P. 

— De Bcclesia Christi, by the 
Rev. P. Antony Straub, S. J. 



(Two volumes, xcii & 500 &916 
pp. 8vo. Innsbruck : Felizian 
Rauch (L. Pustet), American 
agents, Fr. Pustet & Co. 1912. 
$8.50 net) is one of the most ex- 
haustive treatises that have ever 
been produced de Bcclesia. The 
doctrinal teaching of the Church 
is set forth in great fulness and 
with a wealth of scientific argu- 
mentation and scholarly referen- 
ces. The work is an encyclopedia 
rather than a Lehrbuch. It will 
prove valuable to professors and 
students in our seminaries and to 
all those who wish to familiarize 
themselves thoroughly with the 
dogmatic treatise De Bcclesia and 
to satisfy themselves as to the 
worthlessness of the many objec- 
tions raised against Catholic 
teaching in this matter. No less 
a theological authority than the 
Mayence Katholik hails Father 
Straub's treatise as epoch-making. 
— F. R. G. 

— The Communion of Saints. 
By Rev. Charles F. McGinnis, 
Ph. D., S. T. L. With an Intro- 
duction by the Mt. Rev. John Ire- 
land, D.D. (xvi & 395 pp. i2mo. 
B. Herder. 1912. $1.50 net). 
This is not strictly a dogmatic 
treatise ; nor is it strictly histori- 
cal, nor yet strictly ascetic. As 
Archbishop Ireland says in his 
long and somewhat rambling In- 
troduction, — "Argument from 
reason and common sense mingles 
with argument from Scripture and 
Tradition in explanation and de- 
fense. Nor is the ascetic side of 
the doctrine lightly passed over. 
Cullings, too, from history and 
dramatic descriptions of local 
sceneries abound — investing every 
chapter with vivid life-coloring, 
adding to the most serious themes 
the charm of the imagination. . ." 



XX 3 



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Dr. McGinnis writes interestingly 
and with the painstaking accura- 
cy of a true scholar. His work 
is a useful contribution to our 
English Catholic literature. — A.R. 

— Christ's Teaching Concerning 
Divorce in the New Testament. 
An Bxegetical Study by Rev. 
Francis B. Gigot, D.D. 282 pp. 
8vo. Benziger Brothers. 1912. 
$1.50 net.) This is an examina- 
tion of the various passages of 
the New Testament which set 
forth our Lord's teaching on di- 
vorce, Dr. Gigot's exegesis is well 
enough as far as it goes. But it 
does not go far enough. A much 
more scientific and satisfactory 
treatise on the same subject is 
Die Auslegung der neutestament- 
lichen Teste iiber die Bhcschei- 
dung von Dr. Anton Ott (Minister 
i. W. 191 1 ), which Dr. Gigot 
could and should have utilized. 
Frequent repetition of arguments 
and quotations renders the pres- 
ent volume unsatisfactory also 
from the point of view of literary 
style. — A. P. 

— Father Julius Bessmer, S. J., 
has published a valuable commen- 
tary on the doctrinal bearings of 
the encyclical "Pascendi," the de- 
cree "Lamentabili," and the oath 
against Modernism. The small- 
sized but somewhat bulky volume 
bears the title, Philosophic und 
Theologie des Modernismus (xii 
& 611 pp. i2mo. B. Herder. 
1912. $2.20 net). In its main 
portion it is a thorough explana- 
tion, proposition for proposition, 
of the so-called Syllabus of 
Pius X. All the censured propo- 
sitions are traced to their sources, 
and the unprejudiced reader can- 
not but exclaim : Verily, Modern- 
ism existed and still exists in pre- 
cisely the shape in which it was 



condemned by the Holy See. Fa- 
ther Bessmer's work is thorough 
and exhaustive and can be warm- 
ly recommended to the educated. 
— R. S. 

— The Bishop of Savannah has 
compiled for the devotion known 
as the Holy Hour, a little manual 
of meditations and hymns which 
will no doubt be welcome to the 
reverend clergy. (The Holy Hour. 
By the Rt. Rev. Benjamin J. Kci- 
Icy, D.D . 108 pp. vest-pocket size. 
Benziger Brothers. 1912. 10 cts. 
$6 per 100. )— A. D. H. 

— Friends of the Cursus Scrip- 
turae Sacrae will be pleased to 
learn that a new commentary on the 
epistles of St. Paul to the Ephe- 
sians, the Philippians, and the Col- 
ossians, by the late Father Kna- 
benbauer, S. J., has just been add- 
ed to that excellent exegetical 
series. As Fr. Zorell, S. J., the 
editor, explains, the proofsheets 
had just begun to pour in, when 
death snatched the pen forever 
from the busy hand of the inde- 
fatigable author. Announcement 
is made, also, that Fr. Knaben- 
bauer's Commentary on the 
Psalms is already in press, and 
that another volume on the pastor- 
al letters may be expected to fol 
low shortly. These commentaries 
were long held back in manu- 
script by the learned author. Users 
of the Cursus know from expe- 
rience that its chief object is to 
furnish a simple, refinite, and up- 
to-date elucidation of the sacred 
text. I know of no better intro- 
duction for busy priest or student 
of scripture to the nova et vetera 
in "the householder's treasure." If 
you want ready information at a 
moment's notice, to to the Cursus. 
Father Knabenbauer's method is 
sanely conservative, with a vig- 



9i i 



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1913 



ilant eye to real progress in the 
exegetical field. The author en- 
joys the rare distinction of having 
spent more than thirty-five years 
in his chosen domain. — A. B. 

— The Rev. James A. Burns, 
C. S. C, has recently added to his 
previous volume on the principles, 
origin, and establishment of the 
Catholic school system in the 
United States (see this Review, 
Vol. XVI, pp. 476 sq. ) another, 
detailing the growth and develop- 
ment of that system from 1840 
to the present time. (The Growth 
and Development of the Catholic 
School System in the United 
States. 421 pp. 121110. Benziger 
Brother. 1912. $1.75 net). This 
second and final volume of a wel- 
come and useful work embraces 
chapters on the Catholic parochial 
school during the immigration 
period, on school legislation, on 
the famous Faribault controversy 
of the early nineties, on the 
economic side of our school sys- 
tem, on schools of foreign nation- 
alities, etc. While we cannot 
agree with all the author's con- 
clusions, his statement of the 
facts is always painstaking and 
nearly always reliable. Fr. Burns' 
two volumes on the Catholic 
school system will prove indis- 
pensable to all students of Cath- 
olic education, and though not 
entirely free from defects, they 
constitute a work of real and 
permanent value. We have rea- 
son to congratulate ourselves on 
the fact that the work of writing 
the history of our parochial 
schools has been performed by 
such a competent and fair-minded 
writer. — A. P. 

— LehrbucJi der Dogmatik von 
Dr. Bernard Bartmann, Professor 
der Theologie in Paderhom (xix 



& 861 pp. 8vo. B. Herder. 191 1. 
$4.40 net). This is a text-book 
of dogmatic theology in one vol- 
ume. It belongs to Herder's fa- 
mous Theologische Bibliothek and 
represents the acme of modern 
scholarship and condensation. Its 
strength lies in its effort to come 
to terms with the modern relig- 
ious mind. The very latest prob- 
lems have been investigated and 
are treated with a thoroughness 
that is little less than marvelous 
within such narrow limits. A 
clear-cut distinction is made in ev- 
ery instance between defined dog- 
ma and theological opinion. The 
Scriptural argument for each the- 
sis is worked out with admirable 
acumen. All not strictly probatory 
texts have been unmercifully dis- 
carded. Special attention has also 
been given to the argument from 
tradition, which is of great im- 
portance against Modernism. In 
fact we know of no other system- 
atic work which treats the 
Modernist difficulties so deftly 
and effectively. — A. P. 

— Modern Socialism. By Rev. 
Herman J. Maeckel, S. J . (Cen- 
tral Bureau of the Roman Cath- 
olic Central Verein, St. Louis, 
1912. 14 pp. 5 cts.) In this pamph- 
let we have a clear and moder- 
ate discussion of Socialism under 
five heads : Definition ; Principles ; 
Private Property ; Christian Mar- 
riage ; Religion. Though the 
treatment is necessarily brief, it 
is sufficient to present a fairly ac- 
curate idea of the concrete doc- 
trine of Socialism on all these top- 
ics. One or two overstatements 
seem, however, to have escaped 
the vigilance of the author. On 
page 9 he maintains that, even if 
economic Socialism would be able 
to attain all the ends of private 
ownership of capital, the State 



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9i 



could not rightfully take from 
the individual such power of 
ownership, unless every individ- 
ual had given his consent. Since 
property rights are not ends in 
themselves, but only means to hu- 
man welfare, it is difficult to see 
how they are necessary or valid 
after their necessity as means has 
ceased to exist. Father Maeckel 
does not squarely face the ques- 
tion, "Why should the individ- 
ual have this right when it no 
longer serves any definite pur- 
pose?" The attempted answer 
from the Encyclical of Pope Leo 
XIII, does not touch the ques- 
tion ; for the Pope is speaking of 
what happens in the present sys- 
tem, not of what must necessarily 
be maintained in every system 
(p. 9). The second inconclusive 
statement is that Socialism, as an 
economic organization, is neces- 
sarily adverse to marriage and the 
family (pp. 10 and 11). The 
economic dependence of woman 
upon man might continue in a sys- 
tem of collective ownership ex- 
actly as it exists to day. All the 
considerations which the author 
advances to the contrary are based, 
not on the nature of such a system, 
but on the statements of Social- 
ists who start from the doctrine 
of economic determinism. It is 
the latter doctrine rather than the 
exigencies of mere economic So- 
cialism, which gives the anti- 
family cast to Socialism as a "go- 
ing concern." — John A. Ryan, 
D. D., St. Paul Seminary. 

— Vol. II of Short Sermons on 
Catholic Doctrine by the Rev. P. 
Hehel, S. J., deals with the com- 
mandments. These discourses are 
brief and practical, but they sore- 
ly need revision from a literary 
point of view. (New York: Jo- 
seph F. Wagner. $1 net.) — F. 
R. G. 



—The Abbe P. Verdrie's Con- 
ferences to Children on Practical 
Virtue, which Joseph F. Wagner 
brings out in an English edition 
(65 pp. i2mo. 60 cts. net) are 
designed for Sunday-school pupils 
— a fact which ought to be stated 
on the title page. They deal with 
such subjects as obedience, work, 
piety, kindness, mortification, char- 
acter, science, good will, frank- 
ness, friendship, good reading, etc. 
and are adopted to the under- 
standing of children of from 12 
to 15 years of age. — S. 

— Cases of Conscience for Eng- 
lish-speaking Countries. Soh'ed 
by Rev. Thomas Slater, S. J., St. 
Benno's College, St. Asaph. Vol. 
II. (New York, Cincinnati, Chi- 
cago: Benziger Bros. 1912. pp. 
375. $2.) The second volume of 
Father Slater's Cases of Conscience 
is a welcome addition to his Moral 
Theology. The author's treatment 
of the moral aspect of sacrament- 
al theology we have always con- 
sidered too brief and superficial 
even for a text-book "for English 
speaking countries." Such a con- 
cise, untechnical presentation of 
Catholic moral theology may be 
quite sufficient for laymen, but of 
seminarians and priests a far more 
exhaustive and critical knowledge 
of moral questions should be re- 
quired. We are glad to see that 
Father Slater in his Cases of Con- 
science has endeavored to supplv 
the deficiency. In this, the second 
volume, besides the sacraments, 
the author takes up the duties of 
particular states of life, censures, 
and indulgences. The presentation 
is attractive, the style clear, the so- 
lution equally free from rigorism 
and laxity. But here again the 
serious student will feel the need 
of a more scholarly expose and 
of a more critical discussion. — 



92 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



(Rev.) Paul PErigord, M. A., 
St. Paul Seminary. 

— In Die Geschichte eines ver- 
borgenen Lebens (B. Herder, vii 
& 276 pp. i2mo. $1 net) Johan- 
nes Jorgensen tells the life-story 
■of Paula Reinhard, a German 
maiden, who led the life of a saint 
in the world. Paula died but a 
few years ago, and her biographer 
had the advantage of being able 
to utilize her letters and the testi- 
mony of many who knew her. 
The famous convert and litterateur 
tells the story in his winning way, 
and one cannot lay it aside with- 
out being deeply touched and edi- 
fied.— A. P. 

— Facts and Theories. Being a 
Consideration of Some Biological 
Conceptions of To-Day. By Sir 
Bertram C. A. Windle (163 pp. 
121110. London: Catholic Truth 
Society ; St. Louis, Mo. : B. Her- 
der. 1912. 45 cts.). In this book- 
let the brilliant President of Uni- 
versity College, Cork, presents a 
popular account of certain funda- 
mental biological problems, such 
as the genesis of life, the origin of 
man, etc., as they stand at the 
present moment, and an apprecia- 
tion of their bearing upon the be- 
liefs of Catholics. He shows that 
scientific opinion is by no means 
unanimous on any of these prob- 
lems, and that, until it is unani- 
mous, or something like it, non- 
scientific persons need not trouble 
their minds about such questions, 
except perhaps as a matter of 
purely intellectual curiosity. 
Further, that where there is unani- 
mity or even an approach to 
it, the views of scientific men in 
no way come in contest with the 
faith of Catholics. The booklet 
is a splendid piece of popular 



apologetics, and we cordially rec- 
ommend it. — A. P. 

— Die Uberlieferung der arabi- 
schen Ubersetzung des Diatesse- 
rons, by Dr. S. Euringer (Bibli- 
sche Studien, Vol. 17, No. 2), is 
a contribution towards the recon- 
struction of Tatian's so-called 
Diatesseron, a gospel-harmony 
which, during the third century, 
was the only gospel text in use 
throughout many Christian com- 
munities of Syria, and which has 
come down to us only in- frag- 
ments. The author thinks that 
the Syriac original of this impor- 
tant compilation will yet come to 
light in some Nestorian library. 
(B. Herder. 70 cts. net.) — A. P. 

— There has lately been in Ger- 
many a revival of interest in Fa- 
ther Martin von Cochem, a cele- 
brated preacher and ascetic writer 
of the seventeenth century, whose 
books, especially "The Life of 
Christ" and "The Holy Sacrifice 
of the Mass," were extremely 
popular for over a century. (The 
biographical sketch of P. Mar- 
tin in Vol. IV of the Catholic En- 
cyclopedia, by the way, is inade- 
quate). How well deserving of 
renewed attention and popularity 
his writings are, appears from a 
volumes of selections compiled by 
the Rev. Heinrich Mohr and pub- 
lished by B. Herder, under the 
title: Der Rosengarten. Auslese 
aus den Werken des Martin von 
Cochem. Mit Bildnis Martins von 
Cochem (xii & 335 pp. i2mo. 80 
cts. net). The extracts selected 
are grouped under three general 
headings : God the Creator, God 
the Redeemer, God the Sancti- 
fier, and transcribed into modern 
German. A sympathetic introduc- 
tion acquaints the reader with P. 



XX 3 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



93 



Martin as a popular writer. — A. 
P. 

— Outlines for Conferences to 
Young Women. From the French 
of Abbe M. F. Blanc hard. (33 
pp. i2mo. Joseph F. Wagner. 40 
cts., unbound). These are mere 
outlines for conferences, as the 
title indicates. They are distin- 
guished for brevity (the longest 
sketch does not run over a page 
and a half) and sanity, and may 
be recommended to priests who 
must occasionally address young 
ladies' sodalities. — C. D. U. 

— The Sacred Heart the Source 
of Grace and Virtue (New York: 
Jos. F. Wagner. 75 cts. net). This 
is a useful collection of sermons 
for the devotion of the Sacred 
Heart. We should have liked 
them better if the author, Father 
Arthur Devine. C. P., had laid 
greater stress on the advisability 
of frequent communion. — C. L. 

— What a tangled web we get 
into when we set out to find what 
a word really means. The Man- 
chester Guardian relates the story 
of two men who made a wager 
regarding the meaning of "lurid." 
One of them had used the word 
as descriptive of the glare of a 
night fire which had made the sky 
intensely red. The other pulled 
him up with the information that 
the word meant "pale" and not 
"deep red." As several diction- 
aries agreed, in a manner not cus- 
tomary among doctors, in defining 
the word as "pale, wan, ghastly 
pale," and only books and news- 
papers could be found as authori- 
ties for using it in the other sense, 
the first man reluctantly paid the 
bet. The Guardian, however, 
points out that "the latest and 



greatest English dictionary" gives 
this definition of "lurid" : "Shin- 
ing with a red glow or glare amid 
darkness (said of lightning flash- 
es across dark clouds or flame 
mingled with smoke)." And it 
apparently clinches the matter by 
a quotation from Wordsworth : 

Save that above a single height 

Is to be seen a lurid light 

Above Helm crag — a streak half-dead, 

A burning of portentous red. 

"Apparently clinches," however, 
only, for the learned writer pro- 
ceeds to demonstrate that Words- 
worth had no philological right to 
use the word in that way. "Lu- 
rid," we are told, began life as a 
Latin adjective, meaning "pale 
yellow," and used chiefly of the 
complexion. The nearest Eng- 
lish word for it is "sallow." From 
that, it came to mean something 
like "ghastly." But as for signi- 
fying "glaring red through 
smoke," as the English poets 
compel it to do, there is no au- 
thority — except, of course, the 
English poets. And so the puzzle 
remains ; can any one who is not 
an English poet use "lurid" in 
any sense but that of "pale"? 



Herder's Booklist 

[This list is furnished monthly by B. Herder, 
17 South Broadway, St. Louis, Mo., who keeps 
the books in stock and to whom all orders 
should be sent. Postage extra on "net" books.] 

Polemic Chat, by Bishop E. M. 
Dunne D. D. Paper. 25 cts. Cloth, 
net, 50 cts. 

Nellie Kelly or the Little Mother 
of Five, by H. E. Delaware. $1. 

Amelia in France, by Maurice F. 
Egan. $1.20. 

The Adventures of Four Young 
Americans, by H. E. Delaware. $1. 

In St. Dominic's Country, by C. M. 
Antony, net $1.60. 

Short Sermons on Catholic Doctrine. 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



Vol. II: The Commandments. By Rev. 
P. Hehel, S.J. net $1. 

The Apocalypse of St. John, a Com- 
mentary on the Greek Version, by 
James Ratton. net $4. 

History of the Roman Breviary, by 
Mgr. P. Batiffol. With a New Chap- 
ter on the Decree of Pius X. net $3. 

Up hi Ardmuirland, bv Rev. M. Bar- 
rett, O.S.B. net $1.25/ 

The Names of God, and Meditative 
Summaries of the Divine Perfection, 
by Veil. Leonard Lessius. S.J. net $1. 

Your Neighbor and You, by Rev. 
E. Garesche, S. J. net 0.50. 

The Westminster Hymnal, Edited 
by Richard Terry, net $1.25. 

The Excellency of the Rosary, by 
Rev. M. J. Fings. net 0.75. 

The Sacred Heart the Source of 
Grace and Virtue, by Rev. Arthur De- 
vine, C. P. net 0.75. 

Saints and Places, by John Ayscough. 
net $1.50. 

Sermon Plans, for all the Sundays 
of the Year, by Abbe Lesctre. net $1. 

Hell and Its Problems, by J. God- 
frey Ran pert, net 0.85. 



The Consolations of Purgatory, by 
Rev. H. Faure, S. M. net 0.90. 

Spiritual Progress, Lukeivarmness to 
Fervour, net 0.90. 

Literature, a Lecture by Cardinal 
Newman, Edited with Notes and Stud- 
ies by Rev. Gilbert Garraghan, S. J . 
net 0.50. 

Outlines for Conferences to Young 
Women, by Abbe Blanchard. net 0.40. 



Wm. Kloef 

Church Decorator. Painting 
and Gilding of Statues 
and Altars. Scen- 
eries for Stages 

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ST. LOUIS, MO. 



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The Fountains of The Saviour, by 
Rev. J. O'Ronrke, S. J. net 0.50. 

The Heart of Revelation, by Rev. 
Francis Donnelly, S. J. net 0.50. 

The Divine Educator, or Guide to 
the Promotion of Frequent and Daily 
Communion, by Rev. F. De Zulueta, 
S. J, net 0.50. 

Directions For the Use of Altar So- 
cieties and Architects, a Neiv and Re- 
vised Edition, by G. B. Tatum, M. A. 
& O. Bentley. net 0.30. 

Orcinus, the Priest's Handbook of 



Reading Notice 

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Bargains in Old Books 



ENGLISH 

Brann, Henry A., History of the 
American College, Rome. 1910. New 
York. Illustrated. $1. 

Gatterer-Krus, S. J., Educating to 
Purity. Tr. by Rev. C. Van der 
Donckt. New York 1912. 75 cts. 

Dziekonska, K., The Journal of 
the Countess Franchise Krasinska, 
Great Grandmother of Victor Em- 
manuel. Chicago 1896. 50 cts. 

Jesus All Holy. By Fr. A. Gal- 
lerani, tr. by Loughnan. New York 
191 1. 30 cts. 

Three Acres and Liberty. By Bol- 
ton Hall. New York 1907. 70 cts. 

Deterioration and Race Education. 
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Condition of the People and Indus- 
try. By Samuel Royce. Boston 1878. 
45 cts. 

Marx, Karl, Capital. Untermann's 
translation. Vol. I. Chicago 1908. 
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Fletcher. (Cambridge English Clas- 
sics.) Ten Vols. Cambridge 1905. 
sqq. $8. 

Fr. Thaddeus, 0. F. M., The Fran- 
ciscans in England. 1600-1850. Lon- 
don 1898. 50 cts. 

Roscoe, W., The Life and Pontifi- 
cate of Leo X. Four vols, quarto. 
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Tingle, E. W. S., Germany's 
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Germany. Philadelphia 1903. (Like 
new.) 50 cts. 

Hosmer, James K., Short History 
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Scharf, Col. J. Thos., The Chroni- 
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Becker, Wm., Die Pfiichten der 
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TOPICS OF THE DAY 



FREAK LEGISLATION AND A CATHOLIC DUTY 

Noting the enormous number of bills introduced into the State 
legislature of Texas, the Southern Messenger of San Antonio (Vol. 
21, No. 51) asks: 

Can nothing be done to stop the pernicious activity of the political fad- 
dists who would pass laws to regulate the most petty details of everyday life? 

Yes, elect men with common sense and good character to the 
legislature or, if this cannot be done, send to Austin at least a dozen 
or so of "fool-killers" to slay freak bills as soon as they are introduced. 
The Catholic element in Texas (and this is true of nearly all our States) 
is strong enough politically to elect a sufficient number of represent- 
atives to neutralize the pernicious activity of the political fakirs 
and faddists. Why does it not use its power? Why will it not do 
its plain duty? 

TWO POETRY MAGAZINES 

Within the last few months two magazines devoted exclusively 
to poetry and the criticism of poetry have been added to the lengthen- 
ing list of American periodical publications. One, Poetry, is published 
in Chicago under the editorship of Harriet Monroe ; the other, the 
Poetry Journal, is published in Boston under the editorship of William 
Stanley Braithwaite. The Chicago magazine has been endowed for 
five years with an annual income of $5,000. The Poetry Journal 
has ventured into the world upon its own feet. 

It is doubtful whether either of these periodicals will win and de- 
serve the enduring regard of that small circle of people who are intimate- 
ly devoted to the art of poetry, and it is still more doubtful whether they 
will be able to awake among the American people an understanding 
appreciation of the dignity and worth of true poetry. But the two 
ventures constitute a distinctly hopeful sign. 

YELLOW" JOURNALISM 

Here is a good descriptive definition of "yellow journalism" 
from the editorial columns of the Outlook (Vol. 103, No. 5) : 

There are newspapers which are not expected to tell the truth. They do 
not exist for the purpose of telling the truth. They exist for the purpose of 



98 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

creating sensations. They belong in the same category with those thrilling 
devices which enable seekers of sensation to bump the bumps and shoot the 
chutes. They are a form of mental fireworks. There is some ground for 
arguing that they occasionally serve a useful purpose. They have sometimes 
startled a lethargic public into action that has not been without beneficent 
results. They have often done this by telling the truth. But the stimulus has 
not been the truth, but the sensation. We expect such newspapers to be un- 
scrupulous. The very name that has been given to this class of newspaper, 
"yellow journalism," is a form of judgment upon their moral character. 

It may be admitted that the yellow journals sometimes do good. 
But this is entirely per accidcns, to employ a scholastic phrase. Their 
general influence on the reading public is essentially bad. They 
poison the mind, vitiate the taste, and corrupt morals. They should 
be destroyed like an evil thing. This may be impossible under present 
conditions. But if all good people — especially Catholics — did their 
duty, the nefarious influence of sensational journalism could be greatly 
reduced. Instead, we see thousands of Catholics in our big cities 
supporting the yellow journals by subscription and advertising. In fact, 
it has been said by men who have every opportunity of knowing, 
that some of the worst of the yellow newspapers could hardly live 
were it not for the support they receive from Catholics. This is 
an awful disgrace, and until we have redeemed ourselves on this 
score, we ought never again to utter a boast in regard to "the wonder- 
ful progress of Catholicity in America.'' 

MEN WITH IRISH NAMES IN CONGRESS 

The New York Sun calls attention to the number of men with 
Irish names elected to the next House of Representatives. There 
are five from Connecticut, Lonergan, Mahan, Reilly, Donovan and 
Kennedy. The Macs and the O's will also be well represented — 
McDermott and McAndrews of Chicago; McGillicuddy of Maine; 
McDonald and McLaughlin of Michigan ; the two McGuires, one 
from Oklahoma, the other from Bryan's town of Lincoln, Neb. There 
are O'Leary and O'Brien of New York, O'Shaunessy of Rhode 
Island, and O'Hara of Illinois. And one mustn't overlook Curry, 
Hayes, Keating, Madden, Gorman, Gallagher, the two Connollys, 
Murray, Curley, Kelly, the two Quinns, Scully, Walsh, Egan, Maher, 
Griffin, Sullivan, Conry, Dooling, Clancy, Driscoll, Buckley, Donohue, 
Casey, Burke and the two Dillons. "Verily," comments the Sun, 
"the list reads like the roll of the Irish members of the British 
Parliament." 

The Sacred Heart Review (Vol. 49, No. 26) reprints this obser- 
vation from the Sun without a word of comment. The question 
naturally suggests itself: How many of these congressmen with 



XX 4 THE KORTXIC.HTLY REVIEW 



99 



Irish names profess themselves Catholics? And, is there a single 
one among them who will put his Catholic faith above paltry con- 
siderations of partisanship, nationality, etc. For years there have 
been plenty of Irishmen and professed Catholics of several other na- 
tionalities in Congress, but seldom one was a credit to his Church. 
What we need is less Catholic professional politicians and more 
sincere, zealous, and practical Catholics of the stamp of Windthorst 
in our public life. 

A DECLARATION OF Y. M. C. A. PRINCIPLES 

The St. Paul Catholic Bulletin (Vol. 3, No. 4) quotes the fol- 
lowing from a letter written by the local secretary of the Y. M. C. A. 
in Utica, N. Y., to a Catholic inquirer: 

Of course, you understand, the Y. M. C. A. is a Protestant organization. 
It has never been suggested as being otherwise, but its membership is open 
to any man of moral character, regardless of creed or nationality. The As- 
sociation concedes to every man the right of religious choice. The right to 
vote and hold office is limited throughout the country to members of Evan- 
gelical churches. The term 'Evangelical' is held by some to include the Cath- 
olic as well as Protestant churches, but the intent of the constitution, as I 
understand it, when originally adopted, was to avoid any possibility of contro- 
versy by limiting the matter of voting and holding office to members of 
Protestant churches. 

This explanation is in perfect consonance with the constitution 
of the Y. M. C. A. It knocks the Association's claim of "non-sectar- 
ianism" into a cocked hat and should be made known wherever this 
dangerous organization tries to enlist Catholics in its rank. 

The Need of a Religious Basis in Social Work 

By the; Rev. Albert Muntsch, S. J., St. Louis University 

A well-known English Catholic writer on social problems speaks 
somewhere of the great need of an ideal and of a spiritual back- 
ground for all those interested in social work. Humanitarian motives, 
even of the most disinterested kind, are apt to lose their force 
and compelling power in face of the determined opposition, surliness, 
and occasionally downright meanness of certain classes, with whom 
the social welfare worker must come in contact. What then will 
sustain him in the hour of his weakness? Will not poor human 
nature be tempted to take the line of least resistance and persuade 
the social worker to allow those who once were the object of much 
friendly effort to "shift for themselves" and thus continue to be 
the victims of conditions which really cry out for remedy? 



100 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

Now the ideal and the spiritual background above referred to, 
are supplied by faith and by the teaching of religion. We know 
that our social work should have a higher aim than that of adding 
to the material comfort and temporal well-being of certain classes. 
We look upon all men as children of God, called to an eternal 
inheritance in His Kingdom. Social services, gladly rendered in 
the spirit of faith, will not only remove unnecessary misery, but will 
also tend to make both the giver and the recipient of such services 
more worthy to lead lives in harmony with their high destiny. 

Still we often hear that religious motives should be absent 
from all social work. We are urged to work on "strictly human- 
itarian lines." We are reminded that people want happiness here 
below and that "pointing to heaven" has precious little influence in 
removing social hurts and social miseries. Professor Shatter Matthews, 
of the University of Chicago, goes so far as to say that a church 
that prepares people for Heaven only is anachronistic, out of place, 
and out of date. 

We answer that Catholic social workers hold that precisely one 
of the best ways to gain Heaven is to engage earnestly in the 
social apostolate and to practice all the virtues that make for 
social peace and social well-being. We recall the words of the Master, 
"By their fruits you shall know them," and, "Every good tree bringeth 
forth good fruit." We believe that without good works faith is 
dead. Hence the practice of the sublimest Christian virtues and of 
utter self-forgetfulness, for the sake of weak and suffering humanity, 
has ever been one of the brightest ornaments of the Church of God. 
We recognize in suffering humanity, especially in those who are 
most afflicted by trials and hardship, the children of God our Father. 
And therefore we have seen in our Church alone those marvellous 
examples of self sacrifice, represented in the lives of a St. John of the 
Cross, a Francis de Assisi, a Peter Claver, and a Vincent de Paul. 
These noble social workers recognized in the souls of those for whom 
they worked, aye, for whom they slaved, souls redeemed by Christ, 
destined for the eternal inheritance and for the priceless liberties of 
the children of God. No wonder that their work was great and 
lasting and that even today it is still the admiration of all men. 

And in this our own time Catholic social workers and servants 
of charity, especially those who have consecrated themselves to God 
in the religious life of the cloister, are inspired by the same noble 
view of service of their fellowmen. Their sympathy goes out to 
suffering human kind, not only because it pains them to behold un- 
necessary affliction, but because they recognize beneath the rough 



XX 4 THE FORTXICHTLY REVIEW 101 

exterior of the pauper, the criminal, and the outcast, the immortal 
soul destined for the Kingdom of God's love. The sympathy of the 
Sister of the Good Shepherd goes out to the woman of the street, 
not only because that woman is a danger to society, but because she 
hath imperiled her eternal destiny of sharing one day the peace and 
everlasting contentment to be obtained only in the City of God. 

It is the view of social service and social work which breaks 
down the narrow barriers of sense and time, of nationality and color, 
and points out to even the humblest and most wretched of the children 
of men — yea even to the repentant sinner — the uplifting glimpse into 
the mansions of the Blessed, where sin and strife shall be no more, 
but where all sorrow shall cease, because then hath begun the 
eternal reign of the Christ, the Lamb of God, who taketh away the 
sins of the world. 

Hence I assert, — and I am certain my readers will agree 
with me — that we may reserve the statement of Professor Mat- 
thews, and say that that Church is best suited for our day which 
prepares men for Heaven, because only such a church will at all 
times find souls ready to be sent into the squalor of the tenement or 
the horror of the field of battle — noble souls ready to lay down 
their lives at the call of their Master, that others may have it more 
abundantly — not in a gross, earthly, material kingdom, but in the 
mansions lighted by God's own countenance. 

It is gratifying to find this idea of the necessity of a religious 
basis in social work strongly emphasized by the late President W. R. 
Harper, of the University of Chicago. Speaking of the training of 
ministers for this new era of the "social consciousness," he says: 
"Let us teach, too, that the church through its ministers should, 
therefore, take up any and all agencies which make for the betterment 
of mankind. Jesus was a healer of the body as well as of the soul 
—the multitude of outside agencies now engaged in humanitarian work- 
are sucking the very life-blood of the church. Here the Roman 
Catholics have shown a greater wisdom than the Protestants; for 
with them these agencies are, in nearly every case, those of the church." 
(The Trend in Higher Education, p. 227, University of Chicago 
Press, 1905.) 

Now our social agencies have the needed religious basis, and 
are in many cases "those of the church." And therefore we ought 
to become constantly more earnest and more zealous in the social 
apostolate. Confident of success we may take up the Catholic social 
reform movement — a movement not supported by the tainted con- 
tributions of capitalistic wealth, not advertised by the voice of a 



102 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 



fickle and sensational press, not based on the shallow, shifting 
theories of an overheated, revolutionary brain, not depending for 
success on a merely sentimental and philanthropic view of our duties 
towards our fellow-men, not deriving strength and sanction from 
the vapid generalities of pink-tea and parlor sociologists — but a 
vigorous, well-directed, well planned campaign, participated in by 
priest and layman, and especially by an enlightened Episcopate, which 
has at last realized its responsibilities towards the Catholic social 
apostolate. — a campaign proceeding on rational lines, under the wise 
generalship of our spiritual rulers — a campaign destined to be crowned 
with ultimate success because it is based on the safest and soundest 
of foundation stones, on a system of doctrine which has never failed, 
on the adamantine rock of Catholic truth, as that truth is still pro- 
claimed by the infallible Church of Christ. 

Some New Church Music Publications 

By Joseph Otten, Director oe Music, St. Paul's Cathedral, 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Two Choruses for Mens Voices: "Spiritual War-song," and "Praise 

the Lord of All Creation." By Ludwig Bonvin, S. J. Anton Bohm 

& Sohn, or J. Fischer & Bro. 

Both these choruses are reprints of choral numbers which have 
done good service for a number of years. We have not many works 
for men's voices, of artistic quality, to texts which do not sound out 
of place and out of keeping at Catholic gatherings, which is an added 
reason for welcoming a re-issue of these numbers. The first one 
is the more satisfactory. The second is rather difficult and somewhat 
reminiscent of Wagner here and there. 

O Salutaris Hostia, for Unison Chorus or Soprano (or Tenor) Solo. 

By Joseph Rheinberger. G. Schirmer, 5 cts. 

Good music, but rather over-chromatic and bordering upon the 
sentimental, which danger may be counteracted by a fluent and virile 

interpretation in unison only. 

* * * 

Epitome e Gradnali S. R. C. de Tempore et de Sanctis. Pustet & Co. 
A reproduction in Gregorian notation of the epitome published 
by the same firm in modern notation. The paper of this edition has 
a somewhat yellowish tint which, in addition to a slightly larger type 
and verv black ink, make the use of the book very agreeable. 



XX 4 THE FORTXIGHTLY REVIEW 



103 



Das Totenofficium mit Alesse und Begrdbnisritus uach der Bditio J'a- 
ticana. Edited by Dr. Karl U'cinmann. Pustet & Co. 60 cts. 
A most convenient and timely publication, containing the complete 
office for the dead — Vespers, Matins, Lauds, the Mass, funeral rites 
in the absence of the deceased, absolution after the Requiem mass, 
the different orations in connection with the absolution, the five ab- 
solutions for solemn funerals, funeral rites for children, as well as 
a German translation of the rubrics. Dr. Weinmann has transcribed 
the various chants, psalm tones, etc., into modern notation and pro- 
vided the different psalms with the necessary indications for securing 
uniform delivery when performed by a large number of singers. 

Mass for j-Part Chorus (Soprano I, II, and Alto), with Organ Ac- 
companiment on Themes from Palestrina's Missa Brevis. B\ 
Michael Holier. Pustet & Co., score, 35 cts. 
This is an ideal mass for convents and academies for young 
women. Although written for three-part chorus and organ, it, never- 
theless, by its diatonic character and general flavor, strongly suggests 
the model after which it is formed. It cannot be too often repeated that 
golden opportunities exist for forming the taste of our young women 
by having them study the Gregorian chant and works like the one 
under discussion during their school years and sing them at high mass 
in the institution where they are being educated. But, alas ! those in 
charge of music in most of our schools and academies, in the words 
of Pius X, do not know "the fund of Christian education, of eccle- 
siastical doctrine and of sacred discipline which is contained in our 
sacred music;" they are "almost completely absorbed in the study 
of profane music." 

a. Ave Verum for three-part chorus of men's voices. 

b. Ecce Sacerdos Magnus for equal voices. 

c. Missa in G. In honor of Blessed Joan of Arc. By Piedro 
Alessandro Yon. G. Schirmer, New York. 

It seems too bad that these three numbers should have been given 
to the public before their young author had submitted them to com- 
petent judges, such as Lorenzo Perosi or Oreste Ravanello, for in- 
stance. What musical ideas there be, are not of a distinguished qual- 
ity, do not seem to grow out of the text, nor are they suitably and 
consistently developed. The text, judging from the manner in which 
it is declaimed and the general treatment it receives, is of secondary 
importance. Instead of its being the source of inspiration, it rather 
serves as a peg on which the author hangs his musical phrases, some 
of which suggest contrapunctal writing a la Palestrina, while others 



104 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 191 3 

sound like reminiscences of modern Italian melodramas. Throughout 
these compositions there is a deplorable lack of unity of style, pur- 
pose, and dignity. Their general cast is amateurish and un-churchly. 
On the very first page of the mass there occur three consecutive fifths 
of the most offensive kind. Nor does the treatment of the organ 
reveal the experienced craftsman. One feels sorry for singers who 
may have to perform these productions, immture from every point 
of view. 

Apropos of a Recent Diocesan School Report 

By a Catholic College President 

The 1 8th annual Report of the Superintendent of Parish Schools 
of the Archdiocese of Philadelphia, for the year ending June 30, 1912, 
is before us. It gives us genuine pleasure to testify to the continual 
progress of the parochial schools and high schools of that Arch- 
diocese and the zeal of the diocesan Director. Accurate and enthu- 
siastic reports of this kind no doubt help to keep up and to increase 
the interest of teachers, parents, and students. 

In the course of this Report an article contributed by me to the 
Fortnightly Review (XVIII, 20, 588 sqq.) comes in for mild criti- 
cism. I had questioned the advisability of making the graduates of the 
Catholic high school work for scholarships in secular universities. 
In a rejoinder published in this Review (XVIII, 22, 666 sq.) the 
Rev. Hugh T. Henry pleaded that Catholic universities do not offer 
such scholarships, and Catholic graduates being as a rule poor, free 
scholarships are naturally coveted by them. 

We willingly grant that the success of Catholic students in en- 
trance examinations for public institutions works as an incentive and 
gives the lie to the stale and unreasonable allegation that the Catholic 
schools are inferior to the public schools. But this proof has been 
furnished so often that we might just as well rely on past achievements 
and not keep on furnishing fresh ones, especially as this procedure 
makes our boys and girls look to some non-Catholic institution, public 
or private, as their goal. Meanwhile the question remains why some 
of the brighter students of the Philadelphia high schools could not 
have attained scholarships in our own Catholic University. 

It is refreshing to read the names of the students who have 
distinguished themselves in various schools, including seminaries. In 
spite of it all, however, an experienced educator cannot get rid of 
his doubts as to how a four-years' high-school course, with three 
periods of Latin in the first year, four in the second, five in the third 
and four in the fourth, (see Report p. 26; no details of the Latin 



XX 4 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 105 

programme are given) can qualify a student to enter the Catholic 
seminary, where the difficult study of philosophy is taken up in the 
first year. Possihly two or three years of classics are given in some 
seminaries. 

The high school has been called the people's college — a very 
ambiguous compliment. So far has this boasted claim been extended 
that the high-school classes are designated with titles distinctive 
of the classes of the American college. "Freshman" is the name 
of the first year of the college, presupposing the completion of the 
four-years' high-school course. "Sophomore" is the second year of 
the college department. In some cities the names of Freshman and 
Sophomore are applied to the first and second years of the high 
school. A person acquainted with this cheapening process — as if a 
quarter were worth a dollar because I call a dollar what is known to 
be a quarter — is startled that such deteriorating of educational ideals 
should find official approval in Philadelphia. The Report speaks ex- 
pressly of the Freshman class of the high school (p. 12). 

The arrangement of a threefold division in the curriculum is 
quite wise, but to advocate that university work should follow im- 
mediately after the completion of the high school, is to endorse the 
modern fallacy of the short cut to learning. Enlightened American 
educators have always insisted that the college course proper, be- 
tween the high school and graduate work, is the corner-stone of a 
solid education and real culture. 

The Report reproduces the resolution of the Pittsburgh meeting 
of the Catholic Educational Association. It is pleasing to observe how 
closely the Rev. Director and the schools are identified with the Cath- 
olic Educational Association. It is not so evident why the Report 
should have copied five pages of the resolutions of the National 
Educational Association, and this without a word of comment. There 
are statements in these resolutions about which Catholics and non- 
Catholics have serious doubts; for instance, the granting of the right 
of suffrage to the women of the United States, instruction in sex 
hygiene, first in normal and ultimately in the common schools, etc. 

It generally "causes suspicion when an Association endorses pet 
measures of appropriation for some special department. One of the 
resolutions of the N T . E. A. reproduced with seeming approval by the 
Philadelphia Report, "pledges the Commissioner [of the Bureau of 
Education, Philander P. Claxton] the support of this Association and 
urges all officials of educational institutions of whatever kind to 
give him their hearty co-operation." The incorporation of this reso- 
lution in the Philadelphia Report can be excused only on the assump- 



106 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

tion that the work of the Bureau of Education is not well known to 
the author of the Report. The Bureau's recent blunder in rating 
colleges by sending out a "confidential list" seems to have been over- 
looked. The Rev. Director may inform himself on this matter by 
reading the Biennial Report of the Governor of the State of Ohio for 
the year 1912, printed in the Ohio University Bulletin, Athens, O., 
Oct. 1912. 

Mixed Marriages in Canada 

By a Canadian Missionary 

Toronto, Jan. 16. — The report relating to the registration of deaths, mar- 
riages, and births in Ontario for the year ending Dec. 31, 191 1, shows that 
there were registered with the register general 57,235 births, 25,807 marriages, 
and 34,341 deaths. In 191 1, 6,743 Roman Catholics were married, and of these 
1519 contracted mixed marriages, a percent of 22.5 as compared with 20.56 
percent in the previous year. 

The above unpretentious dispatch recently published in the 
Canadian daily press deserves more than a passing 'notice, as it gives 
us a clue for finding one great source of the leakage which is taking 
place from the Church in Canada as well as elsewhere. Just think of 
it ! 22V2 percent of all the Catholics who married in the Province of 
Ontario last year, married non-Catholics ! 

But this does not show the evil in its full significance. After 
deducting from 6,743, the total number of Catholics who got married, 
the 1519 who contracted "mixed" marriages and, since it takes two for 
a marriage, we find that altogether only 2,612 purely Catholic mar- 
riages were contracted. This means that over thirty-six percent of 
all the marriages contracted by Catholics in Ontario during ipu were 
mixed marriages. 

What will become of the children of these mixed marriages? 
How many of them will grow up to be staunch Catholics? These 
are questions worth pondering. But this is not all. The evil is on 
the increase. The increase of mixed marriages in 191 1 over those of 
1910 was nearly 10 percent. To be exact, the proportion of Catholics 
contracting mixed marriages to those contracting Catholic marriages 
in Ontario was 9.44 percent greater in 191 1 than in 1910. This rate 
of increase, if kept up, will in a very few years make the annual 
number of mixed marriages greater than that of Catholic marriages. 

Videant consules! 



XX 4 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



107 



High-Priced Catholic Literature 

By Bibliophile 

The Blessed Eucharist is a source of unfailing interest, in these 
days more than ever before. I take pleasure, therefore, in calling 
attention the the Bucharistic Lilies by Helen Maery. 1 It is indeed 
a delight to read about saintly boys and girls who were special favorites 
of our Lord in the Blessed Sacrament. I should like to see this 
book in the hands of mothers and other persons entrusted with 
the care of preparing little children for first Communion. It may 
help them to inspire their dear charges with an early and fervent 
longing for their "daily bread." There is only one doubtful, if not 
positively objectionable feature about the Lilies, and that is its price 
of one dollar net. 

To the ardent lover of books, the high price of the volume just 
named must be a matter of sincere regret. But before I venture to 
offer a bit of well-meant criticism, I wish to anticipate a possible mis- 
apprehension of my meaning: I do not contend that the worthy pub- 
lishers of this book are making an unjust profit on it. In other words, 
I do not say that the "one dollar net" is in excess of the real value 
of the Lilies. What little knowledge I have of the processes involved 
in modern bookmaking will not justify me in expressing an opinion 
as to whether or not the price of the book is extravagant. 

I write these lines merely to protest against the publication, now 
in vogue, of high-priced Catholic devotional literature. 

Indeed, it does not take much shrewdness to see that cheaper 
editions of books of devotion would serve the Catholic cause by far 
more effectively. Simplex munditiis, as the ancient poet wants his 
beloved to appear, might well serve as an appropriate motto for our 
Catholic publishing firms. If "plain in its neatness," a good Catholic 
book is within the reach of the ordinary book-buyer for whom it was 
written. If decked out, on the other hand, in a costly splendor, its 
corresponding price will make it a luxury beyond the reach of most 
Catholics. 

Of course, I am aware that with the principle just enunciated I 
am placing myself on a somewhat ideal plane. But what wrong is 
there in such idealism? Why should commercialism be allowed to 
obtrude itself in season and out of season upon our attention, while 
idealism is mercilessly crowded out? 

An ideal Catholic publisher is one that makes the widest possible 
dissemination of Catholic literature his first, though of course not 
his only, concern. The chief raison d'etre for maintaining distinctively 

Benzigcr Bros. 171 pp. uiriu. $1 net. 



108 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

Catholic publishing houses and patronizing them is that they are ex- 
pected to prove a mighty engine for the spread of distinctively Cath- 
olic literature, which is merely one phase of that grand apostolate 
entrusted by our Lord to the Catholic Church. Take this raison d'etre 
away, and there is little reason left why Catholics should patronize 
Catholic firms. We are all wont to talk of the "apostolate of the 
press." Useless talk, so long as the prices of Catholic books are too 
high for the average Catholic. 

Catholics, as a class, are not blessed with an overabundance of 
earthly means. What, then, can be the purpose, what can be the 
use, from the book-buyer's point of view, of fixing the price of de- 
votional books so high as to make it morally impossible for a man 
with average means to purchase them? As far as regards the Lilies, 
the "one dollar net" works like a charm — the other way, of course. 
Surely, when Helen Maery wrote her book on saintly boys and girls, 
she cannot be supposed to have intended its circulation to be restrict- 
ed to Catholic millionaires. A good book has a right to be common 
property. And at one dollar net per copy what priest can reasonably 
be expected to buy the Lilies in large quantities for distribution 
among his parishioners, or even to keep a moderate supply on hand 
for an occasional gift to some worthy child? Catholic publishers 
sometimes throw books on the market without apparently counting 
on anything like an extensive circulation of them among their co-re- 
ligionists. A library of good books of devotion is a great blessing 
in every Catholic family, but it is wellnigh an impossibility when 
the prices are exorbitant, or the general make-up of the books so 
expensive as to require the publishers to fix the prices accordingly. 

I am sure, every priest who owns a copy of Father Slater's 
Moral Theology will appreciate my criticism. If the publishers had 
paused for a moment to consider that the book in question was in- 
tended principally for priests — whose financial resources are often in 
inverse proportion to their zeal and general worthiness — surely they 
would not have produced two bulky tomes with a lavish profusion 
of blank space (see, for example, Vol. I, pp. 235-240) or the twelve- 
page catalogue of their publications packed in between the covers. 
Or take another illustration: Perhaps some of my readers know Fa- 
ther Tilmann Pesch's famous Lebensphilosophie, a book as handy 
as it is attractive in its original garb, and which costs you merely 
$1.35. The same book in English (The Christian Philosophy of 
Life) sells at four dollars net! This may be all right from a purely 
commercial standpoint, but it is all wrong as a Catholic enterprise. 

Anyone who will think the matter over for himself will see that 



XX 4 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



109 



the strictures here made on high-priced devotional literature apply 
with almost equal force to school-books, and even to Catholic fiction. 
The great bulk of our Catholic children are not of the wealthy class; 
they want cheap school-books. And as for Catholic fiction, that will 
never find its way into our Catholic homes so long as such books are 
a heavy pull upon a poor man's purse. 

My plea, then, briefly stated, is for a little less of commercialism 
and a little more of idealism in the Catholic bookmaking business. 

A Delightful Little Book for Lovers of Latin Composition 

By the Rev. Mathew Germing, S. J., St. Stanislaus Seminary, 

Florissant, Mo. 

Rev. Fr. James A. Kleist, S. J., of Prairie du Chien, Wis., has 
just published a little volume entitled Aids to Latin Prose Composition, 
and designed for use in the first and second years of college. (New 
York: Schwartz, Kirwin and Fauss.) 

It is a delightful little book for lovers of Latin composition. 
It is the sort of work one might expect from the pen of a professor 
of Latin at one of the great English universities, where the art of 
writing Latin still flourishes in its pristine vigor. That it comes to us 
from one of our American colleges is therefore decidedly gratifying. 
The work, both in matter and manner, is a credit to classical scholar- 
ship. Father Kleist handles his Latin and English sentences with such 
ease and grace that the study of his renditions will be an object lesson 
in translation for many a teacher. 

The Aids is not meant for those who aim merely at translating 
sentences with grammatical correctness: its purpose is "to acquaint 
the student, within certain limits, with those fundamental principles 
that underlie the simple elegance of the genuine Sernw La t inns." 

The author singles out "for fuller treatment such matters of 
Latin syntax only as have seemed to him to stand in need of special 
insistence for purely stylistic reasons." 

The book contains sixty-two lessons, extending over ninety-six 
pages. Each lesson consists of a number of model sentences translated 
into English, the statement of a principle, and exercises for translation 
supplemented here and there by a few notes. 

There is an Appendix of thirteen pages consisting for the most 
part of translations from English into Latin of short extracts taken 
from English classical writers. 

Printer's mistakes are rare. We have noticed only one : incitndus, 
page 23. The type is clear, the book is well bound and presents a 
neat appearance. 



no THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

Father Grisar and His Critics 

By Arthur PrEuss 

Denifle's Luther und Luthcrtiint having been rejected by Protes- 
tants on account of its vehemence and onesidedness, Fr. H. Grisar, S. J., 
undertook to depict the "great reformer" as he really was. His three- 
volume Luther, 1 which has been repeatedly noticed in this Review, 
is written in absolute conformity with the modern historic method and 
characterized by great moderation and objectivity. Grisar sets forth 
the facts and allows them to speak for themselves. 

Nevertheless his biography is as unpalatable to the Protestant 
followers and admirers of Lnther as Denifle's study, and it is both 
interesting and instructive to note how they squirm and endeavor to 
counteract the impression which they fear the book will create on 
fairminded readers. 

Fr. Grisar himself reports on some of their maneuvers in Vol. 83, 
Xo. 10, of the Stimmen aits Maria-Loach. 2 Not a few of the criticisms 
directed against his book are ludicrous. Thus one zealous preacher 
denounces it as an attempt to assassinate Luther, who "lives a charmed 
life for ever." Another Lutheran minister regards Grisar's work as 
a confession of guilt on the part of the Catholic Church, who has 
every reason to defend herself against the terrible charges which 
he hurled into her face nearly 400 years ago. Still another expresses 
delight at the fact that Luther "is still alive and cannot be refuted." 
These critics Grisar treats with the gentle irony which their naivete 
deserves. 

With such scholars as Harnack and Kawerau, however, who claim 
to have discovered serious defects in his work, the learned Jesuit 
enters into a brisk polemic regarding certain important questions of 
principle. 

Harnack & Co. cannot and 'do not deny that Grisar applies the 
approved canons of modern historical criticism with ability and fair- 
ness. But as his conclusions do not suit them, they proceed to argue 
that Luther cannot be adequately judged by the rules of external 
criticism. To do justice to his character and work, they say, his- 
torians must also apply certain principles of intrinsic criticism which 
a Catholic cannot possibly command, inasmuch as he necessarily lacks 

1 Luther 7'ou Hartmann Grisar. 3 interest to every educated Catholic 

vols. B. Herder. $13.50 net. who has a sufficient command of the 

German language to peruse its brill 

- R. Herder, Freiburg and St. Louis. liant articles and reviews. After this 

$3.25 per annum, net. We take occasion present paper was written, Heft 1 of 

to renew our recommendation of this the 84th volume of the Stimmen came 

scholarly Jesuit review, which pub- to hand with another interesting ar- 

lishes some of the best work of the tide by P. Grisar on the same subject, 

German Jesuits and is of absorbing to be continued in Heft 2. 



XX 4 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW in 

a "full understanding of the religious status to which Luther attained 
after much hard struggling." "To Luther's Biblicism we owe the 
knowledge out of which was born the Protestant Reformation.... 
this knowledge must be experienced in the depths of one's own soul." 
"Grisar is unable to understand Luther's fundamental religious ex- 
perience either in its genesis or in its development." Harnack readily 
admits that Grisar's application of the ordinary canons of historic 
criticism is correct and unobjectionable. But he claims that in Luther's 
case it is necessary to apply a "higher criticism," that is to say, the 
reformer must be viewed as a "religious hero" and judged in his in- 
fluence upon, and his relations to, universal history. 

Another critic, of the radical school, pooh-poohs the "intrinsic crit- 
icism" and the "higher criticism" of those who, he says, "have never felt 
a breath of Luther's spirit," and declares that it is still too early to ap- 
preciate the Reformation and its heroes properly and adequately, but 
that this remains for the criticism of the future, which will rise far 
above petty denominational differences. 

Fr. Grisar defends himself valiantly against these misleading 
phrases, which have no other aim than to deprive objective histori- 
cal criticism of its rights in regard to Luther. He will not admit 
that the Protestant preachers have a reserved privilege to estimate the 
reformer or to write his life. And in this he is no doubt right. But 
perhaps in the eagerness of his protest he overlooks the important 
admission contained in that claim. Protestants are willing to accept 
any portrait of Luther drawn by sentiment or bodied forth by the 
imagination, so it be but heroic and glorious; but they will not ac- 
knowledge the plain objective truth as put before them by such a 
serious and impartial historian as Grisar. And yet, if there is such 
a thing as historic truth, Grisar's life of Luther will in course of time 
surely supplant all the fantastic romances of the Protestant biograph- 
ers, for it is based on facts, while its rivals are spun from fancy. 

A Plea for a Sound Ascetical Literature 

By the: Rev. E. DannEgger, S. J., St. Louis University 

Many insidious errors are discovered only when they no longer 
succeed in disguising themselves under the mask of legitimate and cor- 
rect principles. This is especially true in the spiritual life because 
of the complexity of its psychological phenomena. A principle is made 
to sut a pet inclination, a hobby, a prejudice ; objective values are apt 
to be "interpreted" according to very questionable tendencies of mod- 
ern thought and life. Wrong ideas may replace clear spiritual axioms 



ii2 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

even in the minds of well-meaning people. Standards are changed ; 
different norms are established ; the very criteria of spirituality are 
shifted. The theory of relative truth is unconsciously carried into 
asceticism. Here lies a real danger. 

What we need, therefore, is a sound ascetical literature. Ascetical 
writers have an important task nowadays — to correct modernizing 
notions and to insist emphatically on the eternal, unshakable principles 
of Catholic asceticism. They are to be apostles ; they must loudly 
proclaim the unchangeable truths of Christian morality and spirituality. 
They must enlighten the mind, strengthen the will, and inflame the 
heart with a manly, vigorous love of God. 

"Modern" asceticism, as represented in many current articles, 
leaflets, pamphlets, booklets, etc., is a diluted, soft, and effeminate sort 
of a thing; it appeals to the imagination and sentiment rather than 
the intellect and will. The great eternal and essential truths about 
mortification, self-denial, obedience unworldliness, recollection, union 
with God, reverence, all of which require a severe training of the in- 
tellect and will, are pushed into the background, or, at best, are not 
given that vigorous prominence which they demand. Instead of it 
a great deal is made of what appeals to nature — of sociableness, kind- 
ness, gentleness, sweetness, common sense, politeness, activity, etc. 
Now all this is good and should not be neglected ; but it must be 
supernaturalized and purified from all dross of individual or racial 
selfishness. 

The supernatural must receive far more attention. Therefore 
ascetical literature must take its first and foremost inspiration from 
Sacred Scripture and dogmatic theology. The treatment of as- 
ceticism must be throughout based upon, and permeated by the doc- 
trinal teaching of the Church. This will furnish a rational foundation 
for spiritual demands and counsels, it enlightens the mind, unfolds 
the vast kingdom of spiritual truth, implants set and definite convic- 
tions in the intellect, and is a safe guide for moral actions. The bear- 
ing of the dogmas of creation, original sin, the incarnation, the econ- 
omy of grace and the sacraments, the end of man, etc., should be 
clearly shown. Sound exegesis is also an indispensable requisite for 
a solid treatment of asceticism. Otherwise personal elaborations of 
a more or less active intellect or imagination are easily substituted 
for objective truth. This exegesis must take notice of the history, 
archaeology, geography, etc., of biblical nations and countries. An 
acquaintance with psychology and the modern psycho-physiological and 
pathological problems (e. g. hypnotism) is equally necessary. 



XX 4 THE FORTXIOHTLY REVIEW 113 

Sentimentality, which unfortunately invades our present spiritual 
literature and, as a consequence, the spiritual life of the faithful, is 
to be absolutely banished. Appeal must be made above all to the in- 
tellect and will. Very often it is almost exclusively the imagination 
and sentiment which are addressed. What our modern Christians and 
Catholic i.eed, is a clear and precise idea of man's relations toward God. 
Many will say that everybody knows these truths. In matter of fact 
our generation does not know them, at least not practically, so as to 
realize their full meaning. Each individual concept has to be ex- 
plained and its practical bearing upon our daily actions luminously, 
forcibly, uncompromisingly explained. Superficiality is one of the 
chief dangers of the spiritual life. The human will is unstable and 
needs to be strongly supported. The will must be trained by breaking 
its love of independence. This requires a practical knowledge of 
pedagogical laws and spiritual maxims. There is no virtue without 
severe self-denial. "Tantum proficies, quantum tibi vim intuleris." 
All depends on the measure of force and systematic effort we enlist 
in the cause of our sanctification. 

In short, our spirituality must be less impulsive, less imaginative, 
less sentimental — more consistent, more manly, more supernatural. 

Shall Home Study be Abolished? 

By Paedagogus 
The Ladies' Home Journal gives two pages of its January issue 
to the discussion of the question whether or not boys and girls should 
be required to study at home in the evening. Dr. Winthrop Talbot, 
a physician, says : 

When the growing tissues are wearied they must be given a chance to 
regain tone and vigor, or they will suffer strain. The plastic body more easily 
suffers lasting injury than the adult body. Sleep is necessary for it. What are 
the conditions which induce sleep? A brain relieved of high tension, it is 
true, but also a body freed from active heat production Every young mam- 
mal normally toward evening will suckle or eat, but not gorge, then play a 
while — a natural diversion of blood pressure from the brain— and then settle 
itself to quiet sleep. With the young human mammal that should be the usual 

procedure So by evening study we systematically proceed to allow our boys 

and girls to follow methods of working which definitely defeat the purpose 
we have in mind— namely, that they shall be kept in the highest degree of 
efficiency. 

A school principal reports that as a consequence of forbidding 
the children in his school to take home their text-books, it was found 
that the pupils progressed more rapidly and satisfactorily. Parents 
were advised that thev could have their children devote the evening 



,, 4 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

hour to reading on subjects correlated to their school work, — which 
helps the pupils to advance, but does not involve the strain on nerve 
and mind that hard study in preparation for recitation and examina- 
tion involves. This partly answers the question, Mow shall the chil- 
dren be occupied in the evening? Another answer is that they may 
take the time for practice that requires not mental strain but manual 
dexterity, such as piano-playing, or drawing, or craftsmanship of one 
kind or another. 

Most educators, however, are hostile to this attempt at putting 
an end to evening study. And rightly so. For, as Bishop Schrembs 
pointed out in a recent lecture, reported in the Toledo Record 
(Vol. VIII, No. 23), the system of home study is thoroughly ap- 
proved by a long and wide experience. Students must have both work 
and play, though of course the school should not be too exacting. 
"The right way is the middle way. This was the doctrine of the old 
philosophers, and they were right." 

The Bishop thinks that the animus of the present agitation is 
indicated in the following passage from one of the articles published 
in the Ladies' Home Journal: "This system dates back to the middle 
ages, when priests and bishops were the teachers." Anti-Catholic bias 
runs' so strong at present in this country that the Bishop's suspicion 
is probably not without foundation in fact. 

Another, less reprehensible motive inspiring this agitation probably 
is the fact that children have been and are frequently overburdened 
with home tasks. And this is true of Catholic schools as well as State 
schools. Crede Roberto exp'erto! "The right way," in Msgr. Schrembs' 
words, "is the middle way." Let us retain the medieval practice, 
which has stood the test of experience; but let us be reasonable in 
our demands and not torture the children. 

An Oriental Patrology 

Under this title the firm of Poussielgue, of Paris, is publishing 
under the joint direction of Drs. Chabot, Guidi, and Hyvernat, 
an Oriental Patrology designed to complete the Greek and Latin 
Patrologies of the Abbe Migne. We are indebted for the subjoined 
interesting details of this little known scheme to the Catholic Uni- 
versity Bulletin, No. 84. 

The purpose of the editors is, for the present, to publish all 
Christian works extant in Syriac, Arabic, Ethiopic and Coptic; Ar- 
menian documents will be edited later. In order to make this litera- 
ture accessible to students who are not familiar with Oriental Ian- 



XX 4 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 115 

guages all texts are translated into Latin ; the original and the version 
are printed separately, each constituting one volume. According to 
the method and arrangement of this Patrology, each Oriental litera- 
ture is divided into several series or groups. Syriac is distributed into 
four series: I. Apocrypha, Liturgy and Canons; II. Exegesis, Theol- 
ogy and Philosophy; III. History and Hagiography ; IV. Documents 
of foreign origin, especially translations from the Greek. Ethiopic 
forms two groups: I. Apocrypha and Theology; II. History and 
Hagiography; and Coptic three: I. Apocrypha and Liturgy; 
II. Theology; III. History. The programme of the Arabic section 
is not as yet definitively settled. Each series will be accompanied by a 
volume of indices and tables of contents. 

Since 1903 the editors, assisted by collaborators in Europe and 
America, have published over thirty numbers from the four sections 
mentioned above. A complete list of them is given in the Bulletin. 

The Corpus Scriptorwm Christianorum Orientalium is a tremen- 
dous undertaking and its importance cannot be overestimated. The 
editing and translating of this multitude of texts is of great value for 
Oriental philology. Many of these documents, now being brought 
to light for the first time, contain new words and new forms which 
will greatly enrich our Oriental vocabularies. All scholars know that 
Oriental dictionaries are far from being complete. We cannot speak 
of a Syriac or Coptic or Ethiopic lexicon in the sense we speak of 
a Latin or English dictionary, for all Oriental dictionaries are based 
' on the documents already published, and these are only a small frac- 
tion of those preserved in the libraries of Rome, Paris, London and 
Berlin, still waiting for some enterprising editor to give them to the 
public. Hence the lexicographer and the grammarian will reap an 
abundant harvest in the Corpus. Not only Oriental, but Greek 
philology as well, will be a gainer thereby. It is known for example 
that some Oriental works are translations of Greek originals now 
lost to us. Thus the Theophany of Eusebius of Caesarea, of which 
only a few fragments remain in the Greek, has been preserved entire 
in a Syriac translation of the fourth or fifth century; the Pistis 
Sophia, a celebrated Gnostic work of the third century, exists only 
in Coptic, whilst the Arabic has handed down to us the Canones 
Hippolyti (2nd century), which are the most complete and explicit 
description of the institutions of the early Church. Again other 
Oriental works are translations from the Greek which appear to 
have been made during the lifetime of the Greek authors themselves. 
Such is the case with the Discourses of Titus of Bosra against the 
Manicheans and the writings of St. Cyril, St. Basil, St. Gregory of 



n6 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

Nazianzus, Paul of Samosata, Theodore of Mopsuestia and many 
others. Hence Syriac versions of this kind are of great value for 
the correct interpretation of the original and should be taken into 
account in a critical edition of the Greek text. 

In the different departments of ecclesiastical science, the Corpus 
will prove a veritable mine of useful information. Biblical studies 
will receive much assistance therefrom. It is not indeed the intention 
of the editors to publish the Oriental versions of the Bible; this does 
not fall within the scope of a Patrology. But, although we have 
editions of the Scriptures in most of the Oriental languages, we have 
no complete critical edition of any one of them, in the sense that we 
have editions of the Massoretic text or the Septuagint. Thus there 
is no critical edition of the Syriac Pcshitta as a whole. For this a 
great deal of preliminary work is necessary, of which much remains 
to be done: examination of the ancient Syriac Biblical MSS., collection 
of variant readings, and comparison of the Syriac text with the He- 
brew and Greek originals. This preliminary study will be furthered 
in part by the publication of the writings of the Syriac Fathers. Their 
theological works abound in Scriptural quotations, and although they 
often quoted from memory, they must surely have had copies of the 
Biblical text as it existed in their day. The copying of the Bible was 
an important part of the curriculum of studies in the great Syrian 
schools, and we read in the Acts of the Council of Seleucia (410) 
that candidates for subdeaconship were required to know the entire 
Psalter by heart. Hence the numerous Scriptural quotations scattered 
here and there in the writings of the Syrians, by giving us an idea 
of the text current in their time, will be of some help towards a 
critical edition of the whole Peshitta, which still remains a desidera- 
tum. Again the Biblical student will find most interesting informa- 
tion in the Scripture commentaries so numerous in Syriac literature. 
There is hardly a Syrian scholar of note that has not left some ex- 
planation of one or more books of the Bible, and it is in this province 
of sacred science that the Syrians have done some of their most 
original work. Their interpretation of Holy Writ is logical, sober 
and literal, and reflects the best traditions of the school of Antioch. 

The student of the history of philosophy cannot afford to ignore 
Oriental literature. The West is, to a large extent, indebted to the 
Fast, especially to the Syrians, for its knowledge of the works of 
Aristotle. 

In the domains of history and hagiography, too, much can be 
learned from Oriental literature. The humble chroniclers of the 
East, though less pretentious than their Greek predecessors and mod- 



XX 4 T]1L ^ FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 117 

els, deserve their share or praise for the diligence with which they 
have preserved to us many precious documents. 

The Syriac, Ethiopic, and Coptic literatures are exceedingly rich in. 
works containing lives of the saints or passions of martyrs. All schol- 
ars interested in the Semitic languages or in ecclesiastical literature 
should help by subscribing for the whole or a part of the Patrology. 
The subscription price is very reasonable, being at the rate of 20 cents 
for 16 pages of Oriental text and 14 cents for 16 pages of Latin 
translation. 

Patent Medicine Humbug 

By J. B. C, M. D. 

One of the largest commercial houses of its kind in the United 
States, a concern organized and operated solely for profit, according 
to the New York Evening Post (Jan. 18th), has recently taken a stand 
that should open the eyes of physicians and medical journals to a 
long-neglected duty to the public. This house has discontinued, ab- 
solutely, the sale of patent medicines. Hereafter no secret remedies 
will pass through its hands. 

The decision of a great mail-order house to sacrifice many thou- 
sands of dollars of its present yearly income, is probably not the result 
of any sudden moral awakening, but of good business foresight. In 
the present aroused state of public opinion regarding dangerous and 
adulterated foods and drugs, the reputation of handling only honest 
goods is rapidly becoming an asset of immense value. In its circular 
the concern says : "Our decision to discontinue the sale of patent 
medicines. . . .is based on our policy of handling only dependable mer- 
chandise — merchandise that we believe will give the service our cus- 
tomers have a right to expect. We have come to believe that patent 
medicines do not conform to this standard." 

In fact, the circular contains such an effective and convincing 
description of the manifold evils of the patent medicine business, that 
it might well be used as a tract against that dangerous traffic. Here 
are a few extracts : 

We find valueless and even dangerous medicines offered to the public- 
through the medium of advertising that is extravagantly misleading and de- 
ceptive — advertising calculated to deceive the well into the belief that they 
are sick, and to induce the sick to pin their faith to ineffectual means for re- 
covery. .. .That patent medicines are more than likely to be disappointing as 
well as dangerous is apparent when we consider the fact that the all-important 
as well as the most difficult thing in the treatment of disease is that of finding 
the real underlying cause of the trouble, and the further fact that the person 
least able to form a safe judgment in this matter is the patient himself.... 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



The person who depends on an advertised nostrum to cure a serious ailment, 
which to he successfully treated must have only the most prompt and skilful 
attention, is throwing away valuable time. The most dangerous medicine.... 
is that which by containing a stimulant or an opiate causes its victim to feel 
better for awhile, ... .though all this time the lurking disease is steadily pro- 
gressing. .. .Just why patent medicines are needed at all as articles of com- 
merce, considering that non-secret remedies are better in every way, is not 
apparent. 

This is a much-needed and wholesome lesson for those doctors 
and medical journals — and their number is by no means small — that 
are constantly prescribing and advertising quack nostrums. 

May we not hope that it will also be heeded by those Catholic 
newspapers that open their columns (for hard cash) to the patent 
medicine fakers? 

If the editor's modesty will permit, I wish to say, in conclusion, 
that the Fortnightly RuviUw during the twenty years of its existence 
has set a splendid example by refusing to print any patent medicine 
advertisements. 



FLOTSAM AND JETSAM 



Cahensly Vindicated 

While visiting the bureau of 
the Catholic Colonization Society 
at Wilmette, 111., recently, Bishop 
Lynch, of Dallas, Texas, de- 
clared according to the Catholic 
Tribune (No. 733) : 

"More than twenty years ago 
Mr. Cahensly aimed at the same 
object which your society is pur- 
suing, namely the settling of im- 
migrants in colonies, where they 
would find a church, school, and 
co-religionists speaking their 
mother tongue. How many would 
have been saved, bad the plans of 
the esteemed Air. Cahensly been 
realized !" 

"What a change!" comments 
our Dubuque contemporary. 
"Time was when the secular daily 
press, inspired by misinformed 
sottrces, denounced the great 'fa- 
ther of immigrants' as a plotter 
who was scheming to deliver our 
country, bound and gagged, into 



the iron grasp of Germany. But 
Mr. Cahensly presented his find- 
ings repeatedly to the Holy See, 
and gradually knowledge of ac- 
tual conditions is overcoming ig- 
norance and its first-born monster 
child, blind optimism." 

Dr. Lyman Abbott on the Confessional 
The Rev. Dr. Lyman Abbott, 
one of the foremost Protestant 
preachers of this country, says in 
an editorial article in the Outlook 
(Vol. 103, No. 3) : 

I have long been convinced that one 
cause of the apparent failure of effi- 
ciency in the church is the diminution 
of pastoral service. Neither eloquence 
of preaching in the pulpit nor skill 
of administration in the parish can 
take the place of personal contact be- 
tween the preacher and his people. If 
I had the time and strength, I would 
rather talk with live hundred individ- 
ual inquirers who sought me out for 
conference than preach to a congrega- 
tion of five thousand auditors who 



XX 4 



THE FORTXIf.HTLY REVIEW 



119 



came to listen and went away, many 
of them to forget what they had 
heard. In these personal conferences 
the pastor or teacher conies in direct 
contact with the individual soul. He 
knows the doubts, the difficulties, the 
dangers, of the individual. He tries 
to meet those difficulties with his so- 
lutions, those doubts with his argu- 
ments, those dangers with his coun- 
sels ; and he finds, if he is open-mind- 
ed, wherein the solutions fail to solve, 
the arguments fail to convince, and 
the counsels fail to guide. He gets 
just what he does not get in the pul- 
pit, the response of the soul, and 
knows, at least in a little degree, 
wherein he has succeeded, wherein he 
has failed. 

The ordinary method of pastoral 
visiting apparently in vogue in our 
day seems to me of very trifling use. 
The pastor goes to the house, makes 
his formal call, and departs. He rare- 
ly sees the men; and not infrequently 
the women are sorry he has come and 
glad when he has gone. He has no 
right to demand their confidence, and, 
interrupted perhaps in their social en- 
gagements or their domestic duties, 
they are, at the time of the call, in 
no mood to give him their confidence. 
He perhaps establishes a little social 
relationship which makes his ministry 
on the next Sabbath slightly more ef- 
fective. Rarely can he do more than 

this In this respect the custom 

of the Roman Catholic Church is 
much wiser than the custom of the 
Protestant Churches. In the Protes- 
tant Churches the pastor goes to the 
people. In the Roman Catholic Church 
the people come to the pastor ; in the 
confessional he meets them self-pre- 
pared for the conference and seeking 
it at his hands. 

The confessional is not the on- 
ly means of contact between the 
Catholic priest and his people. If 
Dr. Abbott would take the trou- 
ble to study an approved text- 
book of pastoral theology, he 
would find that some of his 
"new" ideas are as old as the 
Catholic Church. 



Surgery and Morals 

There has always been a ten- 
dency for men to blame their 
yielding to evil tendencies on 
something for which they were 
not responsible. In the older 
times they blamed the stars and 
made guilty of their disasters in 
Shakespeare's phrase the sun, the 
moon and the stars "as if we 
were villains by necessity, fools 
by heavenly compulsion, knaves, 
thieves and treachers by spherical 
predominance ; drunkards, liars 
and adulterers by an enforced 
obedience of planetary influence." 
Later on it came to be heredity 
that was made the scapegoat for 
men's sins ; apparently to be just 
in our punishments we should 
have punished the grandfathers of 
our criminals. In still more re- 
cent years various injuries to the 
brain have been blamed for ten- 
dencies to evil. Occasionally sen- 
sational announcements are made 
of cures. Like the cures for epi- 
lepsy, however, physicians who 
have followed these cases do not 
place very much confidence in 
them. It is very rare that an in- 
jury to the head is followed by 
moral obliquity, though we have 
records of many head injuries. 
In the few cases where it does 
follow, physicians are inclined to 
think that it is a question of post 
hoc not propter hoc. Men with 
evil tendencies are quite willing 
as a rule to blame the injury 
rather than themselves, but that is 
an old story. — The Independent. 
No. 3347- 



A Plea for the Workers 

In the Dublin Review (October 
1912) Professor T. M. Kettle of 
the National Lmiversity of Ire- 
land, discussing the industrial un- 
rest, pronounces strongly and def- 



I_'() 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



initely against the present wage- 
system : — ■ 

"What we have got to realize, 
to absorb into our social philoso- 
phy, to get into our bones, as the 
phrase is, is that the wage-system 
as at present in operation is pro- 
foundly unsatisfactory The 

standard of wages is, in general, 
too low : over a great area it is 
so low as to shut out the reci- 
pients of it, not only from the 
amenities, but even from the nec- 
essaries of life." 

And he goes on to point out 
two facts often ignored, — first 
that, as the workman is paid, not 
in what he most needs — -food, 
clothing and shelter — but in mon- 
ey, an economic symbol of vary- 
ing value, his contract is often vi- 
tiated by a rise in prices, and 
secondlv, that the hand-laborer, 



unlike the business or profes- 
sional man, so far from finding 
his services better requited with 
length of service, experiences no 
rise at all, but, as he grows old, 
often has to see his wages les- 
sened till he is finally dismissed ! 
Repeated insistence on economic 
facts like these, so dry and un- 
interesting in themselves, but of 
such vital importance to the toil- 
ing masses, is necessary if edu- 
cated public opinion is to be stir- 
red to action. At present many 
are content with denouncing the 
attempts, possibly on occasion 
misguided, which are being made 
to restore justice to our industrial 
conditions. Catholics at any rate, 
whose ethical belief is so clear 
and definite, should be foremost 
in this good work. 



ET CETERA 



The St. Louis Globe-Democrat 
says (J? 11. 19) : "It is conceded 
that the daily paper is the most 
valuable product of civilization." 
Before conceding that proposition 
we should insist on a very con- 
siderable improvement in the 
character of the daily press as we 
know it in this country. 

Dr. Eliot, president emeritus of 
I Jarvard, predicts that eventually 
more than half the physicians in 
the country will be engaged in 
preventive, rather than in cura- 
tive, medicine. Perhaps it is the 
fault of the medical practitioners 
that this is not a fact to-day. A 
comparatively small proportion of 
men and women have discovered 
that there is wise economy of 
health as well as of money in 
paying a physician a fee to keep 



well, rather than in waiting until 
one is ill and then sending for the 
doctor to restore health. 

A writer in the St. Louis Star 
(Jan. 21st) says: 

"It is a mistake to change such 
a musical name as Giovanni to 
John, or Giuseppe to Joe, and to 
drop utterly some musical and li- 
quid cognomen and adopt Smith, 
or White, or Humphrey, as sev- 
eral Italians have done. But it 
seems to be the rule of all for- 
eigners who come to America. 
And worse yet, they bring up 
their children in ignorance of the 
native language of the parents. 
....The fathers and mothers 
make a great mistake in thinking 
the children will be better Amer- 
icans by not knowing how to 
speak their native tongue."' 



XX 4 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



The new president of Tufts 
College, noting the tendencies of 
educational progress, predicts that 
within fifty years a college faculty 
will comprise a president, a jani- 
tor and a moving picture man, 
"But why a president?" malici- 
ously queries the Portland Cath- 
olic Sentinel. 

A rare event is the presence of 
a mother at her son's golden ju- 
hilee of ordination. This, the 
Catholic Record informs us, was 
the case at the golden jubilee of 
Rev. Andrew Leong, a Chinese 
priest. Born in 1837, near Hong- 
Kong, he entered the seminary at 
the age of fourteen years, and 
was ordained April 25, 1862. For 
50 years he has worked faithfully 
in China. His mother is now 
ninety-five years old, but still 
strong mentally and physically. 
Her greatest consolation is to at- 
tend her son's Mass every day 
and receive Holy Communion at 
his hands. 

We read in several Catholic 
weeklies : 

Mr. James Keeley, General Manager 
of the Chicago Tribune, has accepted 
an invitation to serve as Dean of the 
Max Pam School of Journalism at 
Notre Dame University, Notre Dame, 
Ind. Mr. Keeley retains his connec- 
tion with the Tribune and will visit 
the University to direct the work of 
the course as often as may he neces- 
sary. He will be an occasional lec- 
turer in the school and will arrange 
for lectures by prominent journalists 
from all over the country. 

Here we have a chair of 
journalism in a Catholic college, 
established by a Jewish capitalist 
and headed by the (presumably 
non-Catholic) business manager 
of a sensational secular daily 
newspaper. Non talibus auxili- 

is. . . . r 



"Some Catholic writers assume 
too lightly that the Church has 
sanctioned the present order so 
absolutely that any attempt to 
change it must necessarily argue 
a disregard for her teaching au- 
thority. Herein they inflict serious 
damage on the prestige of Ca- 
tholicism. They cause it, to a great 
extent, to be associated with hate- 
ful social and economic condi- 
tions, for which it is not respons- 
ible and with which it has no real 
affinity, and to incur the odium 
produced by such association." 
Thus the N. Y. Freeman's Journal 
(No. 4,113). Needless to say, 
these are precisely our sentiments. 
The Fortnightly Review has ut- 
tered this same warning frequent- 
ly in the course of the twenty 
years of its existence. Will it 
be heeded at last ? ! ? 

We read in the death notice of 
a "prominent" Catholic: "He was 
prominent in secret orders. At 
the time of his death he was a 
member of the Royal Arcanum." 
What business has a Catholic in 
the Royal Arcanum and other se- 
cret or semi-secret societies of 
this stamp? The man we have 
reference to was "a politician." 
That probably explains his 
"prominence in secret orders." 
Politicians everywhere seem to be 
exempt from the law and disci- 
pline of the Church; else why are 
so many of them who have led 
disedifying lives, buried with ec- 
clesiastical honors ? ! ? 

The predicament in which Ad- 
miral D°wey Council of the 
"Knights -f Columbus" at Brook- 
lyn finds i il £ in consequence of its 
"patron s; it's" recent misconduct 
in affiliati «; with the "Guardians 
of Liberty," leads the Syracuse 
Catholic Sun (Vol. 21, No. 31) 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



i9U 



to observe : "We should think that 
Catholic societies and societies of 
Catholics might easily avoid em- 
barrassment of this nature. There 
are thousands of Catholic saints 
and heroes after whom they 
could name their organizations." 
The Sun is right. 

"P. B. J." contributes to the 
Pastor Bonus, of Treves (Vol. 
XXV, No. 4), a timely article on 
the frequent and daily communion 
of school children in relation to 
the difficulty arising from the 
fact that they cannot return home 
for breakfast. The writer sug- 
gests that, wherever possible, pro- 
vision be made for a room in or 
near school, in which charitable 



persons could serve the little 
communicants with a warm meal 
at cost, or nearly so. Those un- 
able to give their personal ser- 
vices should be exhorted to con- 
tribute towards the cost of main- 
tenance. Where this idea cannot 
be carried out, the parents should 
provide their children with ther- 
mos bottles, in which water, cof- 
fee, tea or milk can be kept hot 
in winter and cool in summer. 
Such a bottle might also solve 
the breakfast problem for many 
workingmen and women who wish 
to receive holy communion fre- 
quently. A thermos bottle hold- 
ing one pint can be purchased in 
this part of the country for about 
a dollar and a half. 



LITERARY NOTES 



— Prosperity, Catholic and Prot- 
estant. The Relation Betzveen 
the True Religion and Pro- 
sperity Examined. By the Rev. 
Father Grey Graham, M. A., 
Motherwell (xv & 116 pp. i6mo. 
London : Sands & Co. ; St. Louis, 
Mo.: B. Herder. 1912. 15 cts.) 
Father Grey Graham, in this 
strong brochure, shows up the 
inherent absurdity of the so- 
called "prosperity theory." He 
points out that our Lord Jesus 
Christ did not come down upon 
earth to enrich the nations and 
make them temporally prosper- 
ous ; but that even though it 
were demonstrated with mathe- 
matical precision that Catholics all 
over the surface of the globe 
were and had always been out- 
stripped by Protestants in ma- 
terial success, and that always 
and everywhere Protestant na- 
tions excelled Catholic nations in 



all matters pertaining to worldly 
success (which is of course not 
the case), theologically nothing 
would have been proved adverse 
to the Catholic Church. Nowhere 
have we seen it so convincingly 
demonstrated that if Protestants 
excel Catholics in what they call 
temporal prosperity, and do so or: 
account of their religion (as is 
their claim), so far from proving 
their religion to be that of Jesus 
Christ, it only shows that it is 
more worldly than the other, and 
thus incurs the condemnation of 
Him who said, "Ye cannot serve 
God and Mammon." This is a 
most excellent booklet, and we 
heartily recommend it. — A. P. 

— Das Aposteldekret (Act 13, 
28. 29), seine Bntstehung und 
Geltung in den erst en vier Jahr- 
huuderten. Von K. Six S. J. (xx 
& 166 pp. 8vo. Innsbruck: Feli- 
zian Ranch [L. Pustet] ; Amer- 



XX 4 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



123 



ican agents, Fr. Pustet & Co.) 
This learned treatise is divided 
into two parts. Part I discusses 
the origin of the Apostolic de- 
cree; part II its observance du- 
ring the first four centuries. The 
author's conclusions may not be 
universally accepted, but his book 
marks a real advance in the con- 
troversy that has been and is still 
raging in the theological world 
around this particular decree. — 
C. D. U. 

— Literature. A Lecture by 
John Henry Cardinal Newman. 
Edited with Notes and Studies 
by Gilbert J. Garraghan, S. J., 
St. Louis University. (New York, 
Schwartz, Kirwin & Fauss.) All 
teachers of English literature are 
familiar with the numerous edi- 
tions of "standard texts" from the 
best writers prepared for use in 
the class-room. To the Catholic 
teacher there always seemed to 
be in these otherwise representa- 
tive series of English texts a la- 
cuna caused by the omission of 
Catholic writers. Finally an 
American firm was prevailed up- 
on to "get up" an edition of New- 
man. It was serviceable, but we 
now have before us an excellent 
and neat edition of Newman's 
lecture on Literature, (from The 
Idea of a University), which we 
can unreservedly recommend to 
teachers of English literature in 
our Catholic high schools and 
colleges. This is not a volume 
hastily put together. Father Gar- 
raghan has had many years' ex- 
perience as a teacher of English. 
In his booklet he aims "both to 
introduce the student to the criti- 
cal analysis of a prose style of 
acknowledged excellence" and to 
help the student to find "a start- 
ing point in his acquisition of a 



body of sound principle and the- 
ory regarding literature and its 
problems." We venture to say 
that the editor could hardly have 
found a better literary text for 
this twofold purpose. Newman is 
also an excellent guide for those 
who wish to study the "prob- 
lem of structure in English 
writing. To help such students 
Father Garraghan has added to 
his Notes well-planned Rhetorical 
Studies and Studies in Literary 
Theory. Every teacher of Eng- 
lish composition is aware of the 
fact that "to no discipline is the 
undeveloped mind more recalci- 
trant than to the discipline of or- 
derly, coherent thinking." But 
the reading of Newman is a 
splendid remedy for those whose 
defect is "incoherent thinking." 
For "his cast of mind was unique 
in its union of profound sensi- 
bility with the severest logic." 
The notes (many of them bio- 
graphical) are really helpful. — 
Albert Muntsch, S. J. 

— The Excellence of the Ro- 
sary. Conferences for Devotion in 
Honor of the Blessed Virgin. By 
Rev. M. J. Frings. (75 pp. i2mo. 
Joseph F. Wagner, New York. 
75 cts. net). There is nothing on 
the title page or anywhere else in 
this volume, so far as we can see, 
to indicate that the sermons of 
which it is made up were origi- 
nally published in German at Rat- 
isbon in 1884. We don't know 
about the ethics of this proceeding. 
At any rate, if these sermons were 
worthy of being reprinted in an 
English translation, they were 
worthy of being corrected and re- 
vised. This applies especially to 
the historic portions, which are 
hopelessly out of date and mis- 
leading. — A. P. 



i- 7 4 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



IQI3 



— Walking With God and 
Working for God, or Living a 
Christian Life are two small books 
drawn from the writings of St. 
Alphonsus Liguori, edited by the 
Rt. Rev. Alex. MacDonald, the 
learned and zealous Bishop of 
Victoria, B. C, and published by 
the Christian Press Association 
Publishing Company, New York. 
The former contains the two trea- 
tises of St. Alphonsus: "Conform- 
ity with the Will of God" and 
"The Love of God and the Means 
of Acquiring it." The latter be- 
gins with a short sketch of St. 
Alphonsus. Then follow the 
Saint's "Rules for a Christian 
Life," "Admonitions to All Who 
Desire to be Saved," "The Princi- 
pal Virtue of a Christian," "Sure 
Marks that the Love of God 
Reigns in Us," and a few other 
short treatises ; and concludes with 
a dialogue in which a priest con- 
soles and encourages a penitent 
suffering from scruples and spirit- 
ual desolation. Both books, like 
all the writings of St. Alphonsus, 
are in simple, but neat language, 
eminently practical and full of the 
peculiar unction which character- 
izes all his writings and speaks 
forcibly to the heart of the reader. 
The price (30 cents per volume 
net, in cloth binding) brings these 
books within the reach of all. — 
Ferreoi, Girardey, C. SS. R. 

— In Heft 10 of the Freiburger 
Theologische Stndien Dr. F. Ara- 
ann gives the history of the fa- 
mous Vulgata Sixtina of 1590, so 
far as it can be traced in the 
sources. Dr. Amann's is an im- 
portant contribution to the sub- 
ject, because based, in part, on 
newly discovered documents from 
the archives of Venice. The au- 
thor is guided by a sincere love 
for the truth and writes with 



moderation and impartiality. We 
think his conclusions, in the main, 
will stand. Bellarmine can hardly 
be cleared of the charge of pre- 
varication in his preface to the 
Clementina. Dr. Amann's bro- 
chure may be recommended as a 
reliable statement of the facts so 
far as known. {Die Vulgata Six- 
tina von 1590. Line qnellenmas- 
sige Darstellung Hirer Geschichte 
111 it neiiem Quell enmaterial aus 
dem venezianischem Staatsarchiv. 
xix & 160 pp. 8vo. B. Herder. 
1912. 90 cts., in paper covers.) 
— B. P. 

■ — Orationes Liturgicae Medi- 
tationibus Lxercitiorum S. Ignatii 
de Loyola Accoinnwdatae. Colle- 
git U. Holzmeister S. J. (Oeni- 
ponte, Fel. Ranch [L. Pustet] 
1912.) The liturgical prayers 
collected and arranged according 
to the four weeks of the spiritual 
Exercises may serve as "preludes" 
or colloquies or pious aspirations 
for the meditations. They show 
the harmony existing between the 
spirit of the liturgy and the Exer- 
cises, and will aid in making the 
liturgy a help to pietv and asceti- 
cism. — E. DannEGGKn, S. J. 

— We are indebted to George 
Schuhmann for a detailed critical 
monograph on the much-discussed 
Jetzer tragedy of 1507 — 09, which 
ended in the degradation and 
burning of four Dominicans on the 
charge of sorcery. This case has 
been frequently exploited by big- 
oted Protestant controversialists 
against the Catholic Church. Today 
there can scarcely be a doubt that 
the executed Dominicans were the 
victims of a hysteric novice named 
Jetzer, who played the role of a 
second St. Francis and deceived 
the credulous friars. {Die Ber- 
ner J etzertragodie im Lichtc dcr 



XX 4 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



125 



neueren Forschung und Kritik. 
xi & 152 pp. 8vo. B. Herder. 19 12. 
$1.10 net, in paper covers). — A. P. 

—Soon after the first edition 
of Professor Meyenberg's Homi- 
lelischc und Katechetische Stu- 
dien im Geiste des Kirchenjahres 
had been published, they attract- 
ed the favorable notice of priests 
and of seminary directors inter- 
ested in promoting zeal for 
preaching in their students. P. 
Ramon Ruiz Amado, of the staff 
of Razon y Fe, thought the work 
so timely that he translated it in- 
to Spanish for the benefit of the 
priests of that country. Other 
well-known reviews, as for in- 
stance the Stimmen aus Maria 
Laach and La Civilta Cattolica, 
speak in enthusiastic terms of 
this new handbook for the Cath- 
olic preacher. As it shows es- 
pecially the practical uses to which 
the liturgy of our Church may be 
put in preaching, the work is true 
to its promise of offering studies 
according to the spirit of Holy 
Scripture and of the Ecclesiasti- 
cal Year." "It is incredible," 
says the author, "what rich ma- 
terials for homilies, sermons and 
discourses of every kind.... de- 
velop as if by enchantment from 
these liturgical considerations, 
now as detached sermons, and 
now as a series on one and the 
same theme." A reviewer in 
Razon y Fe says : "We do not 
know, nor do we believe there 
has been published any book, 
where the sources of sacred elo- 
quence are more clearly studied 
and where practical methods for 
making use of them are so well 
taught as in Homiletic and Cate- 
chetical Studies by Dr. Meyen- 
berg." The English-speaking 
clergy is, therefore, under obliga- 
tion 'to the V. Rev. Ferdinand 



Brossart for having undertaken 
the arduous task of translating 
this fine work into English. If 
it was a labor of love on the part 
of the reverend translator, it was 
still a labor. We are not sur- 
prised to find, here and there, 
evidences of the toil it must have 
cost him to put the original Ger- 
man into smooth English. If we 
point out a few instances where 
the translation might have been 
more happy, his is done primarily 
with the purpose that these blem- 
ishes, and others of the same 
type, may be removed in a future 
edition. On page 188 the trans- 
lator speaks of "Christ rapping 
in Advent." The New Testament 
term is "knocking at the door." 
On page 177 there is an indis- 
criminate use of "shall" and 
"will" within five consecutive 
lines. On page 181 we read of 
"graces flowing into our soul for 
our 'invisible intensification.' " 
Why not simply "to supply in- 
terior strength." At the bottom 
of page 184 we are told of "a 
howling polemic criticism." 
"Ranting" would have been the 
appropriate term for the first qual- 
ity. But these are merely minor 
blemishes in a work which, on the 
whole, has been fairly well done. 
The translator has enriched our 
English homiletic and catechetical 
literature with a valuable work. 
(Homiletic and Catechetical Stud- 
ies according to the Spirit of Ho- 
ly Scripture and of the Ecclesias- 
tical Year by A. Mcycnbcrg. 
Translated from the Seventh 
German Edition by the Very Rev- 
erend Ferdinand Brossart, V. G. 
Fr. Pustet & Co. $3.50 net. ') — 
Albert Muntsch, S. J. 

— Polemic Chat, by the Right 
Reverend Bishop of Peoria, is a 
refutation of a few popular fal- 



126 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



lacies regarding religious truth. 
Father Michaels, the polemist 
and chief figure in the dialogues, 
is a clever, witty and very sen- 
sihle old priest, who makes short 
work of fallacies current even 
among "educated" Catholics re- 
garding some important points of 
Catholic doctrine. The fallacies 
are popular, so are Father Mi- 
chaels' answers. The chat on Se- 
cret Societies is worthy of en- 
largement. As for Vocation, we 
shall have to use this word in 
future in the sense explained in 
the November issue of the Eccle- 
siastical Review. The moderate 
price (paper 25 cts., cloth 50 cts.) 
permits extensive distribution of 
the Chat among Catholics and 
Protestants alike. (B. Herder.) — 
A. B. 



Books Received 

[Every book or pamphlet received by the 
Fortnightly Review is acknowledged in this 
department ; but we undertake to review such 
publications only as seem to us, for one rea- 
son or another to call for special mention.] 

ENGLISH 

The Church of Christ. Some Time- 
ly Thoughts for Thoughtful People. 
By Rev. Bernard J. Often. S.J., Pro- 
fessor of Theology in St. Louis Uni- 
versity. 155 pp. i6mo. B. Herder. 
1912. 15 cts. (Wrapper.) 

The Holy Way of the Cross. 27 pp. 
prayer-book format. B. Herder. 
1912. 5 cts. (Wrapper.) 

_ Spiritual Exercises for the Purga- 
tive, Illuminative and Unitive Ways. 
By J. Michael of Coutances, 45th 
General of the Carthusian Order, A. 
D. TS97- Translated. Slightly Abridged 
and Re-Arranged by Kcnclm Digby 
Best, Priest of the Oratory. xx & 
r.35 & 213 & 130 pp. London: Burns 
& Gates; St. Louis, Mo.: B. Herder. 
1 01 2. $1.35 net. 

Eucharistic Lilies. Youthful Lovers 
of Jesus in the Blessed Sacrament. 
By Helen Maery. 171 pp. i2mo. Ben- 
ziger Brothers. 1912. $1 net. 

For Christ's Kingdom, The Parting 
of the Ways, and other mission 



pamphlets from the Society of the 
Divine Word, Techny, 111. 

The City of God. The Divine His- 
tory and Life of the Virgin Mother 
of God. Manifested to Mary of 
Agreda for the Encouragement of 
Men. Translated from the Original 
Spanish by Fiscar Marison. 317 pp. 
i2mo. South Chicago, 111.: The Theo- 
politan. Courtesy of the Dom Bosco 
Literary Bureau, A. J. Walser, Mgr., 
2921 Southport Ave., Chicago, 111. 
$1.25 net, postage 15 cts. extra. 

Welfare Legislation for Women and 
Minors. By Rev. Edwin O'Hara. 
Chairman Social Survey Committee 
of the Consumers' League of Oregon. 
12 pp. 121110. (Wrapper). 

Walking With God. Doing God's 
Will. From the Writings of St. 41- 
phonsus Liguori. Edited by the Rt. 
Rev. Alex. McDonald, D.D., Bishop 
of Victoria, B. C. 118 pp. prayer- 
book format. New York : Christian 
Press Association Publishing Co. 
1912. 30 cts. net. 

Working for God, or Living a 
Christian Life. From the Writings of 
St. Alphonsus Liguori. Edited by the 
Rt. Rev. Alex. McDonald, D. D., 
Bishop of Victoria B. C. 141 pp, pray- 
er-book format. Same publishers. 30 
cts. net. 

God or Chaos. By Rev. Robert 
Kane. S.J. xv & 243 pp. i2tno. New 
York : P. J. Kenedy & Sons. 1912. 
$1.25 net. 

A Hundred Years of Irish History. 
By R. Barry O'Brien. With an Intro- 
duction by John E. Redmond, M.P. 
184 pp. i2mo. 

Aids to Latin Prose Composition. 
Designed for Use in the First and 
Second Years of College. By James 
A. Kleist, S.J. vii & 104 pp. 121110. 
New York : Schwartz, Kirwin & 
Fauss. 191 2. 

The Names of God and Meditative 
Summaries of the Divine Perfections. 
By the Venerable Leonard Lessius, S.J. 
Translated by T. J. Campbell, S. J. 
xxi & 230 pp. i2mo. New York: 
America Press. 1912. $1.08 postpaid. 

The Orchard Floor. With a Pref- 
ace by Michael Field, xi & 164 pp. 
l6mo. Benziger Bros. 

The "Summa Theologica" of St. 
Thomas Aquinas Literally Translated 
by Fathers of the English Dominican 
Province. Part I. Third Number (QQ. 
LXXV—CXIX). vi & 561 pp. 8vo. 
Benziger Bros. 1912. $2 net. 



XX 4 



T i I E FORTN IGH T LV REVIEW 



12/ 



Glimpses of Heaven as Pictured in 
Dante's "Paradiso." By Sister M. 
Aquinas, O.S.B., of Princethorpe Pri- 
ory. 157 pp. 321110. Benziger Bros. 
50 cts. (The Angelus Series.) 

Life, Science, and Art. Being Leaves 
from Ernest Hello. Translated from 
the French by E. M. Walker. 176 pp. 
321110. Benziger Bros. 50 cts. (The 
Angelus Series.) 

Spiritual Progress. II: From Fer- 
vour to Perfection. From the French. 
xviii & 420 pp. 161110. London : Wash- 
bourne ; American agents: Benziger 
Bros. 90 cts. net. 

"Vocations." Conditions of Admis- 
sion, etc., into the Convents, Congre- 
gations, Societies, Religious Institutes, 
etc.. According to Authcntical Infor- 
mation and the Latest Regulations. 
By Rev. H. Holm, Doctor in Theol- 
ogy, Licentiate in Canon Law. xx 
& 426 pp. 121110. London: Wash- 
bourne; American agents: Benziger 
Bros. 1912. $1.75 net. 

The Church and Christian Marriage. 
By Rev. Daniel Coghlan, D. D., Pro- 



fessor of St. Patrick's College, May- 
nooth. 67 pp. 8vo. Benziger Bros. 
(Wrapper. ) 

The History of the Popes from, the 
Close of the Middle Ages. From the 
German of Dr. Ludzvig Pastor. Edited 
by Ralph Francis Kerr of the London 
Oratory. Vol. XI. lviii & 615 pp. 8vo. 
London : Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner 
& Co.; St. Louis, Mo.: B. Herder. 
1912. $3 net. 

POETRY AND FICTION 

Crozvns and Palms. Drama in Four 
Acts. Adapted from the German of 
Msgr. A. de Waal by a Benedictine 
Father from Conception Abbey. 31 pp. 
B. Herder. 1912. 25 cts. (Wrapper.) 

Come Rack! Come Rope! By Rob- 
ert Hugh Benson, vi & 469 pp. 121110. 
Xew York: P. J. Kenedy & Sons. 
1913- $148 postpaid. 

GERMAN 
I in Gcist des Kirchenjahrcs. Reli- 
giose Essays fur Katholikcn aller 
Stdnde von Dr. Johannes Chrys. 
Gspann, Professor der Theologie zu 



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St. Florian. 2. Auflagc. 127 pp. i6mo. 
Benziger Brothers. igi2. 

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gmiind. ix & 300 pp. 8vo. B. Herder. 



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erklart, mit einer Binfiihrung von Dr. 
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A Lenten Meditation 

By C. E. d'Arnoux 

Religion is the tie between God and man, not a tie between man 
and man, or any other relation ; such relations would come under 
the head of Sociology. 

When we scan the various sects, we find more of the sociological 
element than of pure religion. The society feature in Protestant 
so-called "religious"' meetings, sociological sermonizing, social gather- 
ings in and out of church; the Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A. move- 
ments, all have a direct trend towards sociology and away from 
religion. 

But even with all these non-religious paraphernalia Protestantism 
is fast losing ground. 

Said a prominent member of one of the churches to me the other 
day: "I am not prepared to advise drawing the last conclusions of 
Science. It would be harmful. The masses are not prepared for 
that. If we cut the tow of religion, humanity will drift without a 
rudder. So I have joined the Congregational Church. It is so broad 
in its acceptations that any view will fit into its creed. Personally, 
of course, I hold with Science ; but I don't tell anybody. You see, 
we must all in a measure be missionaries, and by our example hold 
the masses in subjection." 

This gentleman is an avowed atheist and infidel ; yet he "fits" 
into the Congregational Church ! 

It seems that we are fast approaching the "parting of the ways," 
— strict religion or agnosticism. "He who is not with me is against 
me" saith the Savior. It is the final division of the judgment day. 

In that light I look upon the tremendous leakage in our own 
camp with considerable equanimity. Cockles are cockles, no matter 
where they grow, and wheat is wheat. The former must be separated 
and the latter tied into sheaves and placed in the Master's barn. 

The processes going on in the religious and social world are 
singular in consonance with Our Lord's predictions, as those who 
have eyes can see. There is nothing at all surprising in the widening 
of the chasm between the two campus, — it has been foretold long 
ago and naturally the centripetal forces on either side will induce 



130 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

a centralization, a concretion. That the one camp will he the "Many" 
and the other the "Few'' is not surprising either. 

Humanity, after all is said, does not like our Savior's pro- 
gramme : — "Take your cross upon you and follow me." Nobody 
likes to control his passions, nobody loves the cross, nor the way 
to Golgatha. Yet that is religion, the God-ordained tie between Christ 
and his followers. 

In these days "Must" and "Must-not" are irksome, pain and 
suffering are not to the liking of the masses, rich or poor. Yet 
the cross of necessity involves pain and suffering. 

We can quickly make the test of true Christianity, as in a 
chemical laboratory, by in f listing the re-agent prescribed by Christ 
Himself, — the Cross. When we look back to the times of the so- 
called "Reformers" we at once note the hatred they had for the 
cross, even its physical symbol. And though in our day many Pro- 
testant churches have again placed the cross on their houses of worship, 
it is an artistic cross we are made to see, not the plain unadorned cross 
of Christ ; it is a man-made cross with soft lines. 

And the gatherings of these self-styled "Christians," do they 
convene in the name of Christ or in the name of a great preacher, 
to hear an" interesting discourse, anounced in advance in the newspaper , 
a spicy lecture, oration, etc. ? Is it not frequently in the name of the 
fashions, — one lady showing finer feathers than her rival ? But why 
details? The simple cross of the Savior planted in the midst of 
such assemblages would quickly and effectively scatter them to the 
winds. Nobody wants the naked cross. 

Trim it into a fanciful, artistic, unrecognizable ornament, and 
it will be tolerated. But unadorned religion has become "out-of-date." 

To-day when Appetite seems to be the only criterion of life in 
the one camp, its antithesis stands out very markedly in the other 
— deprivation, abstinence, mortification, sorrow and suffering in the 
footsteps of a bleeding, thirsty, martyred Christ. 

This phenomenon, or rather the juxtaposition of these two phen- 
omena, ought to open everyone's eyes ; and they among us who find 
the Master's yoke too heavy amidst the sneers of the world, should 
read about the first cross-carrying up the slope of Golgatha amidst 
a jeering raffle of men and women of all social strata. 

No wonder that the Apostle "gloried in the cross of Christ." 
He was in the right camp; that "the rabble" do not so glory, is the test 
of their doom. 



XX 5 THE FORTXTC.HTLY REVIEW 131 

An Educational Year Book 

By the Rev. Albert Muntsch, S. J., St. Louis University 

In reviewing the Rev. A. Y. Garthoeffner's Year Book for 191 1 
in this magazine (Vol. XIX, No.i, p. 20) we said: "This record 
differs from similar publications that have come to our notice, and 
the points wherein it differs, are precisely those which make it most 
valuable. We refer to the numerous tables of conscientiously com- 
piled statistics, which throw interesting sidelights on our Catholic 
school system." 

This comment is still more applicable to the interesting volume 
now before us. The Second Annual Year Book of the Superintendent 
of Catholic Schools of the Archdiocese of St. Louis (for 1912) is 
larger in bulk and even more valuable than its predecessor. The 
first contained 122 pages; the second is a splendidly printed volume 
of 180 pages. A welcome addition, not found in the first Year Book, 
are the questions for the April examinations of last year in the various 
grades of the parochial schools. 

The reverend editor has wisely chosen to insert, as a strong recom- 
mendation of his own plea for the need of Catholic schools, "Im- 
portant Decrees of the Third Council of Baltimore" and "Synodal 
Statutes [of St. Louis] concerning our Parochial Schools." It were 
hard to pick out from the numerous statistical tables just those which 
are the most interesting and useful. But it seems that the comparttive 
table showing graduates' occupations (p. 50) will be scanned carefully 
by all those interested in our school work. This table shows in its 
upper section the per cent of graduates of Catholic primary schools 
who are now attending other schools ; in its lower section, the per cent 
at work. The study of "Retardation," with its accompanying dia- 
gram (pp. 62 and 63), will appeal especially to the grade teachers. 
The elaborate statistical tables from pages 80 to 98, give a complete 
view of the work, enrollment, and personnel of our schools. 

The Year Book concludes with an account of the Proceedings and 
Addresses of the Fifth Annual Teachers' Meeting. Among the pa, -en 
here given the one on "The Study of English in the Grades" (page 
147) contains good suggestions. Teachers of English in our Catholic 
schools will, no doubt, agree with its writer that "The time has 
passed when our language or English lesson shall consist in simply 
memorizing rules of syntax and in analyzing sentences." 



13- 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 



The Necessity and Dignity of Labor 

By C. Meurfr, Editor of the "Arkansas Echo/' Little: Rock, Ark. 

The struggle between Capital and Labor is more intense today 
than it ever was before. For this reason these subjects require closer 
attention. Let us begin with the study of Labor, in order to obtain 
a clear idea about it. 

First of all we need an undisputed basis, and this we find in the 
book of Genesis. Gen. I, 26: "And He said: Let us make man to 
our image and likeness ; and let him have dominion over the fishes 
of the sea and the fowls of the air, and the beasts, and the whole 
earth, and every creeping creature that moveth upon the earth." Gen. 
IL15: "And the Lord God took man and put him into the para- 
dise of pleasure, to dress it, and keep it." Gen. Ill, 17 sq. "And to 
Adam He said: Because thou hast hearkened to the voice of thy 
wife, and hast eaten of the tree, whereof I commanded thee that thou 
should not eat, cursed is the earth in thy work; with labor and toil 
thou shalt eat thereof all the days of thy life. Thorns and thistles 
shall it bring forth to thee ; and thou shalt eat the herbs of the earth." 

Moses did not write Genesis for either profane or purely scien- 
tific purposes, and the question of labor cannot be classified with 
either of them, as we shall see. 

In Genesis I, 26 we find the "Magna Charta" of labor. It teaches 
us, that God made man after his own image and likeness. Therefore 
He gave him faculties by which he is the image of God, and the more 
man exercises these faculties the more will he be like unto God. It 
follows, that the Creator had to give man an opportunity to exercise 
his faculties and thus develop this likeness always and under all 
circumstances. 

We therefore note that the first act of God, after the creation, 
was to put him into Paradise, directing him to work and to cultivate 
the same. 

It is evident that God's first commandment to man was to labor; 
from which fact we conclude that labor must be the faculty which 
is to show forth the likeness of man to God, and by which the image 
of God is most clearly and truly manifested. 

Man consists of body and soul. The connection between the two 
is so intimate that neither can act without the other. The soul is the 
controlling power of man, but it cannot act or think without the brain. 
There is no human activity possible, in which one of the two alone, 
soul or body, is operative. Whenever the soul acts, it is dependent 
upon the organs of the body. 



XX s THE FORTXIl'.HTLY REVIEW 133 

By labor man becomes a creator himself and thereby proves his 
likeness to God. 

Considering these statements in the light of human progress, we 
may well say that man has used this faculty to work for the purpose 
for which God gave it to him. He has used it to such advantage that 
he has actually succeeded in wiping out, to a great extent, the penalty 
due to the fall of our first parents. He employs animals to perform 
his hard labor, nay, he has even harnessed the mysterious powers of 
nature to serve him. It is labor that produces all our commodities and 
the necessaries of life. Our homes, churches, and palaces have all 
been built by labor; our clothing, furniture, implements, in fact every- 
thing we possess and enjoy, has been produced and become our own 
by labor. 

Labor is the creator of our civilization; it has conquered time and 
space ; it has given us an image of God's omnipotence and supreme 
wisdom, and consequently we can say that labor reveals and develops 
the image of God in man, provided he does his work as God wills. 

Labor is consequently most ennobling and bestows the highest 
honor upon man; it makes him a true knight of the Almighty, and in- 
creases the likeness he bears to his Creator. 

The Fall did not destroy man's faculty to work, hence it did not 
destroy the image of God in man, and consequently redemption was 
possible. 

But the fall of man had other consequences. It entailed fatigue 
and pain and a propensity to evil. In order to render the image of 
God transparent over the first, and to weaken the effects of the latter, 
man must carry the burden of toil and care, and he must struggle 
against temptation and passions, which in tendency and effect often 
induce him to act against the will of God. 

Free-will must be applied to all work, therefore animals cannot 
work. Man however can utilize the greater strength of animals ; he 
can work and use the forces of nature. 

Man works either in union with the will of God, or against it ; 
there is no neutral ground. If he works as God wills, then his work 
brings him nearer to God, renders the divine image in him more per- 
fect ; but if he works against God's will, then his will destroys the actual 
likeness of God and reduces it to a mere potentiality. Our work 
will therefore always be either for or against God. 

The Creator, in His Wisdom, has so arranged the human faculties 
that each man can work and reach his eternal destination under all 
circumstances, even if his work should be non-productive. Hence 



134 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 



prayer, contemplation and study, as well as farming and mining, 
are to be classed as true labor. The belief in God the Creator 
requires that we devote some of the time He has given us to His ex- 
clusive service, and to use the faculties, which he gave us, to deepen 
our knowledge of Him. 

Comparison of the will of God and His commandments, with 
the actual condition of things today, enables us to find the proper 
solution of the social question, which as Christians we may formulate 
thus: What is the social order according to the will of God? 

All labor performed by divine command is necessary labor. God 
has declared unto us through His Son, that we are all children of 
the same Heavenly Father, and as such, all have the same rights. He 
told Adam to govern the earth, but He gave to none of Adam's off- 
spring the right to enslave another to force and impose his work upon 
his brethren, and to shift from his own shoulders the burden which 
God has laid upon all men. 

God created man and nature; He gave the positive as well as the 
natural laws. In accordance with the will of the Lord, the Creator 
of all men and all things, men will reach the highest state of civili- 
zation only if they work as God commands. He has made labor the 
basis of His service and of civilization and culture. 

Hopeful Signs of the Times 

By D. J. Scannlix O'Neill 

There is an unmistakable trend in our modern civilization toward 
neighborliness. Men are gradually becoming a little more considerate 
of one another. There is more of a disposition to think in terms of 
unity and fraternity. The old order is changing. The progress may 
be slow, but it is real. 

True, our friend, the pessimist, rises to remark that the progress 
toward a real brotherliness is practically imperceptible. He raises 
questions that seem to indicate that the movement is backward, not 
forward. Is not, he asks, the most marked feature of our day its 
organized selfishness ? 

But for all the questions of our pessimistic friend, and despite 
the prima facie case he may seem to have established, taking a com- 
prehensive view and comparing decade with decade, it is altogether 
certain that we have made a big advance toward a more social and 
fraternal organization of society. As indicating the advance made: — 
witness the splendid and far-reaching organizations for social ser- 



XX 5 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 135 

vice, for relieving social conditions, for helping the less fortunate to 
make the most of his right and liberty and the pursuit of happiness. 
Witness the consideration that is given to the demands of the great 
industrial working classes ; the mighty influence that class is wield- 
ing in politics and on legislation ; the distinct gain that class has 
shown in independence, confidence, and self-respect, the growing 
disposition to give hand-workers equal respect and recognition with 
brain-workers and the aristocracy of wealth. 

Witness the great body of legislation in recent years looking 
to the protection and welfare of toilers, to public health, to the rights 
of women and children, to social justice and the "square deal" for 
every man. 

Verily, brethren, we are moving on. A truce, then, to pessi- 
mism ! 

A Decent Daily 

By F. R. Gleaner 

Under the above title the N. Y. Independent says (No. 3347): 
"Does 'decent' journalism pay? This is a query that is not of 
much interest to newspapermen. Most of them believe that it does 
not pay, and cannot be made to pay. Therefore it is dismissed with- 
out being given serious thought. By 'decent' journalism is meant 
papers that do not print sensational news simply because it is sen- 
sational, that do not emphasize vice and crime, that tell the truth 
without fear as they see it, that do not color or kill their news to 
suit their advertisers, that do not print advertisements that they 
have reason to believe may mislead or defraud their readers — that 
in every way play fair with their readers. 

Some five years ago there was this kind of a paper established 
in Boston, the Christian Science Monitor. Its creed is about in ac- 
cord with the above outline, and in addition it ruled out typographic 
hysteria. It was established by the Christian Science church, and 
its original plans were made by Airs. Alary Baker G. Eddy. Though 
having 'Christian Science' in its title, and though it is absolutely owned 
by that church, it is not an organ, in the ordinary sense. Nor does 
it print Christian Science news, or attempt to further a sectarian 
propaganda. There is each day, in a specified position, one short 
article bearing upon the principles of the denomination. All the rest 
is just newspaper. It is a clean, dignified, able, interesting, well- 
edited paper. It is well printed, without 'bull' type either in its text or 
advertisements. It is tastefully set, its advertisements being set in 



I3 6 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

a general light-face effect, with the use of a limited variety of type 
belonging to the same family; its headings being sufficiently bold 
to readily indicate the character of the text. The press-work is ex- 
ceptionally good, so that the paper looks clean, wholesome and at- 
tractive. There are pictures, made to be used in that paper — clean 
and sharp and well printed, but not garish or smudgy, made so by 
trying to make an impossible halftone from an impossible photo- 
graphic print. 

No advertisements of tobacco in any form, liquor in any form, 
patent medicines, mining stocks, land speculations, real-estate that 
offers land in a speculative spirit, or other classes that the managers 
feel may lead to loss among the readers, are admitted. The mer- 
chants who advertise are not permitted to ring the changes upon 
comparative prices which have "value" for one element. They may 
state actual former prices in comparison with bargain prices, but 
they are sometimes required to show their invoices to get that priv- 
ilege. 

The managers swept away many of the long-established news- 
paper traditions. The editorial rooms are much like small private 
sitting-rooms. There is no evidence of the usual bustle of the or- 
dinary newspaper office, and none of the dirt and litter. There is 
plenty of light and air. There is no smoking, and no profanity. 
There is abundant unassuming courtesy for every person who calls. 
The work rooms are well ordered, neat, free of all kinds of litter. 

The machinery is always on dress parade The paper is shrewdly 

conducted. It is optimistic to a degree. Nobody dies— they 'pass 
over'; and when eminent citizens pas over they are allowed to go 
on their long journey with but a brief godspeed. Quarrels and scan- 
dals are ignored. News is given for its worth. Sometimes there is 
a well-written column report of an event given but a few lines by 
the other papers, and vice versa — very often vice versa. There is 
always much human interest in the paper, and it must be said that it 
is always very proper human interest. It is often so proper as to 
be dull. But it goes with the people. They like it. They read it, 
in larger numbers every month. When the Monitor appeared in 
Boston it had very few readers outside of members of the Christian 
Science organization. The newspapermen and advertising men looked 
it over professionally. For quite some months it made no mark. 
Then people began to buy it. The business men took it home. They 
found it a great relief, after a strenuous day. Its urbane policy was 
very soothing. It had all the local news any paper had. It had all 
the national news any paper had. It had a large body of good read- 



XX 5 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 137 

ing that the other papers did not have. It avoided the "comics." It 
dealt with local business matters as no other paper ever did. It had 
articles from all over the world, and they were well written and 
often well illustrated. 

But the great strength of this paper is, and has been, that it is 
clean, in its news and in its advertisements — rigorously and consis- 
tently clean, all the time — and it is independent. However weak it 
may be, and of course there are plenty of people who think it too 
weak and 'washy' to endure, its weakness is its own, planned and 
executed with open eyes and complete realization that it is weak, 
from the point of view of the ordinary newspaper reader. It has 
the courage to be as weak as its conception of what a clean news- 
paper should be demands. It has the courage of its weakness, which 
may be as admirable as to be bold and brassy and salacious and 
sensational because of a fancied demand for that sort of a newspaper. 

One of the great news agencies says that its service has been 
improved to the extent of 25 percent on account of the demands of 
the Christian Science Monitor for only clean news. That is a great 
record. What other force of any kind could have been exerted upon 
such an agency to induce it to raise the quality of its service 25 per- 
cent? Other newspapers are adopting the Monitor s standards. They 
have watched it, seen it grow and thrive, and concluded to try the 
same policy. Papers are clipping the editorials from the Monitor. 
They are not copyrighted. Whoever will may have them. One news- 
paper in the far Northwest not long ago "lifted" the whole editorial 
page of the Monitor, and used it, line for line; and without a word 
of credit! 

There are other reforms and innovations beside cleanliness that 
the Monitor is inaugurating. There are some musty theories it is 
dislodging. It is showing that it is possible to print and distribute 
profitably, an international newspaper. It is weakening the 'timely' 
fetish. It is sending papers to all the corners of the world. It has 
a circulation in London almost equal to a respectably patronized local 
paper. Its circulation in Boston is already larger than that of the 
best Boston evening paper. Its business is steadily increasing. It 
has spent a lot of money to establish itself, but it is rapidly paying 
that back to the church treasury." 

Thus far the Independent. There is something encouraging in 
this report for the advocates of a Catholic daily press. If the 
Christian Scientists can publish a clean daily paper and make it self- 



i 3 8 THE FORTXICHTLY REVIEW 1913 

supporting, why cannot we Catholics do the same? We are far more 
numerous and wealthier than the Eddyites. 

The truth of the matter is, we are not sufficiently awake to the 
importance of the daily press. Oh, for a hrisk Kulturkamfff to wake 
us up and put us on our mettle ! 

Catholic Leakage: Its Cause 

By A Catholic Missionary 

In a previous article (Fortnightly Review, Mid-Nov. 1912) 
I gave undeniable proofs of a most appalling apostasy from the Church 
in the United States, Canada, the British Isles and Germany. 1 Xo less 
than 63 millions have fallen away. 

What are the causes of that leakage and which are the means 
to check it ? 

The causes of such an enormous defection must have been over- 
powering. A true conception of them will give us the key to most 
of the evils from which the Church in the United States and Canada 
is suffering at present. 

I shall first consider a few less important causes. Some point 
to the work of secret societies among our Catholic people ; others 
to the neglect of religious duties, or the prevailing spirit of indiffer- 
ence, a too worldly life, etc. But the victims of these causes still 
call themselves Catholics. They may not go to church, but they 
have not renounced their faith and are reckoned among the 10,129,677 
Catholics of 1901. We are not discussing the quality of our Cath- 
olics, but their number. 

Though by far less potent than the causes I shall speak of pres- 
ently, lack of priests has cost the Church perhaps no less than 
one million souls. But this does not explain the loss of some 25 
million others. 

One chief cause of the apostasy of so many Catholics in my 
opinion is the use of a Protestant and Protestantizing language. Eng- 
lish is a Protestantizing language, and all the nations who adopt it — 
unless they be situated quite differently from ours — will, in the long 
run, turn Protestant. All we can do in the matter is to postpone 
the change. To prevent it is almost impossible, too many causes are 
at work. 

1 A few misprints in that article millions;" (2) The quotation from 

should be corrected: (1) Dr. Condon the Ecclesiastical Review was from 

says, Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. VIII, Oct. 1902, not 1912; (3) About the 

p. 136: "The number of Irish middle of page 615, instead of per- 

would appear to be no less than thirty centage.... higher, read lower. 



XX 5 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 159 

The use and practice of the English language unavoidably en- 
tails dreadful dangers for our Catholic immigrants ; e. g., relations and 
companionship perilous, not to good morals perhaps, but to the faith ; 
the constant reading of pernicious literature, etc. (Mentality, we know, 
is very largely the result of environment and of the literature one 
reads.) And, last but not least, mixed marriages. 

Each of these causes, under conditions like ours, operates with 
overwhelming force. How could one resist the combined action of the 
three? The wonder is not that we have lost 25 out of about 35 mil- 
lions, but that we have kept 10,129,677 in such unfavorable circum- 
stances ! 

We know the strong and irresistible influence of association and 
surroundings, especially on people of the lower classes. "Show me your 
friends," says the proverb, "'and I will tell you what kind of a man 
you are." Scattered among Protestants, our Catholics are in daily 
often friendly and intimate family relations with them. How could 
they keep the Catholic spirit? Unconsciously but inevitably they ab- 
sorb Protestant yiews and ideas, and fall into Protestant ways. 
Slowly but surely they imbibe Protestantism. And what is worse, 
our Catholics, as a rule, are socially and financially inferior to the 
Protestants. As a consequence they receive all the impact of the 
Protestant influence, but do not return any. 

We too often forget that defection from the faith as from good 
morals is not sudden but prepared by a slow process. It may take 
a few generations to complete the work of Protestantization, but it 
is steadily going on. 

The greatest danger, however, is the habitual reading of Protes- 
tant literature. Is it not a fact that Protestant or secular literature 
is almost the only intellectual pabulum of most American Catholics? 
Our people read the secular daily papers, worldly magazines, Protes- 
tant books, etc. Often, it is true, these periodicals contain nothing di- 
rectly against our religion, but the spirit and tendency are Protestant 
and sometimes intensely so. Thus we undergo in spite of ourselves 
a Protestant training all the year round. What a power in the hands 
of the enemies of our holy religion ! 

We know the power of the press on the people, and even on 
priests and bishops. Politicians know that power also and use it. 
A Jewish Free-Mason, addressing a convert, said : "Get the press 
and don't mind the rest. If you have the press, you have everything." 
The Protestants have our press, I mean the one we read, and with 
it they are taking away everything, even our religion. 



140 



THE FORTXICHTLY REVIEW 1013 



Many priests do not suspect the dangers to their people from 
this source. They themselves read Protestant and secular papers, 
magazines, and books and don't suffer from it. At least they think 
so Be it so! But the case is quite different with ordinary peo- 
ple. Priests are learned and they can detect a falsehood, recognize and 
refute a sophism, solve objections and difficulties, etc. The ordinary 
Catholic will not be able to do so and his faith is lessened, shaken 
or even destroyed by such reading. Every man has not a water- 
tight partition between his faith and the false but apparently de- 
structive arguments he may find in those books, magazines or papers. 
And what is more distressing, Catholics read those books or papers 
in every state of mind, when their soul is battered by temptations, 
passions, ambition, and needs but a pretext or sophism to cause it 
to shake off the yoke of the Catholic faith. 

An objection is often raised (I beg pardon for the digression). 
There are bad books, bad papers and magazines in Catholic countries 

also, and Catholics meet also with bad company Yes, but just as 

your toothache does not soothe my earache, so the miseries of other 
countries do not better our condition. This much must be said in 
their favor. They have plenty of good Catholic literature, while we 
have none, or hardly any. America lately said that La Croix of Paris, 
with her sisters Croix of the departments, issues 1,000,000 copies 
daily. And besides there are in France a number of other good daily 
and weekly papers. In Spain, the number and quality of the Cath- 
olic press is scarcely inferior to those of the bad and worldly papers. 
In Belgium it must be about the same if not better. Our condition 
on that question of paramount importance could hardly be worse 
than it is. 

Mixed marriages are probably the most destructive agency at 
work among us to the detriment of the faith. Shall I dare to call 
them the third cause of leakage, seeing that they are really but the 
natural result of the other two? Mixed marriages are generally the 
door or exit out of the Church. The Messenger of the Sacred Heart 
Aug. 1905, page 179—180, said that the offspring of mixed mar- 
riages generally is lost to the faith after one or two generations. 
How could it be otherwise. And yet, the number of such mar- 
riages is constantly increasing. Parishes with a percentage of 30% 
or 40%, of the families living in mixed marriages are not a rare ex- 
ception. And no wonder. The ideal husband of a great many Cath- 
olic girls, is a Protestant. I have personally heard more than one 
confess this openly. I have also heard priests and bishops lament 
this alarming state of affairs. This idea of "silly Catholic girls who 



XX 5 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 141 

look upon Protestants as superior beings and think they will rise 
in society when they marry a heretic'' (words of a bishop) cannot but 
increase the number of mixed marriages and prepare new apostasies. 
Have we done our best to combat this foolish notion? Do not 
many of us practically encourage it and hail mixed marriages as an ef- 
fective means of destroying Protestant prejudices against the Church? 
Do we not encourage our people to make friends and associate with non- 
Catholics, forgetting that from intimate friendship to marriage is 
only one step? Of course, when the question of a mixed marriage 
comes in, our conscience is stirred, and we scold the foolish girl for 
her want of good sense and loyalty to her religion ; — but it is too 
late. Our position is that of a mother lamenting the elopement of 
her girl after four or five years of a free and foolish courtship. 

The worst feature about mixed marriages for the parties them- 
selves is that the Catholic girl marrying into a Protestant family is 
generally of a social condition inferior to that of her husband. She 
is supposed to repay the privilege of being admitted into that family 
by the sacrifice of her religion or at least the religion of her children. 
Often there is no peace unless she enters into compromising acts of 
some kind. If the husband be a Catholic, we have to reckon with the 
obsequiousness of Adam towards Eve. 

If Catholic girls are so fond of Protestants, it is partly because 
Protestant young men are fond of Catholic girls. It has become the 
fashion for Protestant young men — several Catholic papers com- 
plained of it lately — to marry Catholic girls. They know Catholic girls 
are pure and more virtuous than others. Catholic girls are pleased 
and proud to receive those complimentary attentions. Hence the 
increase of mixed marriages. Would to God the "barrier of prejudices."' 
had been kept up. It was a safe wall. 

More anon. 



Frequency of Confession for Daily Communicants 

By Sacsrdos 

Although we know that confession before Holy Communion is 
necessary only when one is conscious of having committed a mortal sin, 
most of us would not like to see devotional confessions done away 
with altogether. The sacrament of penance confers special graces, both 
ex opere operato and on account of the different virtues practiced 
by the penitent, especially humility, and it is consequently in high favor 
with many pious souls. 



142 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

But no one should hesitate to omit confession, when not absolutely 
necessary, rather than postpone or omit Holy Communion. The 
value and advantage of the two sacraments are very unequal. Daily 
communicants need not go to confession at stated times. It should 
be left to the devotion of each individual to make a devotional con- 
fession as often as the need or impulse is felt. 

The mind of the Church in this matter can be easily ascertained 
from the decree of Pius X, of February 14, 1906. 

Formerly, both confession and Communion were required for the 
gaining of certain indulgences. Then in 1763, Pope Clement XIII 
decided that weekly confession was sufficient to enable one to gain all 
the indulgences that can be gained. Our present Holy Father, by the 
decree of February 14, 1906, has entirely done away with the obliga- 
tion of confession for daily communicants. Lehmkuhl, in the latest 
(nth J edition of his Theologia M oralis (Vol. II, p. 391), sums up 
the contents of this important decree as follows: 

"Imnio ii, qui quotidie ant fere quotidie (5 vel 6ies in hebdomada) 
ad S. Communionem recta piaque mente accedcre solent, indulgcntias 
omnes lucrari possunt sine hebdomadaria confessione. Ita Pius X 
per Deer. S. C. hid. d. 14 Fcbr. 1906 (cf. Acta S. Sedis XXXIX 63)." 

From this we may conclude that the Holy Father knows there 
are a number of daily communicants who do not go to confession 
frequently or at stated times, and wishes them to be in a position 
to gain all indulgences, even those to which ordinarily confession is 
attached as a necessary condition. 

Frequent Communion Made Easy for School Children 

By a Pastor 

In reading the last number of the Review, I noticed the remarks 
about P. B. J.'s suggestions as to solving the breakfast question for 
school children who wish to receive Holy Communion on school days. 

I will mention to you the way in which we have arranged it in 
this parish ; if you think the point worth mentioning you may make 
use of it ; would ask however, please not to mention my name, as I 
consider myself one of the younger men who ought not to crowd to 
the front. 

Our arrangement is this: instead of having recess for 15 minutes 
at 10.15, we give the children ten minutes recess after Mass (which 
is at 8 o'clock ) ; after this recess, we give them study time till 9 
o'clock; at 10.30 we give them a short recess. The reason is this: 
those children who receive Holy Communion during Mass, have ten 



XX s THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 143 

minutes time after Mass to continue their thanksgiving, while the 
others have recess ; those who go to Holy Communion in this way 
are glad to sacrifice those few minutes ; they then have time to take 
their breakfast, either quietly in the class room, or, if they wish, 
in the heated basement of the church ; and the little free time that 
they loose, and the study time which they do not get as abundantly 
as the others, is more than compensated by their devotion and spirit 
of sacrifice, but especially by the wonderful effects of Holy Com- 
munion, of which many people have hardly any idea. 

I wish to add that the scheme works to perfect satisfaction. The 
children in question are small children, living two miles and even 
farther away from the church. Now and then even some who live 
as far as six miles from the church go to Communion on week days, 
and I have not yet found a case in which the children's health or the 
school work has suffered in consequence of the practice. 

In closing, I wish to thank the Review very heartily for the 
comprehensive treatment it has been giving to the matter of frequent 
and daily Holy Communion. I am convinced that it is doing an 
immense amount of good. 

Was the Week the Original Unit of Ecclesiastical Time? 

By C. D. U. 

In recent articles in the London Month Father Herbert Thurston, 
S. J., advocates the theory (which will seem novel to many readers) 
that "for the first century and a half after the Ascension of Jesus 
Christ, the Church regarded not the year but the week as the unit 
of ecclesiastical time, and that the early Christians were, consequently, 
so absorbed in the zveekly celebration of the betrayal, the Passion, and 
the Resurrection of our Lord, that they saw no need to establish any 
annual festival, or system of festivals. It was only after a time, when 
long residence in contact with Roman and Greek civilization had 
weakened the Jewish influences dominant in the birth-land of the 
new faith, and when acquaintance with the Julian calendar with 
its uniform year had facilitated the practice of anniversary com- 
memorations, that Christians began to ask themselves whether it 
was not seemly that they should celebrate in the spring season with 
special solemnity the memory of our Savior's death and triumph 
over the grave." 

This hypothesis would indeed seem to supply a reasonable and 
natural explanation of many things which are otherwise full of diffi- 
culty. 



144 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

To begin with, there is the paschal controversy, which for several 
centuries constantly threatened the Church with disruption. "On 
the theory that the Easter festival was of Apostolic institution," says 
Fr. Thurston, "it is extremely hard to understand how quite different 
systems of reckoning Easter can have prevailed among Christians in 
different parts of the world, and yet have left no trace of their 
presence and no hint of difference of opinion until the middle of the 
second century. ... If the Apostles were agreed in ordaining that 
an Easter festival ought to be kept, would they not also have been 
agreed in determining in some manner the time of its recurrence? But 
if, on the other hand, we suppose that it was only in the second 
century that the practice of celebrating our Lord's Passion and Resur- 
rection by an annual commemoration began to establish itself, all 
becomes intelligible. The usage would have grown up independently 
in different places, and its adoption would have been gradual. But 
in time, as the observance spread and finally became general, the 
inconvenience of following quite different systems would have made 
itself felt. The adherents of each system would have appealed to 
a local tradition, and would no doubt attach it to some more or less 
legendary apostolical foundation. We should have, in fact just that 
atmosphere of good faith and controversy which we know from 
St. Irenaeus to have existed in the latter half of the second century. 

Again, there is the difficulty regarding the chronological details 
of our Lord's life, and more particularly the date of His Passion and 
Resurrection. "Modern rationalists appeal to this uncertainty as an 
argument against the historical existence of Jesus Christ. But once 
we assume that the Christians of the first century thought nothing 
of anniversaries, seeing that the Jewish reckoning of time was ill 
adapted for exactitude in such celebrations, but that they were satis- 
fied to honor the mysteries of our Redemption by weekly fasts on 
Wednesday and Friday, and assemblies on the Lord's day, the diffi- 
culty practically vanishes. Moreover, we begin to understand how it 
may have been that the Evangelists, who are all so precise and clear 
in recording that Jesus Christ was crucified on the Parasceve and rose 
again on the first day of the week, supply confusing and apparently 
inconsistent indications when we interrogate them regarding the re- 
lation of these dates to the Jewish pasch and the counting of days 
in the month Nisan. These questions w T ere from their point of view, 
and from that of the first few generations of Christians, of no prac- 
tical interest. They became of practical interest only when it was 
too late for the very imperfect methods of historical research known 
in those days to hope to pick up the threads and to calculate securely 



XX s THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 145 

back to a definite point of time to be expressed in terms of the Julian 
calendar." 

The theory, thus roughly outlined, receives indirect support from 
a study of the subsequent introduction of other feasts, notably those 
of the Ascension and Pentecost. The interested reader will find this 
aspect of Fr. Thurston's theory developed in Xo. 564 of the Month, 
from which our above quotations are taken. The matter is worthy 
of careful study. 

Christianity and "Woman's Rights" 

[Extracts from a 16-PAGE Paper by the Rev. Jos. Keating, S. T. 
in The Month, No. 566.] 

The family is a society, and no society can in the nature of things 
subsist without authority and corresponding subordination. To be 
stable, it must contain within itself the means of ending the possible 
conflict of its members' wills. Some final authority is necessary for 
progress and peace. 

But why should the man lead rather than the woman? God 
Himself arranged it so : one of the two had to be chosen, and, having 
in view the object of the institution of marriage, man's peculiar apti- 
tudes made him fittest to lead. 

Marriage is, indeed, a free contract, but it is something vastly 
more. A third Will enters into it, that of the Creator, who has decreed 
every such contract to be indissoluble except by death, and, whilst it 
endures, to be a bar to any similar relation. When Christ our Lord 
took this solemn marriage-contract, and made it one of the mystic 
grace-conferring rites of the Christian Church, He proclaimed anew 
its unity and permanence. It is, therefore, a true society, though the 
smallest possible, and demands, as all social organisms must do, 
a head and a body. 

Round this one point the whole of the Woman Question turns, — 
is the Christian ideal of marriage to prevail, or shall a mere contract 
system take its place? Here, at any rate, Christian teaching is de- 
cisive; whatever development really endangers the essence or integrity 
of the family is ipso facto condemned. If the "emancipation'" of 
woman makes her a worse wife and mother, still more if it inhabili- 
tates her for those sacred functions altogether, it is proceeding on 
wholly false lines and must end in disaster. 

The two branches of the human race are not meant to live apart 
or pursue independent interests. Their mutual perfection is to be 
found in union, and the peace and permanence of that union, as things 
are, is bound up with the ultimate predominance of the male partner. 



146 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

This, so important in theory, does not amount to very much in 
practice. Xo constitutional monarch is so rigidly kept within limits 
as the husband. He cannot flatter himself that his right is due to 
his personal qualities ; it is based, not upon superior force or on mental 
or spiritual excellence, but solely on the will of his Maker who, by 
the institution of marriage, has wished to make provision for the 
welfare of the race, not for merely individual interests. Furthermore, 
his authority is confined to matters of graver concern, which the 
higher law of conscience has not already determined: it is not arbitary 
and enforced by fear as on a servant, but reasonable and accepted 
through love by a companion. On the part of the wife her sub- 
mission is a voluntary restriction of liberty for the sake of a higher 
good, such as made by all law-abiding citizens in regard to the good 
of society at large. 

St. Paul, who is so emphatic on the duty of wifely submission, 
insists with as much emphasis on the husband's duty of loving and 
cherishing his wife. Surely, if ever obedience came recommended by 
ease and reasonableness, and sweetened by religious considerations 
and saintly example — for the Mother of God herself was subject to 
St. Joseph— it is that which forms the gentle yoke of Christian mar- 
riage. To reject it as a degradation is, in essence, to repudiate all au- 
thority save that whatis self-chosen for mere self-interest ; itis the eter- 
nal protest of human pride against the pressure of a higher Will. The 
Feminism which is tainted with this revolt, can meet with no sup- 
port from Christian teaching, because it is itself a denial of the 
Church's right to teach, and in particular of the Church's conception 
of the sacrament of marriage. 

There is nothing in itself blameworthy in woman competing with 
man in industries and professions suited to her strength and peculiar 
talents. Although her providential place is the kingdom of home 
and her normal functions the propagation and training of the younger 
generation, still, her excess in numbers over men which debars many 
from matrimony, and the hard economic conditions in which she 
finds herself, married or single, make it often necessary for her to 
engage in work on her own account. The neccessity is to be de- 
plored, especially if the tasks she is compelled to undertake involve 
the risk of physical or moral degradation. 

In the interest of the race itself, woman should be relieved from 
the task of breadwinning in order to devote herself to what she 
alone can do. She has her own heavy share in the primal curse. Why 
should she be anxious to add to it that of Adam as well? So, the 
Church would counsel her to avoid, when possible, whatever gives 



XX 5 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW* 147 

a distaste for home-life and the domestic virtues, whatever tends 
to obliterate sex-distinctions or provoke sex-rivalry, whatever is de- 
structive of her natural refinement and modesty. Economic inde- 
pendence is doubtless a good and desirable thing, but it is dearly 
purchased by the loss of true womanliness and of that complete fusion 
of two lives and interests which results from Christian marriage. 



The Material Element in Religion 

By C. E. d'Arnoux 

The Revue Philosophique {Vol. XXIV, Xo. 556) classes Catho- 
licity among the materialistic religions, — a class embracing ancient and 
modern pagans, fetchists, and stone or wood worshippers. Our con- 
temporary inveighs against church and altar bells, candles, incense, 
vestments ; ridicules the dogma of vicarious atonement through a 
bloody sacrifice, and calls Catholics theophagoi. In conclusion it pre- 
dicts decay for Catholicity, and points to France's religious status as 
the logical outcome of materialism in religion. 

It is simply useless to refute the premises, — they have been 
refuted ad nauseam ; but the conclusion deserves a reply. 

The trend of philosophy today is away from matter and towards 
pure spirit, possibly as a reaction from the crude materialism of the 
last century. 

The "Reformers" had already abolished all ceremonial, incense, 
candles, pictures, the sacrifice of the Mass, vestments and even the 
cross; they had done away with the material postulate of inner grace 
in the sacraments, denied the value of good works, and relied en- 
tirely an sentiment exemplified in the misapplied text "I feel that my 
Redeemer liveth." They supplanted law by individual opinion, and the 
God-given ritual by man-made regulations. 

The logical conclusion of the Reformers' premises has been ex- 
pressed in the most modern "fad" in religion, which denies matter 
altogether, and asserts that spirit is the only reality. 

May I say. by the way, that God-given religion, old and new, 
is a law imposed on man, whose spirit cannot, in life, be reached 
except through his senses ; and that one criterion of the true religion is. 
therefore, the element of sense in it. The Levitic code addressed 
itself to the senses, and Christ Himself cured with the spittle of his 
lips, with sand, etc., enforced baptism by water, assumed a human 
nature, lived, suffered and died in the flesh, and established a visible 
Church. 

But let me proceed to France. 



I4 8 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

I have spent my infancy, youth, and early manhood in that 
unfortunate country, and have watched the process of disintegration 
of religious sentiment. 

It is not materialism in religion that has created such apathy, 
but its lack. The process was by gradual steps, and consisted in the 
elimination of the material element from religion. 

For twenty-five years, to my knowledge, the French peasantry 
have had no sermons, no catechism classes; and when on occasions, 
in large centers, there was a sermon, it consisted of a transcendental 
excursion, "far above the heads of the audience"; or again the 
"preacher" would read a printed sermon with such volubility of enun- 
ciation that the audience would, usually, heave a sigh of relief as 
he closed the book with a long drawn of "Amen," probably the 
only word clearly uttered. 

And this lack of preaching, this reading of printed sermons, or 
transcendental sermons, was not confined to the rural districts. 

The priest would get through his low Mass on Sundays in twenty 
minutes or less, then lock the church until the following Sunday. 
There were no Vespers, no Benediction. Marriages were never cele- 
brated in the church; civil marriage was sufficient. Gradually the 
church bells lost their tongues, and the altar bells fell asleep from 
a lack of acolytes. The Sunday ceased to be a day of rest and de- 
votion,— everybody worked on Sundays and holydays as on ordinary 
week days. I do not remember a parish priest ever having gone 
on a sick call or administered the last sacraments. First Communion 
celebrations were a matter of ancient history, and there was so little 
stress laid on the annual communion, that practically no one observed 
the law regarding it. No one thought of having a child baptized or 
confirmed (except in cities). Seminaries large enough to accommodate 
two or three hundred students had, probably, eight or ten. The rubrics 
were utterly neglected; I myself have seen a priest say Mass in 
cassock and surplice without server, bells or lighted candles. 

Since the separation of Church and State conditions are, if pos- 
sible, even worse, because the country priest is now compelled to 
make his livelihood either by farming or in some other way. 

It was the gradual elimination of the material element in religion 
that loosened the bonds of faith in France; and if I mistake not, 
the quality of matter now introduced in the three, four and five col- 
lections taken up on Sundays at each Mass, the marshal with hat and 
staff preceding the collector in city churches and loudly announcing 
its purpose, will still further rob the clergy of popular respect, and 
class them among common beggars. 



XX 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



149 



Man, consisting of body and soul, requires the sensible element 
in religion, the tangible ; spirits might be well served by a purely 
spiritual cult. Xo congregation can be held together long, unless there 
be an occasional checking of those who do their duties and those 
who neglect them, of ascertaining weak spots that need strengthening. 

Religion to be Christ-like must appeal through the senses ; and 
poor France has fallen into religious apathy from a lack of just such 
an appeal. 

FLOTSAM AND JETSAM 



An Explanation 

Rev. Fr. H. J. Maeckel, S. J., 
of Canisius College, Buffalo, N.Y., 
requests us to publish the follow- 
ing: 

In Volume XX, page 90, of the 
Fortnightly Review, the Rev. John 
A. Ryan, D.D., discussing the merits 
of my little pamphlet, Modern Social- 
ism, makes the following remarks : 

"In this pamphlet we have a clear 
and moderate discussion of Socialism 
....One or two overstatements seem, 
however, to have escaped the vigi- 
lance of the author. On page 9 he 
maintains that, even if economic So- 
cialism would be able to attain all the 
ends of private ownership of capital, 
the State could not rightfully take 
from the individual such power of 
ownership unless every individual had 
given his consent. .. .The second in- 
conclusive statement is that Socialism, 
as an economic organization, is neces- 
sarily adverse to marriage and the 
family/' 

The first statement, as formulated 
by Father Ryan, is not to be found 
in the pamphlet. Father Maeckel did 
maintain that the State cannot abol- 
ish the right of private property in 
the means of production without the 
consent of every individual. "But 
that compact," he remarked, "would 
bind only those individuals who had 
consented thereto, but not their chil- 
dren, since they would receive the 
right of having means of production, 
not from their parents, but from 
nature." 



The reason for this statement is 
clear. The right of private property 
(also in the means of production) 
arises in man as an individual and 
domestic right, and therefore is sub- 
stantially prior to civil society and 
independent of it, just as the human 
person and the family are prior to 
civil society and independent of it. 
For "every man," says Pope Leo in 
his Encyclical on the Condition of 
Labor, "has the right to possess pro- 
perty of his own.... to possess things 
not merely for temporary and mom- 
entary use, but to have and hold 
them in stable and permanent poss- 
ession. .. .not only things that perish 
in the use of them, but those also 
which, though they have been re- 
duced into use, remain his own for 
further use." And Pope Pius X, in 
his Motu proprio "Popular Catholic 
Action," has confirmed this doctrine 
of his predecessor by saying: "Of the 
goods of the earth man has not merely 
the use, like the brute creation, but he 
has also the right of permanent pro- 
prietorship — and not merely of those 
things which are consumed by use, but 
also of those which are not consumed 
by use." 

Accordingly, "even if Socialism 
would be able to attain all the ends 
of private ownership of capital," — as 
Father Ryan supposes, — "the State 
could not rightfully take from the 
individual such power of ownership, 
unless every individual had given his 
consent." 

But, says Father Ryan, "why should 
the individual have this right when it 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



no longer serves any definite purpose?"' 
Simply, because Almighty God has 
given it to each and every individual 
that he should be enabled to provide 
for his own needs. 

The second statement, "that Social- 
ism, as an economic organization, is 
necessarily adverse to marriage and 
the family,'' is correct, since whoso- 
ever wrests the education of children 
from the hands of their parents, 
and makes it a function of the State, 
thereby undermines the foundation of 
the family. But modern Socialism puts 
education and instruction altogether 
into the hands of the commonwealth, 
'inus the chief duty for the sake of 
which marriage has been instituted as 
an indissoluble union would cease to 
exist; for a lifelong union and cooper- 
ation on the part of the parents are 
not required for the mere propagation 
of children. 

The Modification of the EucharisticFast 
Miss Sarah C. Burnett, San 
Francisco, Cal., writes to us: 

"We do not sympathize with the 
efforts of certain people to obtain 
from Rome a mitigation of the Eu- 
charistic fast. We shudder at the 
thought of little school children going 
to Holy Communion after breakfast 
and on their way to school. We think 
those zealous devotees would be bet- 
ter employed instructing people to 
spend a little time in thanksgiving 
after Communion. We find now 
many more people at the Holy Table, 
but the usual number in the church 
fifty seconds after the Ite Missa Est. 
The precious moments after Com- 
munion should not be thrown away." 

Through the courtesy of a friend 
living in the Middle West my at- 
tention has been called to the 
above clipping from the Western 
Watchman, of January 18th. 

If the writer realized the patent 
fact that the hurried retreat of 
the communicants is probably nec- 
essary in order to get their break- 
fast before the time for going to 



their places of business, he would 
see that an effort to introduce the 
practice of breakfast before Com- 
munion is really a movement to- 
wards the very point he has in 
mind, — a reverent thanksgiving 
after Communion. 

We thank him for this oppor- 
tunity of bringing forth this im- 
portant argument in our favor. 

Portugal in a Mess 

Portugal has got into a mess, 
hopeless and incurable. The Re- 
publican gang are all by the ears, 
hating each other as much as any 
of them hated the monarchy. It 
is the old story : rascals join to- 
gether to rob somebody else and 
then fight amongst themselves for 
the spoil. This particular band 
murdered one king and his eldest 
son and drove out another — an in- 
experienced boy — in order to get 
themselves in. Now they are so 
much at loggerheads that a gov- 
ernment cannot be put together. 
The wretched "President" has 
somehow to keep going with a 
stopgap ministry which has no 
following. Portugal, in short, is 
now a spectacle for men and ang- 
els ; and the Portuguese have the 
reward they well deserve for their 
contemptible submission to the 
rule of assassins. 

The above description of Port- 
ugal's quandary was not written 
by a Catholic, but by the editor of 
the London Saturday Review 
(No. 2,984). 

A German Critic on Father Benson's 
"The Dawn of All" 

In the Kolnische Volkszeitung 
(daily ed., Jan. 20) that eminent 
German critic, Dr. Hermann Car- 
dauns of Bonn, subjects one of 
Father Benson's recent books, 
The Dawn of All (which has just 



XX 



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151 



appeared in a German translation) 
to a merciless yet well-deserved 
criticism. Many wondered at the 
first appearence of The Dawn of 
All how such a crude, fantastic, ill- 
conceived, and woefully "out-of- 
place" book could ever have ap- 
peared under the name of such a 
noted writer. The only explana- 
tion seemed to be in that ancient 
proverb, "Aliquando etiam bonus 
dormitat Homerus." Surely Fa- 
ther Benson must have written 
that work at a time when he had 
put aside all the experience he 
had acquired from acquaintance 
with men of these times. Dr. 
Cardauns calls it "a romance wo- 
ven of dreams, a book which even 
surpasses its predecessor (The 
Lord of the World) in fantastic 
ravings, and at the same time 
marks a stage in the aesthetic de- 
cline of a notable writer of fiction. 
The critic follows Benson step by 
step through the mazes of the 
crude prophecies spun in this 
work. "The most painful of all 
impressions." says Cardauns, "is 
made by those extensive chapters 
in which Benson portrays the 
treatment meted out to heretics." 
The author of the romance stated 
in his Preface that he intended 
to describe merely the outcome 
sixty years hence of certain ten- 
dencies now observable. But "un- 
fortunately," continues Cardauns, 
"in this romance, reasonable fore- 
casts which we might have ex- 
pected, have been turned into the 
rankest nonsense, of which the 
proofs I have cited, give only a 
very incomplete idea." In a re- 
view of the work in this journal 
(Vol. XIX, No. 1, p. 30) we said: 
"We candidly confess that we do 
not like this last work of Father 
Benson ....We do not like the 
style, nor the plot, nor the char- 



acters." It is encouraging to 
learn that at least one trans-At- 
lantic critic agrees with this view. 

Utilizing the Stereopticon for Religious 
Instruction 

The use of the stereopticon for 
purposes of religious instruction is 
a novelty, and something of a fad, 
if you will, but one which within 
certain limits may be profitably 
cultivated. A recent decree from 
Rome taboos the cinematograph 
within the precincts of the church, 
but the interest taken in visual in- 
struction generally is not likely to 
abate on that account. Faith com- 
eth by hearing, but who will de- 
ny that hearing makes a deeper 
impression on the youthful mind 
when re-enforced by seeing? It 
is this idea which underlies the 
publication of a series of manuals 
( each 40 cents ; J. F. Wagner, 
N. Y. ) of Church History, Bible 
History, and Catechism, arranged 
for use along with the stereopti- 
con. 

Perhaps one would feel more 
at ease if the manuals bore the 
name of their authors. Besides 
the Bible and Church Histories 
lack the episcopal Imprimatur. 
As for the slides, one would have 
to see them before passing upon 
their quality. 

A Philosopher of the Modern Spirit 

There is every reason why the 
principles of Henri Bergson's 
"philosophy" should prove popular 
in this country. The way has 
been prepared for them 

Pragmatism, which in essence 
is very much the same thing as 
Bergsonism, has been imposed 
on philosophical speculation in this 
country by the high authority of 
William James. But Pragma- 
tism is itself a "highbrow" desig- 



152 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



nation for the philosophy of 
cheerful effort and cheerful ac- 
ceptance of fate, that is daily be- 
ing proclaimed by the newspaper 
poets and preachers. To fight 
hard according to the best light 
there is in us, to strive for victory 
but to take no shame in honest 
defeat, to recognize that the glory 
and .the purpose are in the fight- 
ing — when once the French phi- 
losopher's conception of "creative 
evolution" has been translated in- 
to familiar "inspirational" terms, 
many readers of Walt Mason, of 
Frank L. Stanton, and of Elbert 
Hubbard before he gave up phi- 
losophy for the advertising bus- 
iness, will be surprised to find that 
they have been reading and think- 
ing in Bergsonian terms all their 
lives. 

M. Bergson's theories must 
have their strong appeal to a gen- 
eration that is fond of describing 
itself as a restless, searching, 
groping, questioning age. The 
modern mind is a mass of strug- 
gling contradictions. Irreconcil- 
able tastes and aspirations find 
entertainment there and shelter. 
And we take pride in the fact 
A man may be a Socialist and a 
believer in that bitter anti-demo- 
crat, Henrik Ibsen ; or a Syndica- 
list with sharp leanings towards 
Csesarism ; or a Christian Scientist 
with leanings towards spiritism. 
All combinations are permissible 
— Wagner and Ellen Key, Franz 
Wedekind and the later Tolstoy, 
triumphant democracy and licensed 
trusts, big navies and internation- 
al peace, the emancipated mother 
and the emancipated child, eugen- 
ics and the utmost freedom of the 
individual. 

To reconcile such contradictions 
there is evident virtue in a philos- 
ophv which lays stress not on final 



purposes, but on mere agitation. 
Don't be satisfied with concentrat- 
ing on one thing, says Dr. Cro- 
ther's friend ; "concentrate on 
everything." Don't try to reach 
forward in one direction, says the 
Bergsonian philosophy. Follow 
your impulses. Reach forward in 
every direction. You may not 
seize hold of anything tangible, 
but see what fine exercise you will 
be getting. 

What is an Ideal Catholic Layman? 

Bishop Hedley of Newport, in 
an article contributed to the Am- 
pleforth Journal, gives a sketch 
of Dr. W. G. Ward, in which he 
points out that Ward is an illus- 
tration of the power that a capable 
layman may become in the 
Church, and a refutation of the 
silly charge that the Church is un- 
able to profit by their gifts ex- 
cept those of cash. "Ward's ca- 
reer," writes his Lordship, "shows 
what a layman may do for the 
Church, yet he was by no means 
the typical layman, nor is he less 
interesting on that account. The 
ideal layman, in some clerical eyes 
at least, would be very different 
from Dr. Ward. A man I once 
knew in a parish of which I long 
had charge would fulfil this ideal 
perfectly. He was the principal 
— in fact, the only — Catholic man 
in the town. He was the priest's 
factotum : he stood at the church 
door, took round the collection 
plate, served at Mass, never crit- 
icized sermons, distributed tracts 
— fulfilling, in a word, the whole 
duty of a Catholic layman — and 
he was completely deaf and dumb ! 
Dr. Ward was not a layman of 
that stamp. He was neither deaf 
nor dumb — very much the re- 
verse ! He was not seldom a thorn 
in the side of some of the clergy, 



XX 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



153 



and of the normal laity as well ; 
and there were grounds for the 
suspicion with which he was at 
one time regarded. The layman 
with ecclesiastical tastes is by no 
means the only ideal, or the one 
most fitted for general adoption. 
His is a peculiar though at times 
a genuine vocation ; but when, in 
addition to ecclesiastical and theo- 
logical tastes, he possesses a com- 
bative disposition, a keenly logical 
mind, a sharp and ready pen, he 
surely unites in himself all the 
elements of either a most useful 
ally or a very dangerous rival ! 
During some period of his career 
it was uncertain which category 



should include Dr. Ward. Still, 
as a wealthy layman who prefer- 
red strenuous intellectual toil to 
a life of luxury and ease, 'who 
shunned delights and led laborious 
days' ; as a man of the highest 
intellectual gifts, which he con- 
secrated with intense devotion to 
the cause of the Church ; as a 
steadfast champion of unpopular 
truth, and a fearless inquirer in 
the profoundest regions of mod- 
ern speculation ; lastly, as a hum- 
ble-minded man who bowed with 
utter docility before the Church's 
decisions, Ward was an example 
and a model to all !" 



ET CETERA 



A detailed inquiry into the causes 
of rural depopulation as an ele- 
ment in the problem of high prices 
is being conducted by the St. Louis 
Republic. In two counties out of 
less than half a dozen studied, the 
investigators found that wealth 
and the general well-being have 
been steadily on the rise, while 
the population has been declining. 
In one county the population de- 
cline was 19 percent between 1900 
and 1910; in the second county 
it was 12 percent. A change from 
tobacco-growing to stock-raising, 
with decreasing opportunity for 
labor, accounts for the decline. 

A clerical subscriber asks us to 
publish the following request : 

"I beg to refer you to the pub- 
lication in yours of July 15, 1905, 
entitled : 'Gold Bonds or Gold 
Bricks. The Washington Insur- 
ance Co. has been absorbed by the 
Pittsburg Life andTrustCo., which 
promised great economy by con- 
centrating business. My policy 



will mature in March and I was 
notified, that I may redeem it for 
$1408.45. I do not receive back 
even the money which I paid in : 
Wmere are the dividends? As 
there were many priests caught 
in that year, I would suggest that 
you publish an invitation to send 
you their addresses, and a warn- 
ing that they should not be hasty 
in signing the blank for the re- 
ceipt of the money. I intend to 
have this matter investigated and 
a correspondence with persons 
that have been caught like myself 
will be of much benefit. I am es- 
pecially desirous of obtaining tne 
circular which was sent out by 
the company in 1903, before the 
agent came. If any one still pos- 
ses a copy he would favor me and 
himself to send it to me." 

The editor of the Review will 
be glad to receive and forward 
answers to this request. 

The ratification of the income- 
tax amendment by the requisite 



154 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



three-fourths of the States puts 
an end to the notion that the Con- 
stitution of the United States is 
virtually unamendable. The truth 
about the procuring of amend- 
ments to the Constitution is that 
it is hard to do it unless the set- 
tled sentiment of the country is 
very clearly and earnestly in fa- 
vor of the change proposed, but 
that when this condition is sat- 
isfied, there is no peculiar diffi- 
culty in the matter. In other 
words, there is just that differ- 
ence between the amending of the 
Constitution and the passing of 
an ordinary statute that there 
oueht to be. 



that it comes from the official or- 
gan of a Catholic archdiocese. 

Leslie's (No. 2995) is author- 
ity for the statement that the 
New York Bible Society, during 
1912, "put over 85,000 copies of 
the Bible or portions of it, print- 
ed in many languages, into the 
hands of incoming foreigners" at 
Ellis Island. It would be inter- 
esting to know what these im- 
migrants did with the bibles they 
received. In China, as is well 
known, the natives put the bibles 
distributed by the English and 
American bible societies, to vari- 
ous industrial and domestic uses. 



The Catholic Book Notes, pub- 
lished by the English Catholic 
Truth Society, in its No. 179, 
p. 25, introduces a quotation from 
our Fortnightly Review with the 
remark that "the American Fort- 
nightly RlviLw is one of the few 
magazines which uphold the stand- 
ard of Church Music raised by 
the Holy Father." The Book 
Notes may rest assured, by the 
way, that upholding this standard, 
as well as the general policy of 
Pope Pius X in a number of 
other points, is quite as difficult 
and demands as much courage 
and self-sacrifice here in Great 
Britain. 

The San Francisco Monitor 
(Vol. 54, No. 37) is authority 
for the statement that Professor 
Thomas Powers and Father Fe- 
lix A. Rosetti, S. J., of St. Igna- 
tius College, in that city, have 
discovered a new cure for cancer, 
which "in no case, not even the 
most desperate one, has so far 
failed in its effect." This is im- 
portant news if true, and one 
cand hardlv doubt its truth, seeing 



We learn from the Scientific 
American that a Society for the 
Elucidation of the Problem of 
the Divining Rod has recently 
been formed in Germany. This 
society counts among its mem- 
bers many men of prominence in 
the engineering and other profes- 
sions, and represents a serious 
scientific effort to shed light on a 
much debated question. 

The Catholic movement for the 
reform of the secular theatre, to 
to which we adverted in a recent 
issue, would come with better 
grace and prove more effective, 
if we began by setting a good 
example on the parochial and fra- 
ternal society stage in our own 
midst. True reform, like charity, 
begins at home. 

Here is a bit of good advice 
from the St. Paul Catholic Bul- 
letin (Vol. 3, No. 5: 

Make it a point to ask for the 
Catholic Encyclopedia, and if your 
public library is so far behind the 
times as not to have secured a copy 
of it for its patrons, insist that those 
in charge do so immediately. 



XX 5 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



155 



LITERARY NOTES 



— L. M. F. G. (whoever he or 
she may be) presents "a new 
and exact translation" of The So- 
liloquies of St. Augustine (vii & 
184 pp. i6mo. London : Sands & 
Co.; St. Louis, Mo.: B. Herder. 
60 cts.) The booklet is neatly 
printed and prettily bound and 
will serve as an excellent manual 
of contemplative prayer — A. P. 

— Rkwl Debating Clubs (New 
York : J. Fischer & Bro. 25 cts. 
net) is an airy playlet for gram- 
mar school pupils by Catherine 
M. Hayes. The Girls' Debating 
Society gets decidedly the worst 
of it.— D. E. 

—Rev. P. Karl Koth, S. J., has 
worked up the salient data 
contained in Pfiilf's life of the 
great Bishop Ketteler into a read- 
able biographical sketch (IVilhelm 
Emanuel Freiherr von Ketteler. 
Bin Lcbensbild. xii & 276 pp. 
i2mo. B. Herder. 1912. $1 net). 
He devotes particular attention to 
Ketteler's pioneer work as a Chris- 
tian social reformer. The hand- 
some volume is richly illustrated 
and merits cordial recommenda- 
tion.— A. P. 

— Glimpses of Heaven is the 
singularly appropriate title of an 
attractively bound twelvemo, of 
the "Angelus Series", by Sister 
M. Aquinas, O. S. B. It is not the 
authoress' aim to write a com- 
mentary on Dante's Paradiso, nor 
"to discuss the problems of schol- 
ars," but simply and with reverent 
love to follow the poet as he 
rises with Beatrice from sphere 
to sphere and climbs the mountain 



of Eternal Beauty. With sure 
touch the devout Benedictine nun 
seizes upon some of the sweetest 
notes of that mighty medieval 
song and makes us, too, feel a 
thrill of joy as we listen to the 
strains of celestial music. It is a 
thousand pities that the Divina 
Commedia is so little known among 
us. (Benziger Brothers. 50 cts). 
— D. 

— The Sermon Plans for all 
Sundays of the Year by the Abbe 
H. Lesetre opens with a chapter 
on what and how to preach. With 
an experience of thirty years be- 
hind him, the reverend author is 
able to point out a number of mis- 
takes young priests are apt to make 
in the pulpit. He is quite right 
in laying great stress on "the 
ordinary ministry of parochial 
preaching." Another good point 
is that, if missions are given too 
often, they fail of their effect. 
Again, priests are advised to 
preach at an hour that will suit 
the people, and to make their ser- 
• mons short. To those of the rev- 
erend clergy who depend on ready- 
made sermon plans, Abbe Lese- 
tre's book will prove a help in the 
fulfilment of their duty of preach- 
ing. Published by J. F. Wagner, 
N. Y. Price $1 net. — SacErdos. 

— The latest volume of the En- 
glish translation of Pastor's Ge- 
schichte der Pdpste {The History 
of the Popes from the Close of 
the Middle Ages. .. .From the 
German of Dr. Ludzvig Pastor. . . 
Edited by Ralph Francis Kerr of 
the London Oratory. Vol. XI. 
lviii & 615 pp. 8vo. London: Ke- 



156 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



gan Paul ; St. Louis, Mo. : B. Her- 
der. 19 1 2. $3 net) deals with the 
first part of the pontificate of Paul 
III and contains something over 
one third of Volume V of the 
German original. It is a most in- 
teresting and important period of 
the papacy that Professor Pastor 
treats in this volume, and no doubt 
the English edition of his monu- 
mental fifth volume will receive 
the same eager welcome as its 
German prototype. The transla- 
tion, so far as we are able to see 
by casual inspection, is up to the 
standard set in previous volumes 
by Father Kerr, and one cannot 
but hope that the work of trans- 
lating this classic history of the 
papacy since the close of the Mid- 
dle Ages will continue to progress 
as rapidly and as smoothly as 
hitherto. — A. P. 

— The Loretto Centennial Dis- 
courses 181 2 — 19 1 2 (B. Herder 
75 cts.) deal with the history 
and mission of the Order of the 
Sisters of Loretto. They are by 
such gifted speakers as Bishop 
O'Donaghue, President Ryan of 
the Kenrick Seminary, Fr. Henry 
S. Spalding, S.J., Rev. John Cav- 
anaugh, C. S. C, and others. Arch- 
bishop Glennon contributes a brief 
but racy introduction, in which 
he says, inter alia, that "The worst 
'Modernism' of the time is that 
of the 'Modern' woman. Other 
modernists deny or dispute cer- 
tain doctrinal or dogmatic truths ; 
they would take from Revelation 
its divine origin, and from the 
Sacred Scriptures their inspiration ; 
but the 'Modern' woman goes 
much farther. She would revolu- 
tionize society ; she would emanci- 
pate herself from all law — even 
the law of sex. She would leave 
wifehood, motherhood and home 



behind her to be free and to be a 
full fledged citizen of an impos- 
sible state ; to be a leader in a de- 
humanized community. It is to 
combat these that we need Catholic 
American Sisters..." The hand- 
somely printed volume has a more 
than ephemeral value, which will 
increase as the years go by. — 
A. P. 

— La Synthese du Modernisme, 
by the French Abbe J. Fontaine, 
is a brief and simple exposi- 
tion of the chief "dogmas" of 
the great heresy of modern 
times, forming at the same time 
a digest of the author's more 
pretentious works on different 
phases of the same subject. 
( Paris : Lethielleux ) . — J. A. 

— Mass in Honor of St. Ccc cilia. 
For four mixed voices (tenor and 
bass ad lib.) By C. Jasper. Score 
60 cts. voice parts 20 cts. (J. 
Fischer & Bro., 7 & 11 Bible 
House, New York.) This is. one 
of the easiest masses in existence. 
Although it moves in the simplest 
progressions and shows no themat- 
ic work which could interest a 
musician, it deserves to be highly 
recommended to choir masters 
who have mostly untrained singers 
under their charge. It is distin- 
guished for brevity and adherence 
to liturgical rules. The style is 
pure, devotional and free from 
harmonic mistakes, except for a 
bad parallel of octaves on the 
word "nobis' in the third Agnus 
Dei. — Dominic Wai^denschwi- 
l£r, O. S. B. 

— We are asked to publish the 
following notice : "While the ed- 
itors of the Catholic Encyclopedia 
are highly pleased with the con- 
gratulations they are receiving 



XX 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW" 



157 



from every quarter on the com- 
pletion of their great work, they 
are specially gratified by the com- 
mendations given to it by promi- 
nent Protestant ministers, and by 
the leading Protestant newspapers. 
They regard such testimonials as 
so unusual and significant that 
they have published a number of 
them in a four-page circular. Those 
who follow the signs of the times 
would do well to apply for a copy 
of this circular, as it more than 
justifies the prediction made by 
Archbishop Quigley at the incep- 
tion of the work, "that the Ency- 
clopedia would create a change 
of public opinion" in regard to the 
Catholic Church. The editors of 
the Encyclopedia are often puzzled 
however, by the fact that the phe- 
nomenal sale of the work thus far 
is due largely to the energy of 
salesmen who are not Catholic. 
Though a fair number of Catholic 
salesmen have succeeded well in 
taking subscriptions, their number 
is comparatively small and their 
results, except in few instances, 
not at all equal to those of their 
Protestant fellow-salemen. The 
editors are at a loss to account 
for this fact. Given equal sales 
ability in the Catholic and Prote- 
stant, the Catholic should by all 
means have the advantage in dis- 
posing of a work like this. Is it 
possible that Catholics with ability 
in this line are fewer than Prot- 
estants? If so, the sooner Cath- 
olic young men are alive to the 
fact the better. The Clark and 
Collier fortunes begun in this way, 
with far less golden opportunity, 
should be an incentive to make 
every energetic young Catholic to 
try the possibilities there are in 
this field. The Encyclopedia is a 
necessity ; it has been in demand 
for half a century: it is so emi- 



nently satisfactory as to elicit 
praise even from those who are 
not in sympathy with it ; and even 
its Protestan t canvassers report 
that their experience in selling it 
is as agreeable as any task can be. 
There is room for 100 active sales- 
men ; the work is highclass, the 
terms liberal, and the introductions 
for men with good credentials 
more helpful than representatives 
in any other enterprise ever re- 
ceived." 



Herder's Booklist 

[This list is furnished monthly by B. Herder, 
17 South Broadzvay, St. Louis, Mo., who keeps 
the hooks in stock and to whom all orders 
should be sent. Postage extra on "net" books.] 

The History of the Popes, from the 
Close of the' Middle Ages. Vol. XL 
By Dr. Ludzuig Pastor, net $3. 

The Life and Letters of Father 
Bertrand Wilberforce, by H. M. Co- 
pes, O.S.D. 2nd Edition, net $3. 

Betrotlunent and Marriage, by Can- 
on De Smet. Vol. I. net $2.25. 

Trilogy to the Sacred Heart, by 
Rev. A. Gonon. net .20. 

Glimpses of Heaven, by Sister M. 
Aquinas. O.S.B. net .50. 

The Orchard Floor, net .90. 

A Spiritual Calendar, by A. Ros- 
mini. net .45. 

Marriage and the Sex-Problem, by 
Dr. F. Foerster. net $1.35. 

The Church and Christian Marriage, 
by Rev. Daniel Coghlan, D.D. net .15. 

The "Summa Theologica" of St. 
'Thomas Aquinas. Part I, Third Num- 
ber, net $2. 

Holy Communion, by Mgr. Dc Gi- 
bergues. net .75. 

A Hundred Years of Irish History, 
by R. B. O'Brien, net .60. 

The Seven Last Words From the 
Cross, a Course of Seven Lenten Ser- 
mons, by Rev. H. G. Hughes, net .40. 

The Life of the J'encrablc Mother 
Frances Schervier, Foundress of the 



158 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



Congregation of the Sisters of the 
Poor of St. Francis. By Vy. Rev. 
I. Jcilcr. 3rd Edition, net $1.50. 

The Waters of Contradiction, by 
Anna Minoguc. $1. 

Come Rack! Come Rope! by Rob- 
ert H. Benson, net $1.35. 

Pulpit Sketches, by Rev. A. Lambert. 
net $1.25. 

The Christian Church. Pastoral Let- 
ter of Rt. Rev. J. McFaiil. Second 
Edition, Revised and Enlarged. 0.10. 

The Theory of Evolution in the 
Light of Facts by K. Frank. S.J. With 



Just Completed 

Autiplionale Sacrosanctae 
Romaiiae Ecclesiae 

pro 

Diiirnis Horis 

SS. D. N. Pii X. Pontificis Maximi 

jussu 

restitutum et editum 

Messrs. J. Fischer & Bro., New York, 
take great pleasure in announcing that they 
are prepared to accept orders for the above 
mentioned work. 

The original edition, as printed at the 
Vatican Press, Rome, will be sent as long 
as limited supply lasts. 

PRICE 

Paper binding $1.60 net 

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Order at once 

Address all correspondence to 

J. NSCHER & BRO. 
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a Chapter on Ant Guests and Termite 
Guests by E. Wasmann S.J. net $1.50. 
Soliloquies of St. Augustine. A 
Manual of Contemplative Prayer, net 
.60. 

Loretto Centennial Discourses 18 12- 
1912. net .75. 

Christmas Bells and Other Stories, 
by Rev. D. Bcarnc, S.J. net .60. 

Analysis of the Gospels in Original 
Sermons for all the Sundays and Chief 
Festivals of the Year. 2 vols, net $3. 

The Child and His Mother. Carols 
of Jesus and Mary by David Bearne, 
S. J. net .40. 

Catholic Biographies. Vol. XXII. 
net .40. 

Defamers of the Church. Their 
Character. .10. 

Your Parish Church, by Rev. John 
F. Noll, .10. 

Why You Should Be a Catholic, by 
Rev. John F. Noll. .02. 

Sociolism Unmasked. .03. 

Christology. A Dogmatic Treatise 
on the Incarnation. By Rev. J. Pohle. 
Authorized English Version by Arthur 
Preuss. net $1.50. 

Columbanus the Celt, by W. T. Leahy. 
$1.50. 



Wm. Kloef 

Church Decorator. Painting 
and Gilding of Statues 
and Altars. Scen- 
eries for Stages 

9 16-9 18 ALLEN AVENUE 
ST. LOUIS, MO. 




Church & School Furniture 



If interested in Pews, Altars, Pulpits etc., send for Catolog f A and 
state requirements 

For schools investigate our Steel Sanctary Desks, warranted unbreakable, Booklet F B 

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XX 5 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW" 159 



We own and offer, subject to prior sale 

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A LL secured by Catholic Institutions, the physical value of each property 
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Some Advantages of the First Mortgage Real Estate Serial Notes 
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<flThe Mercantile Trust Company hassold First Mortgage Real Estate Serial Notes 
in every State of the Union and in many foreign countries. 

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interest, in such investments purchased of us. 

<JThe property securing these Serial Notts has been personally inspected and ap- 
praised by our experts, and tie titles examined and approved by our Legal Depart- 
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^Detail Circulars of Each Issue Mailed on Bequest 

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i6d THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 



The CHANCE of a LIFETIME 

A New Field open to Brains and Energy 



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In Homes, Schools and Libraries in 
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VOLUME III. 

By Fr. Zephyrin Engelhardt, O. F. M. 
Numerous footnotes, illustrations, and facsimiles tabular reports 683 
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Consistency, Thou Art a Jewel 

(From the San Francisco Monitor, "Official Organ" of the Archdio- 
cese, Feb. 22, 191 3, page 1 ). 

During the first week in Lent a number of news-notes of pre- 
Lenten social activities in Catholic circles were published in the Mon- 
itor. Along with them there came for publication one or two an- 
nouncements which we threw out, and which did not appear. This 
for the very good reason that, although received from reputable sour- 
ces and relating to Catholics in the best of standing, they told of card 
parties, dances and other affairs to be given during Lent, in direct vio- 
lation of both the spirit and letter of the laws governing the penitential 
season. We said nothing. We hoped that those who sent in the notices 
we refer to would take the hint and change the dates of their "events." 
At least we felt sure they would not again ask us to publish such 
items at this season of the ecclesiastical year. But we were sadly 
disappointed. This week still more notices of social affairs to be 
given -during Lent by Catholics, sometimes in the name of Catholic 
organizations, have reached us. They will not be printed, of course; 
and we plainly inform all who are contemplating card-parties, vaude- 
villes, concerts, or any other entertainments or gaieties to be given 
before Lent is over, that they will receive no notice from the Mon- 
itor beyond condemnation of their disgraceful lack of respect for the 
rules of Holy Giurch. It is disgusting the way some Catholics "keep" 
Lent. They don't keep it at all. But what can we expect when 
Catholics who are supposed to set their neighbors a good example go 
sailing along with their usual "events" — dancing, entertainments, 
cards — utterly regardless of the Lenten regulations? Those regulations 
are printed every week in The Monitor; and this week we publish the 
words of some of our American Bishops on the meaning of Lent. 

(From the same paper, same issue, page 8.) 
The afternoon exercises [for St. Patrick's Day, in Holy Week] 
consisting of musical and literary exercises followed by an oration by 
the Right Rev. Bishop Hanna will be held in the Yalenica Theatre 
on Monday afternoon, March 17. 

The evening exercises consisting of a grand concert, stereopticon 
views of Ireland and terminating with a grand ball will be held at 
the Auditorium, Page and Fillmore streets, on Monday evening, 
March 17. * 



l62 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 



What Led to the Invention of Printing? 

By the Rev. John M. Lenhart, O. M. Cap., Victoria, Kans. 
Typography, like other inventions, was not brought to perfection 
at once. Several antecedent events prepared the way for its final suc- 
cess. People of the remotest ages were conversant with the art of 
cutting letters reversely into dies of wood or metal, and obtaining an 
impression therefrom. They knew the art of forming an intaglio. 1 
The Babylonians used dies to impress their cuneiform script in soft 
clay. Such dies are still to be seen in the Oriental museums. 2 The 
Egyptians and Romans likewise printed inscriptions by the use 
of dies. 3 The Greeks and Romans had metal dies on which letters 
were cut in relief, though in reverted order, to stamp their slaves, 
cattle, bread, and pottery; names were signed and initials executed 

by patterns. 4 

But these processes cannot be regarded as printing from movable 
types. It is a fact, however, that movable letters were familiar to the 
Romans. Ouintilian narrates 5 that the Romans gave their children let- 
ters cut from ivory as playthings, to assist them in learning to read. 6 
Such letters were discovered in the Roman catacombs. 7 Towards the end 
of the fourth century St. Jerome advised the Roman matron" Laeta 
to follow this method in educating her daughter Paula. "Get her," 
he writes, 8 "letters of boxwood or of ivory. Let her play with these, 
that the play may turn into instruction. Throw these letters often 
into disorder that she may learn to know them." 9 

Still the great art of typography as we know it was not invented 
by the ancients. Cicero had an inkling of its underlying priciple when 
he said: 10 "Why should we not believe that if one would throw a 
great number of the spell-letters pell-mell upon the earth, the annals 
of Ennius would be reproduced, so that they could be read off." 1 
But to state a problem and to solve it are quite different things. 

Typography, or printing in the modern sense, is an invention of 
the Middle Ages. We may fairly put the question : How did this great 

1 Kapp, Geschichte des deutschen 4 Kapp, op. cit., 7- 

Buchhandels. Leipzig, 1886, Vol.1, 6-7. 5 Institut. Orat., I, 1, 26. 

" Janssen in the Kirchenlexicon. s. v. e Janssen, /. cit.; G. Rauschen, Das 

"Buchdruckerkunst," G. Jacob, Ostliche griechisch-rom. Schulzvesen, Bonn, 

Kulturelemente im Abendland, Berlin, I90Ii p . 20; Kapp, op. cit.. 7. 

1902, transl. in the Annual Report of 7 j anssen , /. c. 

the Smithsonian Institution for the 8 £^ \ 07> fl j Laeta in. 

year 1902, Washington, 1903, pp. 509- , R , dt 

529; this translation is referred to m 10 D *% a £ ra f>eorum, II, 37- 

the following. . Q 

3 Kapp, op. cit., 7: Jacob, op. cit.. 521, Kapp, op. cit.. 7-8. 

note 1. 



XX 6 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 163 

art come to be invented? What factors were instrumental in develo- 
ping it from such primitive beginnings? 

Some hold that the invention of printing was occasioned by the 
spread of paper. '"After paper production was established in the 
Occident," writes the Orientalist G. Jacob, 12 "we observe here, as 
among the Chinese and Arabs, that printing followed in its train." 
This view is wrong, as is evinced by the author's reference to the 
Arabs. Paper-making was invented in China by Ts'ai Lun, about 
a. d. ioo. 13 It spread over China and Eastern Asia, and did not become 
known to the Arabs until after the fall of Samarkand (704 A. D.). 14 
In 751 the paper industry was transplanted to Samarkand by Chinese 
prisoners of war, and thence to Baghdad, the capital of the Califs, 
between 794 and 795. 15 Later on paper factories spread to all Islamic 
countries, and from the Arabs came to Southern Europe in the twelfth 
century, 10 and to Germany in the fourteenth. 17 In the latter country 
the use of paper became more general only after the fourteenth cen- 
tury. 18 The Arabs learned the manufacture of paper and also the 
art of printing on paper from the Chinese. This fact is established 
beyond all doubt by the Fayyum papyrus find (1877) of 30 Arabic 
plateprints from Egypt belonging to the tenth, two of them perhaps 
to the ninth century. 11 ' We see that printing among the Arabs, though 
in the unwieldy form of plate-printing, followed in the train of paper- 
making. Nevertheless, cheap paper did not occasion printing, much 
less the printing of books. In spite of paper manufacture and plate- 
printing, the noble art of manifolding books by printing could not and 
did not thrive among the Moslems. There was no home for it either 
in the highly cultured califate of Baghdad in the East, or in the 
equally splendid califate of Cordova in the West. In 1147 bank notes 
were produced by plate-printing in Northern Syria, and in 1293 a 
paper-money printing bureau was established at Tabriz (Persia), in 
which the work was carried on in the same fashion. 20 We know from 

» ? p - "'*•; P- 5 2 7- 30 Wattenbach, Schriftwesen im Mit- 

Jacob. 522. telalter, 3, Leipzig, 1896, p. 145; Maire, 

Jacob p. 522 sq.; Nestle, Einfiih- p. cit., 656; Nestle, op. cit 40 

rung in das griech. Neue Testament. " Wattenbach, 145; Maire 6;6-6;7 • 

3rd ed Gottingen, 1909, p. 42; Scri- Brandscheid, Handbnch d. Einleituna 

verier Introduction to the Criticism of ins Neue Test., Freiburg, 1893 p 60 

the New Testament, Vol. . I, London, "Jacob, 526: Karabacek V* the 

l£94, p. 22. Osterr. Monatsschrift f. d. Orient, XVI 

Jacob, 522 sq. ; Karabacek, Das (1890), p. 167.; Wattenbach, 149; Ja- 

arabische Papier, Wien, 1887. and cob. 527; Kapp, 228 

W- Ue Q ^ le \l Ur ^Pyrusgeschkhte, "Jacob, 526; Karabacek. in the 

Wien, 1888 ; Albert Maire, "Materials Osterr. Monatsschrift f d Orient XVI 

used to write upon" in the Report of (1890), p. 167 

the Smithsonian Institution for 1904, =0 Jacob, 527; Karabacek. ofi cit 

Washington, 1905, p. 656. 169 sq. 



l64 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW iQi3 

Arabic sources that a few books had been printed after the Chi- 
nese fashion in Persia.- But these were isolated facts. Printing 
as a whole remained wholly unknown among the Arabs. borne 
scholars assume that Europe may have received the Chinese style of 
printing (xylography) from the Mongols in the thirteenth century ~ 
It is well known that the Moslems opposed the introduction of the 
printing press for more than two centuries. In Constantinople the 
first printing establishment came into existence only in 1727, 25 although 
Jews had been printing books in secret as early as 1488 24 or 1490 20 
at Constantinople and other places. 20 

(To be continued) 

The Catholic High School Movement 

By the Rt. Rev. Msgr. P. R. McDevitt, Superintendent of Parish 
Schools, Philadelphia 
May I trespass upon your space to refer to the article in your 
mid-February issue, by a writer who styles himself "A Catholic Col- 
lege President." The assumptions and unwarranted conclusions of 
his brief article, "Apropos of a Recent Diocesan School Report," will 
be perfectly plain to those who have read the Eighteenth Annual Re- 
port of the Philadelphia Parish Schools and Doctor Henry's account 
therein of the Catholic Boys' High School, or who know anything of 
his ideas in regard to Catholic Education. 

For the benefit, however, of those of your readers who have not 
seen the Report, a word of correction is called for. 

Doctor Henry speaks of the success of graduates of the High 
School in entering certain departments of the University. The 
"Catholic College President" makes the following conclusion from the 
statement of this fact: "To advocate that university work should 
follow immediately after the completion of the high school is to en- 
dorse the modern fallacy of the short cut to learning." That Doctor 
Henry does not advocate such a policy and does not endorse such 
a fallacy will be evident to any one who comes to the reading of his 
account of the High School without preconceived prejudices of what 
the High School proposes to do. "The 'Classical Course' of a Cath- 

21 Tarnh C27 =3 Jacob, 526. 

* - Jansseri fdeschichte des deutschen " H. Stein, Manuel deBxbl tog rapine 

Voltes, Vol. I, 15th ed., Freiburg, 1890, Genet., Pans, 1897, P- 572. 

p. 9. note 1. This conjecture is with- * Janssen, op. at., p 14. 

out any foundation; cfr. Schreiber, "Books were printed e. g at ba 

"Vorstufen der Typographic in the lonica since 151S <^ ** "^J 

Gutenberg-Festschrift (Mainz, 1900), 617), at Smyrna since 1658 (Stein. 621). 

p. 27 sq. 



XX 6 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 165 

olic College," says Doctor Henry, "is a most excellent preparation 
for professional studies ; and Catholic parents should indeed be en- 
couraged to give their sons as extensive educational facilities as pos- 
sible in these days, when, if ever, it is true that knowledge is power." 
Moreover he has "expressly disclaimed holding any absurd brief 
against the classical course in the collegiate and preparatory depart- 
ments of Catholic colleges," and he has "furthermore declared his 
conviction that the classical course is, in some very true and fun- 
damental ways, the most practical of all courses." 

The official outline of the course of study followed in the Cath- 
olic Boys' High School, as printed in the Report, designates the 
various years as First, Second, Third, Fourth. In his account of the 
High School in another part of the Report, Doctor Henry uses, here 
and there, the terms Freshman, Sophomore, etc. Pie does this, not 
because the classes in the High School are known as Freshman, 
Sophomore, etc., but in order to avoid any misunderstanding that 
might arise in the minds of those who know what Freshman, Soph- 
omore, etc., mean, but who do not know whether "first class" refers 
to the last year, or to the opening year of the High School Course. 
The casual use, for the sake of clearness, of the terms Freshman, 
Sophomore, etc., fills the "Catholic College President" with deep 
alarm. He cries out: "A person acquainted with this cheapening 
process is startled that such deteriorating of educational ideals should 
find official approval in Philadelphia." It would be hard to find a 
choicer illustration of an unwarranted conclusion. Moreover, if the 
Catholic High School did use the terms Freshman, Sophomore, etc., 
to designate the various years of the course, it would merely be 
following a custom sanctioned by wide use, by obvious convenience 
in brevity, and by great clearness. One Catholic college speaks in 
its official catalogue of "First Academic Class," "Fourth Academic 
Class," etc. It is simpler to say "Freshman" than "Fourth Academic." 
It is also clearer; for "First Academic" does not necessarily imply 
the highest class. Thus it happens that another Catholic college iden- 
tifies in its catalogue, the "First Class" of its Academic Department 
with the highest class, and fearing misapprehension, places the long 
heading: "First Class (Fourth Year)", "Second Class (Third Year)", 
etc. 

Since "Freshman" is so much briefer and clearer than its usual 
synonymous phrases, and can produce no just apprehension when it 
is used by what is professedly a High School, who shall deny the 
right of any High School to do so? 



l66 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

What law can the "Catholic College President" produce to show 
that the term belongs exclusively to colleges and universities? 

The Report, following a practice of many years, publishes the 
Resolutions of the National Education Association. "Catholic Col- 
lege President" interprets this as an endorsement of the sentiments 
contained in the said resolutions, and declares that their publication 
in the Report "can be excused only on the assumption that the work 
of the Bureau of Education is not well known to the author of the 
Report The Reverend Director may inform himself on this mat- 
ter by reading the Biennial Report of the Governor of the State of 
Ohio for the year 191 2, printed in the Ohio University Bulletin, 
Athens, O., October 1912." 

This assumption of a "Catholic College President" rests on the 
same weak foundation as the other assumptions and conclusions of 
his captious critique. 

It is possible that a "Catholic College President" has little sym- 
pathy with the present Catholic High School Movement. Opposi- 
tion to it is not surprising, as opinions differ radically in regard to 
this question and others concerning Catholic education. Those who 
favor the movement have no fault to find with those who think 
otherwise; but let us be spared these sneering, hypocritical and an- 
onymous criticisms which are a discredit to Catholic education in 
general, rather than a disparagement of any one phase of it. 

With respect to the animus back of the attack (as I conceive 
it) I may answer it as follows: There is one fact in Catholic edu- 
cation which may well command the earnest thought of priests and 
laity. This fact is that Catholic education beyond the elementary 
school is not a reality to the great mass of our Catholic people. 
Our colleges and academies neither in their collegiate nor academic 
departments are reaching our Catholic boys and girls. A careful 
tabulation and analysis of the educational statistics of any diocese 
in America reveals this lamentable condition. The causes that ex- 
plain this undeniable and obtrusive truth need not be discussed in 
this brief note. The High School movement in Philadelphia, which, 
in the judgment of a "Catholic College President," represents so 
much that is faulty and "deteriorating" in educational ideals, is at 
least trying to effect a change for the better, and to bring Catholic 
higher education to the hundreds of our boys and girls, graduates 
of our Catholic elementary schools, who now turn to the workshop 
or to the public high school or to the cheap business college. The 
two high schools in Philadelphia— one for boys, the other for the 
girls— have an attendance of more than one thousand pupils, who, 



XX 6 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 167 

if neither of these high schools existed, would be, save in excep- 
tional cases, in public high schools or in some other non-Catholic 
institution. 

There are neither assumptions nor unwarranted conclusions in 
this statement. It is a fact as clear as day to those who wish to 
recognize the truth. 



Catholic Leakage — Means to Check it 

By a Catholic Missionary 

In order to check our leakage it is necessary to remove its 
causes, which, as we showed in a previous paper, are mainly three, 
vis. : the habitual reading of Protestant and secular literature, dan- 
gerous companionship and intimacy with non-Catholics, and especially 
mixed marriages. 

The lack of priests is no longer a serious source of leakage, but 
perhaps the Apostolic zeal of our priests might be improved. Let 
them devote more time and money to better the social condition of 
their flock. Let them adorn their churches and rectories a little less 
and do a little more of the social work that will stop mixed mar- 
riages and Catholic leakage. 

A friend of mine had an unpretentious church and a wretched 
presbytery but was building a spacious parochial school. When 
the bishop urged him to improve his church and rectory, 
he replied, -"I want to house our Lord first, then I shall come. As 
to the school, I want to put our Lord into the souls of our children 
first, then I shall build Him a stone church.'' Let us do the same. 

To check the evil influence of Protestant and secular literature, 
we must spread good Catholic books, magazines, and papers, and, 
above all, provide a Catholic daily press and get our people to read 
and support it. 

Let us establish everywhere well equipped Catholic libraries, pa- 
rochial, public, and free libraries containing all the good Catholic 
literature available, and of Protestant authors only such as are in- 
dispensable and inoffensive. 

The good of a Catholic library in a parish cannot be rated too 
highly. Oh, for a few Catholic Carnegies ! While the great Amer- 
ican Steel King is doing so much harm to the Church by his libra- 
ries, we are doing almost nothing to neutralize or prevent the harm 
done. As a rule Catholic books do not find their way into these 
libraries. I know of a person in Kansas City who, wishing to read 
Cardinal Newman's works, asked for them at the public library of 



^8 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

that city. None could be found except an unimportant booklet of 
his. For six months I watched all the books placed on the shelves 
of the Carnegie library of a certain city. None were Catholic ex- 
cept perhaps one. Nevertheless, Catholics paid from 25% to 30% 
of the expenses of that library. 

America, Dec. 21, 1912, quoting a letter from a librarian, said 
that "it is more of a problem to get the Catholic literature read 
than it is to get it on the library shelves." I don't quite agree with that 
view. Of course, the chief work of a library rests on the director, 
not on the librarians. As any other social work, a library needs to 
be well organized, diligently looked after, frequently recommended from 
the pulpit and privately. I know of many priests who have made their 
parish libraries a real success. And it is not so difficult after all. It 
would not take much of our time, if only we had a good bibliography. 
It would save us the trouble of reading many books before putting 
them on the shelves. 

Why have we no popular magazines breathing a true Catholic 
spirit? There are very good reviews, doing excellent work, such as 
the Fortnightly, America, the Catholic World, the Christian Family, 
the Lamp, the Ave Maria, the Rosary, etc. Benziger's Magazine is 
perhaps the only general Catholic magazine on a large scale that we 
have. But unfortunately, though good and interesting, it is exploited 
too much for advertising purposes, its title is awkward, and its format 
unwieldy. 

Our Catholic authors write good books for libraries. Why do 
they not publish them first in Catholic magazines? Then it would 
be easy to have good Catholic magazines, and successful ones. Peo- 
ple, now-a-days, read more magazines than books. Why leave this 
weapon in the hands of our enemies? 

But the means par excellence to preserve the faith of our people 
is the daily press. It is a much more effective and deadly weapon 
than magazines, and it is also in the hands of the enemy. We are 
being poisoned by Protestant and secular daily papers and we shall 
die, unless we establish daily papers of our own. The priest is a 
weekly preacher, but the daily paper is a daily counter-preacher with 
the best opportunity to be heard and gain its ends. 

The power of the daily press can hardly be over estimated. Msgr. 
Ketteler is often quoted as saying that if St. Paul came back he 
would edit a daily paper. Our colleges and convents give our boys 
and girls a good training, but how soon is all that spoiled, not only 
by the chilling atmosphere of the world, but especially by the reading 
of worldly and sensational papers. 



XX 6 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW tfg 

Catholic dailies ought to be established in all our big cities- 
New York, Chicago, St. Louis etc. I appeal to the K. of C. and 
the F. of C. S. to undertake the Apostolic work of a good press. 

How are we to counteract the dangers to which our Catholics are 
subject in consequence of their close association with non-Catholic 
relatives, friends, and companions? By providing them with Cath- 
olic relatives, friends, and companions. In fact, anything that tends 
to unite or group together our Catholics, to help them to know and 
appreciate one another is a step toward the solution of this impor- 
tant and difficult problem. It is a matter of fact that our Catholic 
young ladies and Catholic young men have, in a great many parishes, 
little occasion to meet and to become acquainted with one another. 
How can they intermarry, since marriages are prepared and brought 
about by social relations? Social gatherings, therefore, and Catholic 
societies or orders that bring our Catholics together are works of 
that social reform propaganda blessed by the Pope. 

Unfortunately, on account of the prevailing spirit brought about 
by our relations with Protestants, we are compelled to follow more 
or less in their wake and to adopt their methods. A similarity of 
tastes and ways calls for a similarity of means to attract people. 
Catholic Y. M. C. A's, 1 socials, societies, missions, etc. But above all 
diligent care of the schools and children. 

Those who have no experience of the trials of the average parish 
priest cannot appreciate his position. They will tell him: "Keep 
your people from intimacy with Protestants by speaking strongly 
against it...." Strongly? 60% or even 75% of our people are 
closely related to Protestants. 

"Speak strongly and frequently against mixed marriages," we 
are told. Yes ; but don't forget that 30"/,, or even more of our people 
are in that condition themselves. They are very sensitive on that 
subject and you must not give them offense without reason and drive 
them away from the Church. This all the more, as you could not 
prevent one mixed marriage out of ten if you tried. The dangers of 
mixed marriages have to be put often and vividly before the people, 
but always with prudent caution. 

The hardest task at present is to convince our people that mar- 
riages before Protestant ministers or civil magistrates are no mar- 
riages at all. 

A Catholic Y. M. C. A. may be run that would be courting failure. The 

on the hue of a Protestant one except principle of authority with them and 

tor the management. It cannot be left with us is not applied in the same way. 
•entirely to laymen as Protestants do; 



170 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 



Where sodalities or pious confraternities give hope of success, they 
ought to be established immediately. Social action is the truly Apostolic 
ministry of our days. I know of a priest who, through social action, 
especially the circulation of good reading matter, brought back to the 
Church m two years and a half more than two hundred souls who 

had drifted away. 

I close this article by repeating the concluding words of my paper 
in the first January issue: When souls are going to perdition by 
the million, instead of quibbling, let us unite forces and rush to the 
rescue. 

Catholic Social Work in Spain 

By the Rev. Albert Muntsch, S. J., St. Louis University 
Father Vincent, whose death was recently reported, was called 
the Patriarch of Spanish social action. He began his work of pro- 
paganda years ago. when still a young lawyer. After he had been 
ordained a priest in the Society of Jesus he devoted himself entirely 
to social work. He traveled all over Spain establishing circles and 
rural banks (cajas rurales ) and arousing everywhere the greatest 
enthusiasm for the new crusade. In 1893 he led a pilgrimage of 
19000 workingmen to Rome. By means of the many priests trained 
in his school Fr. Vincent succeeded in interesting the most distant 
towns in the social apostolate. 

Of course, in this work he met with opposition. In a town ot 
the province of Valencia, for instance, a wily politician, who was at 
the same time a banker, had swindled 94 families out of their entire 
possessions. Fr. Vincent having become fully acquainted with the 
sad condition of the working class, founded a rural bank. The 
banker soon realized that his opportunity was gone and, of course, 
looked upon the Jesuit as a personal enemy. 

In 1896 the Catholics who were convened in the Asamblea Na- 
tional at Madrid divided all Spain into three regions for the carrying 
out of their social programme. The first fruits of this wise pro- 
cedure were soon evident. In 1902 the bishops began to publish 
pastoral letters on the social question. In 1906 Madrid saw the first 
•'Social Week." Xow such congresses are held every year in some 
one of the big cities. The study of sociology made rapid progress. 
Within a few years there were founded fifty-one chairs of sociology 
in Spanish seminaries. The press is organized to take part in the 
work. At the present time the Catholics have 170 papers, in- 
cluding a number of dailies, some of them enjoying a greater circu- 
lation than that of two of the ••Trust" papers combined. 



XX 6 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 171 

While the politicians disregard the greatest of the Spanish ques- 
tions — the land question — the village priests devote their spare time 
and a good part of their meager government salary to "obras para 
agricultores" — work for the farmers. To these priests is due the 
founding of co-operative associations and farmers' associations. Thanks 
to their foresight and sacrifices there were in Spain, in 1904, thirty- 
eight rural savings banks; in 1909 there were 373, and in 1910 more 
than 1000. 

Another most important work has been the formation of the 
Action Social Popular, in imitation of the German Volksverein and 
the Unione Populare of the Italian Catholics. Around this organi- 
zation and its founder, P. Gabriel Palau, who is at the same time a 
brilliant writer, there have grown up several admirably edited jour- 
nals and a group of ardent workers who are laboring in all parts of 
Spain for increased interest and activity in social work. 

The sociological work of the Catholics of Spain is indeed wonder- 
ful. Besides trained writers like D. Severino Aznar and the Jesuits 
Vincent, Noguer, and Palau, several young secular priests and lay- 
men have begun to translate the best sociological works written in 
Italian, German, and French. It suffices to mention the collection 
Ciencia y Accion to note how Spanish sociological literature has been 
enriched within recent years. 

There is no branch of activity in which Spanish Catholics to-day 
are not distinguishing themselves. In the uplifting of the press, in 
literature, in religious and social works, and even in the theatre, for 
the moral renovation of which they are beginning to labor, the 
Catholics of Spain stand forth as the only true upholders of religion 
in their country and as the most enlightened and zealous advocates 
of social betterment. 

Wine to Drive out Drunkenness? 

By E. L. Transkau 

The evil of drunkenness is soon to disappear forever from 
America, — so we are told by the wine-growers. They are going to 
drive it out by teaching the American people to drink wine as they 
do in France. To show what a good thing wine has been for France, 
they tell us that it has there reduced the consumption of alcoholic 
liquors to only eight and one-half gallons per capita. But by alcoholic 
liquors they mean only brandy, whiskey, and other distilled liquors. 

But this is not all. They contrast this consumption in France with 
the consumption of alcoholic liquors in Great Britain, where, they 



l?2 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

say, it is over thirty-eight gallons per capita, and in Germany, where 
it is thirty-four gallons. These figures can only be obtained by in- 
cluding beer as an alcoholic liquor. But if beer is included, how can 
wine be excluded when in its lightest forms it has a larger percentage 
of alcohol than the heaviest brands of ordinary beer? Such juggling 
with facts and figures is out-and-out deception. 

Alcohol is Alcohol whether in wine or whiskey. The question 
at issue is, how much alcohol do the drinkers imbibe? 

The following table gives the relative amount of alcohol consumed 
per capita in the different countries. It is obtained by adding the 
percentage of alcohol contained in the various beverages consumed. 

Country Litres of alcohol 

Belgium, I2 -5 8 

France, 12-57 

Spain, I2 -°5 

Denmark, IO - 8 7 

Switzerland, IO -73 

Italy, IO -35 

Portugal, 70I ° 

Roumania, 9-74 

Germany, 9- 2 5 

Servia, 8 -4 6 

Great Britain, S.17 

Austria, 7-99 

United States, 7-95 

Holland, 6 -3° 

Russia, 5- 21 

Sweden, 4-43 

Canada, 3-3 2 

Norway, 2 - 66 

Finland, I - 8 4 

France, it will be seen, stands with Belgium, the largest per capita 
beer-consuming country, at the head of the list, the difference being 
only one-hundredth of a litre. 

An alarming increase in spirituous drinks in France noted by 
her own scientists and public officials, effectually disproves the re- 
peated assertions of the American wine interests that "in the wine- 
growing countries of Europe where women and men drink wine like 
water the use of spirituous liquors and alcoholism are little known." 

Both are altogether too well known: "The French people, who 
were formerly large consumers of light wines, are turning to stronger 
beverages, including absinthe, and the number of suicides caused by 
alcoholism is increasing in corresponding ratio. France is one of 
the countries where the most alcohol is consumed, and it is the only 



XX 6 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 173 

country, with the exception of Belgium, where the consumption con- 
tinues to increase. .. .A feature of the increase in the consumption 
of alcohol is that less wine is now drunk. In 1873, 200 litres of 
wine were drunk per inhabitant in France; in 1885, only 75 litres 
were consumed. Alcohol (that is, spirituous drinks) has taken the 
place of wine, and among the alcoholic beverages that now have a 

hold upon the masses is absinthe "* 

Encouraging the use of wine does not check alcoholism. A re- 
port rendered the Academie de Medicine in 1907 revealed the following 
facts as to the part played by alcoholism in "wine-drinking" France 
in causing deaths in eleven hospitals in Paris. 

Total number of deaths (10-15 months) 1.500 

Alcohol, one cause of death, 33.81 per cent. 

Alcohol, principal cause of death, 10.20 per cent. 

Alcohol, accessory cause of death, -23.61 per cent. 

The influence of alcohol on morality was still greater in the insane 
asylums. There alcohol was the cause of disease and death in nearly 
50 per cent, of the male cases, and in 16.6 per cent, of the female 
cases. 2 

If there were any truth in the statement that the free and uni- 
versal use of wine would keep out the stronger liquors and prevent 
alcoholism, there has been ample opportunity in France to prove it. 
Instead, the exactly opposite result has occurred. The French govern- 
ment has encouraged the use of wine. It has removed the tax, and 
has done all it can to promote wine-drinking, and now stands per- 
plexed and baffled because alcoholism and the consumption of stronger 
and stronger liquors strides on. Verily, not by Beelzebub is Beelze- 
bub cast out. 

1 U. S. Consular Report, Sept., 1906. ' Paris Correspondence of British 

Medical Journal, December 7, 1907. 

The Wonders of Flora 

By H. 

We sometimes go to a great amount of pains and expense to see 
a famous work of architecture, engineering, or art, and find it easy 
to admire in it the genius of the builder or artist. But we pass by 
the tree, the flower, and the herb without an elevating thought. Still, 
even the most elementary inquiry would disclose in them marvels 
of wisdom and power. 

In a recently published volume 1 the Rev. J. B. Baumer, C. SS. R., 

1 Wunder der Pflanzenzvelt oder Of- betrachtung v. P. J. B. Baumer, C.SS.R. 
fenbarung Gottes im Pflancenleben. Mit 2g Abbildungen. (263 pp. Svo. 
Bine religios-zvissenscJiaftliche Natur- Fr. Pustet & Co. 191 1. 70 cts.) 



1/4 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 



has collected a large number of simple but most interesting observa- 
tions from plant life which every one can easily verify amid his 
own surroundings. They are well calculated to stimulate an intel- 
ligent appreciation of nature. Especially the teacher will find there a 
thousand and one valuable object-lessons of God's providence. How 
much would our walks through field and forest gain in usefulness and 
true enjoyment, if we trained our eyes to see the wonders hidden 
in the smallest creature ! 

Some years ago I became acquainted with a professor of natural 
science at the High School in S. and frequently went with him 
on his rambles to study botany. The professor was an acknowledged 
authority in this branch as well as in geology and ornithology. Later 
on I met a priest of the neighborhood, and he said to me: "I am 
surprised to see you in the company of this atheist." 

We had spoken about religion but once, and all the professor said 
was that he thought Unitarianism had much in its favor. Upon 
inquiry why he called him an atheist, the priest answered : "Professor X 
is a perfect gentleman and deserves the high reputation he enjoys in the 
city. His life is blameless and an example for his students. In class 
he never utters a word that could wound the religious feelings of 
his pupils. Still, when the boys and girls get through with him, 
they have lost their faith. This is the complaint not only of Catholic 
priests, but of Protestant ministers also. The reason seems to be this. 
On his scientific excursions with the class he constantly directs their 
attention to the fact how everything in nature can be traced back to 
natural causes and agents. God is never mentioned. The result 
is that the students finally arrive at the conclusion that there is nothing 
beyond nature." 

Reading P. Baumer's Wunder der Pflansemvelt I was reminded 
of this experience and realized more vividly than ever what a power 
for good or evil nature studies may become in the hands of a teacher. 
One neglects to elevate the minds of the children to God, and the 
outcome proves disastrous. Another, as P. Baumer in the above men- 
tioned book, occasionally points to the true author of the marvelous 
harmony, efficiency, and beauty which the children are taught to ob- 
serve in nature, and by so doing not only averts a great calamity, 
but deepens the children's knowledge and increases their interest. 
For putting things at their real value means deeper knowledge and 
connecting them with One whom we esteem and love above all, means 
greater interest as a result. If a teacher makes his pupils realize that 
the wonders of nature find their only intelligent explanation in the 
wisdom of a Creator, he estimates nature at its real value. If he 



XX 6 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 175 

tells the children that it is their heavenly Father who so wisely dis- 
poses and provides for all, he connects nature with Him whom they 
are taught to love most. 

P. Baumer's book shows how easily this may be accomplished. 
To take a simple example. Plants by the light of the sun absorb 
carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, decompose it and set the oxygen 
free again. Animals breathe in oxygen and give off carbon dioxide. 
Were it not for the action of the plants, animal life would soon use 
up all available oxygen, (especially since other processes than animal 
life, as combustion, need the same element), and would replace it by 
a gas which is most injurious to them. How natural it is to put after 
this explanation the simple question: Can that be mere chance? or 
must we not rather conclude that an all wise being has so arranged 
it all ? Children will not fail to give the right answer and remember 
it. Such examples could be indefinitely multiplied. Of course we do 
not mean that the botany class should be changed into a course of 
religious instruction. A casual remark, a mere suggestion now and 
then will suffice; but the result will be great and well worth the trial. 

The Religion of the Primitive Races 

The first chapter in the fifth and final volume of the Eng- 
lish Catholic Truth Society's handbook of The History of Reli- 
gions, 1 is a synopsis of Msgr. A. Le Roy's work La Religion des Pri- 
mitifs (Paris: Beauchesne), which we reviewed in this magazine 
promptly upon its appearance two or three years ago. 

Msgr. Le Roy, who has spent over twenty years as a missionary 
in Africa, devotes most of his space to the Bantus and other similar 
African peoples, Nigrite and Hamite races. 

He finds a singular religious affinity between them all, — an affin- 
ity which extends also to the primitive races of Oceania, America, and 
even to some in Asia and Europe. All have the same basis of reli- 
gious belief and practice, with various differences, to be explained 
largely by special circumstances, environment or racial characteristics. 

If we take away from these local religions all that specially 
characterizes them, we find beneath these successive additions, which 
"like geological strata, have more or less irregularly formed them- 
selves on the bare surface of the human soul," a small number of be- 
liefs, practices, moral obligations, and institutions which, as they are 
common to all, may be reasonably considered as the primary and 

American agent: B. Herder, St. Louis, Mo. Price per volume, 60 cts.net. 



i~6 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

fundamental elements of all religion. The primary truths found in 
a more or less clear form everywhere, when disentangled from a mass 
of superfluous mythology, superstition, and necromancy, are practi- 
cally the following: 

(1) The distinction between the visible or natural, and the invisible or 
supernatural, worlds. 

(2) Sense of man's dependence on a higher world, especially noticeable 
in the use he makes of nature. 

(3) Belief in a supreme ruling and governing Power, as Lord of the world, 
Master of life and death. 

(4) Belief in evil and mysterious spirits and beings, some as tutelary 
deities, others as hostile to man. 

(5) Belief in the soul and its survival after death. 

(6) Belief in a future world, which we shall one day enter through the 
gates of death. 

(7) Universal moral sense based on the differences between good and evil; 
instincts of justice, responsibility, liberty, duty, and modesty; with an implicit 
or explicit recognition of a conscience. 

(8) Practices and restrictions having some moral, or supposedly moral 
end in view. 

(9) Definite system of worship; prayers, gifts, sacrifices, rites, ceremonies 
and symbols, as expressions of submission, penance, thanksgiving, or impetration. 

(10) A priesthood, originating first in the heads of families, then carried 
on by elders of tribes, by "seers," or by priests specially deputed to perform 
sacred functions, and then by organized groups. 

(11) Distinction between what is "sacred" and "profane," as affecting 
persons, places, objects, words, etc. 

(12) Organized and permanent maintenance of family life as a religious 
and social centre, with attempts to preserve racial purity as much as possible 
by stringent rules concerning ties of blood, marriages, etc. 

All these points, as grains of gold mingled with sand or refuse, 
have appeared at some time or place in the religion of every nation 
of the world. 

None of them are outside the grasp of human reason, and there- 
fore it is not theoretically impossible that religion is simply the out- 
come of man's intelligence and conscience. But as Msgr. Le Roy 
rightly insists, "the hypothesis of a divine revelation, providentially 
enshrined and preserved in domestic worship and family life, is a far 
more satisfactory explanation of the problem." Through all the errors 
and faults to which humanity is liable, reason and conscience must 
have been supported and directed by the supernatural assistance al- 
ways promised to men of good will. 

"Everything tends to show that the human race, when first it be- 
gan to spread from its cradle at an epoch which science is unable to 
fix with precision, was put in possession of a deposit of religious and 



XX 6 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 177 

ethical truths and the elements of a ritual of worship. All this took 
root in man's very nature, growing with the development of family 
and social life (in proportion to the mental equipment of each race, 
its mentality, and its special conditions of existence). It gradually 
produced those externally different but fundamentally identical forms 
of worship which we call religions ; and in course of time, mythology, 
superstition, and necromancy have fastened like parasites on to these 
beliefs and have perverted them from their true object." (La Religion 
des Primitifs, p. 484). 

How the Bees Discovered America 

Wilhelm Bolsche's "scientific chats," incorporated in his work 
Stunden im All (Stuttgart: Deutsche Yerlagsanstalt. $1.50), contain 
much sheer (though never stupid) nonsense; but some of its pages 
make charming and profitable reading. 

Take the one, for instance, setting forth "How Our Bees Dis- 
covered America." Bolsche means by "our bees" the ordinary German 
hausbiene, observed since 1780 in Kentucky, since 1793 in New York, 
and now quite generally distributed over the country. 

Humboldt and others believed this bee to have been brought over, 
perhaps accidentally, by Columbus, but this view has been challenged by 
scholars, who cite the presence here, or at least in South x\merica, of the 
wild horse, and appeal to the testimony of De Soto, who, in 1540, 
when he came to Florida, is said to have captured a pot of honey 
from the stores of the Indians. 

Bolsche sticks to the theory that the German hausbiene came over 
with the discoverers of the New World, and calls attention to De Soto's 
statement that "neither before nor after did he or his party find 
either bees or honey anywhere in all Florida." To further strengthen 
his case, he calls up the records of the first missionaries to the North 
American Indians, who found it impossible to translate the word 
"bee" or "honey." 

Against his theory may be cited the fact that Columbus, when 
he feared the wiles of envious men, and committed his report to a 
bottle thrown into the sea, sealed the bottle up with San Domingo 
wax ; but Bolsche suggests that this may have been plant wax. 

It is a pity that, when poring over his crabbed notes in the Sie- 
bengebirge, Bolsche could not have commanded some "Toothless Fly- 
er," such as he says was found in Kansas, and sped west and north 
to Portland, Oregon. There, (according to the New York Times 
of Feb. 17, 1911), he would have seen displayed in a coal merchant's 



i 7 8 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

window a mass of wax, some of it imbedded in stone and sand, and 
all like that other rough wax dug up in considerable quantities of 
late years near Nehalem Beach, not far from the "Rose City.'' 

A heated controversy has been waged about this harmless article 
found in chunks with strange marks upon them — possibly the trade 
marks of shippers from the Orient, but never yet deciphered by any 
expert. For this question, if settled, would bear directly on that which 
agitates the author of Stunden im All. Was this wax the product of 
bees of North America? Or was it, as the Austrian Commissioner 
to the late World's Fair declared, merely ozokerite or mineral wax? 
Or did the wax form part of some shipwrecked cargoes, such as 
tradition asserted were often thrown upon the Oregon coast? 

No one seems to have definitely answered these questions or 
proved the other assumption that, like so much else that is yielded 
yearly by the rocks and sands, the wax comes from far-off ages and 
the life that then was. 

If it does, Bolsche may be right in arguing that the ancestor of 
the German hausbienc originally came from America, because this 
was the primeval garden for flowers — the most natural environment 
of the bee. 

FLOTSAM AND JETSAM 



Devil and Drivel on the Catholic Ama- art, not a tracs could be detected 

teur Stage with the most powerful micro- 

A correspondent writes to us : scope. 
Mr. A. B. Suess' contention about Of course, drawing-room "dra- 
devil and drivel on Catholic amateur mas" are above such trifles. Their 
stages Fortnightly Review Vol. chief features are dress parades 
XX, No. 3 ) certainly applies to and "gentlemen" knavery and ex- 
one parish I know of. Not long travagance. The costumes of the 
ago a play was performed in which ladies can not exactly be called 
the"hero"is engaged to his foster- indecent. But they certainly do 
sister. She and her foster-father not suggest thoughts of heaven, 
compete with each other in telling A sensible, "old-fashioned" mo- 
lies, to get the rascal out of some ther depicted them by inference 
tight places. In fact, insignificant when she remarked after one of 
daddy, who is the slave of the these performances : "That play 
entire family, even assumes the may have been all right ; but my 
crime committed by the son. The daughter would not have taken a 
latter "turns a new leaf in vir- part in it." 
tue of some dcus-cx-machina or 

sleight-of-hand performance. Of The Order of the Serpent and its Gu- 

the suffering that should have Gu's 

been inflicted on him according The Newark Monitor has dis- 

to the principles of real dramatic covered still another "order," the 



XX 6 



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179 



"Military Order of the Serpent." 
According to the World Almanac, 
this is "a secret social organization 
founded upon facts and is of his- 
torical interest.'' The Order of 
the Serpent was founded at Cleve- 
land, Ohio, on January i, 1904; 
it consists of the Supreme Lair 
and a number of Grand Lairs and 
Local Lairs. The national officers 
are : The Supreme Gu Gu ; Su- 
preme Thrice Infamous Inferior 
Gu Gu ; Supreme Lord High 
Keeper of the Sacred Amphora. 
(This latter, our contemporary 
presumes is the Punch Bowl.) The 
insignia is a Filipino cross bear- 
ing the arms of the United States. 
In the words of the Monitor 
(Vol. 14, No. 11), this is just a 
little too funny to be wholesome. 
We never liked the slime of a ser- 
pent, and we regret to see men 
grovelling in it, though only in 
name. The 'Gu Gu' officials are 
childish enough to be harmless. 
We do not object to sensible men 
making fools of themselves occa- 
sionally — if they wish to. But such 
a crude nonsensical society should 
hesitate a long while before it took 
as its emblem the croos." 

K. of C. and Public Morality 

An occasional correspondent 
of the Fortnightly Review in 
one of the larger cities of the 
Northwest writes : 

"No self-respecting woman 
should parade her physical form 
around a ballroom in a scanty 
decollete sheath gown.'' This 
sentence from Polemic Chat (p. 
130) by Bishop Dunne of Peoria 
reminds me of the scandalous ball 
given by the local council of the 
Knights of Columbus on New 
Year's Eve. Not enough that, 
contrary to the exhortation of 
several priests, the season of Ad- 
vent was dishallowed by this 



"social event," quite a few of 
our "leading Catholic ladies" went 
to the limit in catering to the 
fashion which commands that 
women should wear as little 
raiment as possible. Several 
"knights" who were present ad- 
mitted in private conversation that 
if some of the "stars" of the 
evening had been seen in the red- 
light district of New York or 
Chicago, they would easily have 
been mistaken for anything else 
but sweethearts and wives of "the 
20th century champions of Catho- 
licity." 

Of course, with such gorgeous 
balls to occupy them, our Knights 
of Columbus, as a body, have no 
time left for improving the truly 
heathen public morality of our 
city. 

An illustration of the latter 
contention was furnished this 
week, when a young man, who 
confessed to having committed 
rape, was given 30 days, or a fine 
of $ico ! The Catholic [!?] law- 
yer who attempted to rule out the 
criminal's written confession prob- 
ably had a great deal to do with 
this travesty on justice. 

Eugenics 

The editor of the New York 
Evening Post takes a humorous 
fling at eugenics. 

"Viewed in its ultimate form, 
he says, eugenics becomes the most 
revolutionary of all the sciences. 
It concerns everybody and has the 
virtue of not being yet so well 
understood as to repel any one. 
Just now it puts the emphasis on 
segregation, but few think of it 
quite so definitely as that. What 
really counts is the notion that 
here at last is a remedy which in 
some way is going to do us all 
a world of good. Eugenics is the 
word which you reserve for the 



i8o 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



climax of your argument against 
the pessimist. For example, an 
old fogy asserts that we have pro- 
gressed surprisingly little beyond 
the ancient Greeks, and he cites 
the origin of many of our new- 
fangled ideas in Plato and Aris- 
totle. Whereupon you will reply, 
'Yes, but they didn't have eugen- 
ics.' (Of course, they did, but 
you are not supposed to know it. ) 
For the wicked man it is a Damo- 
clean sword threatening annihila- 
tion to him and his seed unless 
he behaves himself. To the ac- 
tive but uncertain reformer, it 
offers a harmless outlet. And for 
all the rest of us it has a variable 
function: it is the poor man's 
one hope of some day being able 
to pay his bills ; it promises the 
extinction of bald heads and bow 
legs. This is what the popular 
mind makes of eugenics — and if 
it means anything less than that 
it is not living up to its great op- 
portunities." 

A New Battle Hymn of the Holy Name 
We are requested to publish the 
following communication : 

The Boston Pilot some weeks 
ago printed an "official" Hymn to 
the Holy Name of Jesus together 
with a French and an Italian ver- 
sion. Directors of the Holy Name 
Societies were urged to adopt this 
chef d'oeuvre. We were told that 
this Battle Hymn of the Holy 
Name was long a desideratum. 
But have we not the Jesu dulcis 
memoria (Jesus the very thought 
of Thee) ; Jesu Rex admirabilis, 
(Jesus, King most powerful) and 
Jesu, decus angelicum (O Jesus, 
Thou the Beauty art), all incor- 
porated by the Church into her 
Divine Office? These hymns are 
usually ascribed to St. Bernard of 
Clairvaux, though Dom Guerahger 
assures us that documents show 



a Benedictine abbess of the 
fourteenth century to be the au- 
thoress. They certainly breathe the 
spirit of St. Bernard. They are 
admirably translated by Father 
Caswall and set to worthy tunes, 
as for example in the Westminster 
Hymnal. We have no need of 
more hymns, but great need to 
know what we have. We as a rule 
leave the appreciation and trans 
lation of our treasures to our An- 
glican brethren. "Perhaps the sad- 
dest of all sights in this melancholy 
world," says Dr. Barry, "is the 
mishandling, worse than neglect of 
our Catholic treasures, our cere- 
monies, music, architecture, our 
philosophies and our devotions, by 
those who should watch over them 
as at the gate of Heaven." 

In these liturgical hymns there 
is no bombast religious or patriotic 
("non in couunotione Dominus") 
but there breathes in them and is 
instinct in every line the sweet, 
tender, persuasive, winning spirit 
of the Holy Name, which we 
would have pervade our societies. 

Phenomenal Longevity 

We read in No. 136 of the 
Truth, published in Jerusalem 
(Palestine) : 

Intelligence has reached the Bul- 
garian Jewish community in Jer- 
usalem that an old Jewess, Miriam 
Palaneive of Turnov, has just died 
there at the advanced age of 188 
years. 

She was the mother of 18 chil- 
dren, 10 males and 8 females, and 
has lived to see seven generations 
of her descendants counting 781 
persons, all told. 

We were at first inclined to 
doubt the accuracy of this almost 
incredible longevity — unheard of 
since the pro-Abrahamic period, 
but we are assured of the verac- 



XX 6 



THE FORTXIGHTLY REVIEW 



1S1 



ity of the story by one who claims 
to have known her personally. 

A Modern Pharaoh's Downfall 

The case of "King Pharaoh," an 
"educated horse," described by 
Prof. M. V. Oshea in a recent is- 
sue of the Popular Science Month- 
ly, is but the last of a long 
series of similar disappointments. 
As soon as "King Pharaoh's" 
trainer was eliminated from the 
scene, the former's alleged human 
intelligence vanished. In other 
words, the secret of "Pha- 
raoh's" performances lay in his 
ability to understand signs made 
by his trainer — slight noises, as 
snapping the finger nails, perhaps, 
or variations in voice tones, or 
certain slight motions of feet or 
hands or body as a whole — not au- 
dible to or noticeable by the au- 
dience. He had evidently been 
trained by long practice to do cer- 
tain things in response to these 
signs — knock over numbered or 
lettered blocks, or stop before the 
person nearest to him when the 
signal was given and hand over 
a ribbon, etc., etc. This appears 
to be the routine explanation for 
the ordinary animal wonder. 

An even more ambitious claim- 
ant for admission to the homo 
sapiens class came to grief last 
year, in the person of "Don" the 
talking dog. He was a German 
dog, and thanks to the fact that 
he was in a distant way one of the 
Kaiser's retainers (he belonged 
to a royal game keeper), great 
fame came to him, and to his 
owner. His case proved to be 
one of suggestion. His supposed 
talk when subjected to a phono- 
graph test became unmeaning gib- 
berish. 

"The exhibition of these trained 
animals," says the Nation, fur- 
nishes a wholesome and instruct- 



ive form of entertainment. The 
acuteness of their senses and their 
docility in the hands of a com- 
petent trainer are certainly won- 
derful enough to justify such use 
of them. But their apparent 'hu- 
man intelligence' is a myth, the 
result either of deliberate or un- 
conscious fraud on the part of the 
trainer. It has proved to be such 
at least, in every case so far in- 
vestigated by competent and skep- 
tical observers." 

Literary Criticism— Signed or Unsigned? 
Air. J. E. C. Bodley, well known 
for his books on France and other 
writings, makes a plea in the Ath- 
enaeum for signed literary criti- 
cism. The occasion was a review 
of his own essay on Idealism in 
France, which was signed with the 
name of Andre Chevrillon. This 
making public of the "personality 
of the reviewer" is, to Mr. Bodley, 
of the essence of the criticism. 
But he argues for the practice on 
the score of the resulting benefit 
to the critics themselves. When 
they are cultivated and promising 
writers, they should be entitled to 
let their names appear. It is too 
great a strain on the reviewer, ar- 
gues Mr. Bodley, to ask him to 
spend time and learning on notices 
of books, when he knows that the 
work will bring him no "public 
recognition." And he thinks this 
the great obstacle to the growth 
of a "school of criticism" in En- 
gland, pointing to the French cus- 
tom, particularly at the time when 
the public was looking for the 
"signed opinions of Sainte-Beuve 
and of other vigilant masters of 
criticism." 

Commenting on Mr. Bodley's 
paper, the New York Nation, 
which, like this Review, publishes 
both signed and unsigned critic- 
isms, says : 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



"It is impossible to lay down a 
hard and fast rule on the subject. 
A judicious blending of signed 
and unsigned criticism seems to 
many the ideal to aim at. But 
Mr. Bodley must be aware of the 
great evils which attend the pub- 
lication of no literary criticism 
except that which is signed. It 
leads, in the first place, as the 
editor of the Athenaeum remarks, 
to a flourishing of prominent 
names — the name soon getting to 
be everything and the substance 
of no account. Moreover, as the 
thing is done in France to-day it 
invites to the most gingerly and 
superficial reviewing, which is 
then really to be defined as an act 
of courtesy, not of criticism. Paris 
is full to-day of instances of the 



sort of thing which led Dr. John- 
son to say scornfully: 'This, if 
it is not criticism, is at least 
friendship.' And the history of 
book-reviewing in England and the 
United States, where the best 
tradition has favored anonymity, 
is filled with evidence that compe- 
tent and conscientious writers have 
thought it no hardship to do good 
work without having their names 
attached to it. In fact, they have 
felt that in many cases their work 
has been the better for being un- 
signed. And Mr. Bodley quite 
overlooks the reasonableness of 
putting faith in the editor, who is 
known, and in his knowledge and 
good faith in getting books re- 
viewed by capable hands." 



LITERARY NOTES 



— Social Reform on Catholic 
Lines by Rev. John A. Ryan, 
D. D. ( Volksverein, Greenpoint, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 19T2). In a 
brochure whose very title will at 
once appeal to all those interested 
in the cause of Catholic social re- 
form, Dr. Ryan outlines a plan 
of constructive social reform on 
Catholic lines. There has been 
indeed an awakening of the Cath- 
olic "social sense" during the last 
ten years. But not without reas- 
on has the charge been brought 
against us that there has been 
"too much beating of the air." We 
have been accused of vague and 
aimless theorizing. There is a de- 
gree of truth in the latter charge. 
Hence it is good to see such a not- 
able authority as Dr. Ryan gath- 
er the results of his study in social 
and economic questions and pre- 
sent them to a larger audience. 
For his plans were first proposed 



in the Study Social Course of 1912 
at Fordham, and the Katholischer 
Yolks-Verein of Greenpoint, 
Brooklyn, thought the lecture so 
concise and yet so clear, that it 
has been determined to give it 
wider publicity." By "Social Re- 
form" Dr. Ryan understands "re- 
form of industrial conditions, not 
of all social conditions ; hence we 
have nothing to do with social 
problems as the divorce question, 
the liquor traffic, tuberculosis or 
methods of relieving distress." 
Under four main heads Dr. Ryan 
discusses the agencies of social re- 
form : The Individual ; Private 
Associations ; the State ; and the 
Church. Rather than analyze the 
contents of this thoughtful essay, 
I shall quote, as an instance of 
Father Ryan's lucid study of the 
subject, his answer to the query: 
"What shall the State do in our 
present industrial conditions ?" 



XX 6 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



183 



"To prepare the way for a sys- 
tematic and comprehensive answer 
let me point out that the two 
great evils of the present situa- 
tion are, first, that millions of the 
poorest paid laborers are insuffi- 
ciently protected against unjust 
conditions of life and employ- 
ment, and, second, that immense 
masses of fortunately placed 
capital receive excessive and un- 
necessary profits or interest. 
Neither of these evils can be ad- 
equately met except by the action 
of public authority, the State." 
The brochure deserves wide cir- 
culation.— Albert Muntsch, S.J. 

— That venomous publication, 
The Menace, is ever becoming 
more aggressive. But, as the Cen- 
tral-Bureau of the Central Yer- 
ein, says, in a leaflet : "Don't scold 
the Menace, unless you are willing 
to combat it effectively." This 
same enterprising Bureau has pre- 
pared a popular "Anti-Menace" 
leaflet, written by a Lazarist Fath- 
er. This leaflet sells at 2 cents 
a copy, 250 copies for 4 dollars. 
The very title of the leaflet (16 
pages) should make it appeal to 
readers: The Slime of the Ser- 
pent — the Menace — A Journalistic 
Reptile. An Appeal to Fairmind- 
ed Americans (Central Bureau of 
the Central Verein, 307 Temple 
Bldg., St. Louis, Mo.)— A. M. 

— German readers will be glad 
to learn that Talks on Frequent 
Communion by Father Walter 
Dwight, S. J., can now be had in 
an excellent translation. (Das 
Himmelsbrot. Brmahnungen zum 
ofteren Empfang der hciligen 
Kommunion von Walter Dwight 
S. J. Autorisierte Ubersetzung 
aits dem Englischen von P. Ber- 
nard von Heiligsten Sakramente 
aits dem Orden der unbeschuhten 



Karmeliten. Mit Titelbild von 
Fiihrich. viii & 182 pp. i2mo. B. 
Herder. 1912. 80 cts. net). The 
fact that the Germans, who have 
so many fine books of their own 
on the subject of frequent Com- 
munion, have deemed this little 
work worthy of being translated, 
speaks volumes for its merits. — 
C. D. U. 

— Our readers will thank us for 
calling their attention to a series 
of treatises published by the Ger- 
man Volksverein (M. Gladbach ) 
under the title of Apologetischc 
Tagesfragen (Apologetical Ques- 
tions of ' the Day). The distin- 
guishing features of these tracts 
are, first, that although the sub- 
jects are treated with scientific ac- 
curacy, the treatment nevertheless 
appeals to the general reader, and 
second that the subjects chosen for 
discussion are of intensely actual 
interest to the educated Catholic. 
Of this Series, No. 12, Die For- 
derunq einer Weiterbildung der 
Religion ( Shall Religion be sub- 
ject to a further process of de- 
velopment?) by Dr. L. Baur forms 
an excellent introduction to mod- 
ern religious thought outside the 
Catholic Church. Considering the 
conclusions reached by modern 
non-Catholic divines, one wonders 
how it is possible for a man with 
his wits about him, not to say for 
a Christian, to set aside the claims 
of Christianity as the one absolute 
religion and advocate an ever-pro- 
gressing evolution of all religions. 
But one's wonderment is abated 
when one reads that modern reli- 
gious thought is not modern at all. 
but merely the logical outgrowth 
of a mentality to which the last 
three centuries have made their 
contributions. For sale by B. Her- 
der. 40 cts. ) — A. B. 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



— The Rev. P. Bertrand Kurt- 
scheid, O. F. M., has written the 
first really satisfactory history of 
the seal of confession. It is pub- 
lished as Heft VII of the Frei- 
burger Theologische Studien. 
(Das Beichtsiegel in seiner Ge- 
schichte und Bntzvickhtng. xvi & 
188 pp. 8vo. B. Herder. 1912. 
$1.10 in paper covers). The au- 
thor has gone deep into the sour- 
ces and presents a most valuable 
and readable treatise, which will 
correct many false impressions 
current on the subject of the seal. 
No theological library can afford 
to do without it. We for one, 
rather than be without it, would 
prefer to consign to the waste- 
paper basket all the other liter- 
ature previously published on the 
seal of confession. — A. P. 

— A history of universal litera- 
ture on less than 500 pages can 
scarcely satisfy the connoisseur. 
Yet it can be made fairly attrac- 
tive and valuable as a text book 
for the beginner and the general 
reader. Witness Dr. K. Holter- 
mann's Kurze Geschichte dcr 
WeltUtcratur (xvi and 479 pp. 
8vo. B. Herder. 1912. #1.70 net). 
Unfortunately, the sketch of our 
American literature is perhaps the 
weakest part of the book. The 
bibliographical references at the 
end of the chapter in question are 
ridiculously inadequate. Holter- 
mann's work is well printed, hand- 
somelv bound, and richlv illustrat- 
ed.— A. P. 

— Missa "Stabat Mater." For 
four mixed voices. By J. Singen- 
berger. ( Published by the com- 
poser. ) A fine piece of church 
music — easy, yet valuable from a 
musical standpoint, and highly 
effective. It is particularly ad- 
apted for a capella singing during 



Lent and Advent. — D. WaedEn- 
schwiler, O. S. B. 

— The third edition of the An- 
nus Liturgicus by Prof. Dr. M. 
Gatterer, S. J., is — to our knowl- 
edge at least — the first handbook 
of liturgies that has been brought 
up to date since the issuance of 
the papal bull Dizino Afflatu of 
Pope Pius X. In fact, the latest 
legislation down to September 
1912 has been embodied in the 
text. There is first a general in- 
troduction to the science of litur- 
gies, comprising valuable inform- 
ation on the nature of liturgies, 
the historical development of lit- 
urgies, the lawgiver in matters 
liturgical, liturgical books, and the 
decrees of the Congregation cf 
Sacred Rites. Then follow two 
large treatises on the Annus litur- 
gicus in genere and in specie. Fa- 
ther Gatterer's book is a safe and 
eminently practical guide in all 
matters pertaining to the celebra- 
tion of Holy Mass and the reci- 
tation of the Breviary. Lucidity 
and brevity of treatment may be 
singled out as the two salient 
features of the Annus. Although 
the immense amount of matter is 
here compressed within 425 small- 
sized pages, no point of interest 
or importance has been omitted. 
Special attention has been given to 
questions of Occurrence or Con- 
currence of Feasts. The Notae 
Practicae as well as the Monita 
Spiritualia are welcome additions 
— dainties, so to speak, to season 
the every-day liturgical fare. 
Priests who cannot afford to ac- 
quire costly and elaborate volumes 
on liturgies will undoubtedly 
make an excellent investment in 
the purchase of this editio tertia 
iuxta noznssinias rubricas emen- 
data. (Innsbruck: F. Rauch ; 
American agens : Fr. Pustet & 
Co.)— A. B. 



XX 6 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



185 



— Columbus and His Predeces- 
sors, by Charles H. McCarthy, Ph. 
D., Professor of American His- 
tory in the Catholic University, 
will repay careful reading. As 
the vast material to be dealt with 
in this "Study in the Beginnings 
of American History" has been 
brought within the narrow limits 
of 214 small-sized pages, the 
treatise is necessarily of the nature 
of a mere sketch ; but the sketch 
is interesting and instructive. Be- 
ginning with the Ancients and the 
Arabs, the author goes on to tell 
of the Early Christian Pilgrims, 
the Norsemen, the Franciscan 
missionaries, Marco Polo, and the 
Italian and Portuguese navigators, 
noting everywhere their several 
contributions to our geographical 
lore. Each in his own way, they 
all hastened the day of the dis- 
covery of this Continent. Natural- 
ly, the larger portion of this book 
is devoted to the achievements of 
Columbus. The genesis of the 
project in the mind of the great 
Genoese is well portrayed. In- 
cidentally, one is pleased to see 
how maritime enterprise and geo- 
graphical conquest in the middle 
ages were invariably bound up 
with the spread of the Christian 
faith; the efforts of some explo- 
rers, however, were not always 
sustained by motives of a purely 
religious kind. Columbus and His 
Predecessors presents a subject in 
which American Catholics have 
not as yet evinced sufficient inter- 
est. (J. J. McVey, Philadelphia, 
50 cts.)— J. A. 

— Die sozialdemokratische Frau- 
enbewegung von J. J 00s (M.- 
Gladbach : Volksvereins-Verlag. 
1912. 87 pp. 1 Mk.). The pur- 
pose of this book is to show the 
development of the Socialist 



movement among the women of 
Germany. As a statement of facts 
it can be accepted without ques- 
tion, since the author relied prin- 
cipally on the Gleichheit, the offi- 
cial organ of the movement. The 
teaching of this movement is es- 
pecially harmful to religion, to the 
religious education of children, 
and to the sacredness of marriage. 
According to its principles religion 
is not to be taught in the schools, 
for it violates all rules of sound 
logic. In regard to marriage the 
movement follows the principles 
of Bebel's book : Die Fran und 
dcr Sozialismus, and according- 
ly advocates free love. As the 
author himself remarks, there 
will undoubtedly be a reaction 
against this tendency. Even one 
of the representatives of the move- 
ment, Wolly Zepler, sees this. 
She admits that Socialism will not 
make men happier, though it may 
make them richer. It cannot satis- 
fy that longing of man's nature 
which strives for something above 
the material. She says that there 
will always be certain things man 
will not dare to do because he 
feels there is something more, 
something higher, than this life; 
that he is accountable for his ac- 
tions to a higher tribunal. — J. 
A. Thiex, St. Paul Seminary. 

— Those who enjoy aphorisms 
and are able to spin out a thought 
for their own spiritual profit, may 
take an occasional stroll out into 
The Orchard Floor, where they 
will find, for every day in the year, 
a sentence or paragraph "as they 
fell from the lips of a great Cath- 
olic preacher." Whoever may 
have been the preacher, there is 
much spiritual wisdom in the 
pages of this book. The sequence 
in the arrangement is broken only 



1 86 



THE FORTXK'.HTLY REVIEW 



1913 



by the occurrence of feasts for 
which suitable passages were avail- 
able. ( Benziger Bros). — Ger- 

MANUS. 

— Theologia Mystica, Bpistola 
Christi ad Hominem, Auctorc 
Joanne a Jcsu Maria, Carm. Disc. 
Pugna Sp'iritualis Auctore Lau- 
rentio Scupoli. (B. Herder. 1912. 
$1.25.) This volume of Fr. Lehm- 
kuhl's Bibliothcca Ascetica My- 
stica contains two ascetical works, 
the Epistoia Christi ad Hominem 
by John a Jesu Maria, a pro- 
lific and in his day highly esteem- 
ed writer on spiritual subjects, 
and Scupoli's Spiritual Combat, 
a classic which ranks with the 
Imitation, the Exercises and The 
Introduction to a Devout Life. The 
Theologia Mystica of the first- 
mentioned author is the only pub- 
lication on mysticism that has so 
far appeared in the series. It is 
a short treatise of nine chapters 
and explains the leading phenom- 
ena of the mystical life according 
to the teaching of Saint Teresa. 
The student of mystic psychology 
will find interesting discussions on 
the relation of contemplation to 
the infused (actual) love of God. 
With most of the older authors 
the writer looks upon the experi- 
mental knowledge and love of 
God as the specific element of 
mysticism, a view rejected or 
modified by some modern writers 
of weight on the ground that the 
direct sentiment of the presence 
of God is impossible and no mi- 
raculous angelic method of cogni- 
tion should be assumed without ne- 
cessity. In fact, the experience 
which a soul in the mystic state 
has of God is effected, the latter 
say, by sublimer illustrations of the 
intellect and more fervent acts of 
divine love kindled by God in the 
will. An intenser light of faith. 



with a deeper spiritual insight, a 
more generous love and a keener 
enjoyment of divine consolations 
places a soul in the mystic state 
according to the opinion of many, 
who quote St. Teresa, St. John 
of the Cross, St. Thomas, Albert 
the Great, St. Francis de Sales 
etc. in support of their view. — 
Ernest Dannegger, S. J., St. 
Louis University. 

— In The Teachers Companion 
of the Benziger Educational Series, 
Brother de Sales, M. A., provides 
his fellow-teachers with a manual 
embodying the notes of lectures on 
school methods given by him 
during many years while pro- 
fessor in a training college. This 
origin accounts for the sometimes 
sketchy tone of the practical sug- 
gestions. Every other page is left 
blank to invite the reader to enter 
his own notes and record personal 
experiences. Although a book like 
the Companion needs the test of 
actual class-room experience to 
allow of final pronouncement on 
its worth, it is safe to say that it 
will appeal to many primary teach- 
ers and aid in smoothening their 
thorny path. (Benziger Bros. $1.) 
-J- A. 

— We heartily recommend Das 
heilige Messopfer by Dr. F. Ruegg, 
Bishop of St. Gall, Switzerland. 
This attractive little volume of 170 
small pages presents an excellent 
popular exposition of the Mass 
and is an earnest appeal to the 
faithful to profit by devot assis- 
tance at the Holy Sacrifice. (Ben- 
ziger Bros.) — A. B. 

— Habent sua fata — auctores, 
one is sometimes tempted to say, 
instead of libelli. Ernest Hello, 
who had spent a lifetime in setting 
hisfh ideals to French Catholic 



XX 6 



THE FORTXIC.HTLY REVIEW 



187 



journalism, was almost forgotten 
for a time after his death in 1885 
but he is now coming into his 
own and is widely appreciated in 
France. In a tastefully printed 
32tno of "The Angelus Series," 
E. M. Walker gives in a well-done 
translation some excellent speci- 
mens of the power of Hello as a 
vigorous writer on such topics as 
Life, Science, and Art. (Benzi- 
ger Bros. 50 cts.). — Germanus. 

— Die Mission auf der Kanzel 
und im Verein. Sammlung von 
Predigten, Vortrdgen und Skizzen 
iiber die katJwlischen Missionen 
Unter Mitwirkung cinder er Mit- 
gliedcr der Gescllschaft Jesit her- 
ausgegeben von Anton Huonder 
S. J. Erstes Bdndchen. ( xiii & 157 
pp. i2mo. B. Herder. 1912. $1 net.) 
This is the latest addition to "Her- 
der's Missionsbibliothek." The title 
explains the nature of the contents. 
A leading idea of the editor has 
been to utilize especially the or- 
dinary Sunday gospels for ser- 
mons and addresses in behalf of 
the foreign missions. The useful 
volume is to be followed by one 
or two others. — A. H. 

— Critics of Fr. Otto Brauns- 
berger's latest study in the field 
which he has made so eminently 
his own — the history of the 
Church in the sixteenth century 
— find that his work on Pius V 
and the German Catholics pre- 
sents remarkable features which 
are found again in the pontificate 
of the present Sovereign Pontiff. 
Fr. Braunsberger did not intend 
to make a "parallel-study" of the 
pontificates of Pius V and Pius X. 
In fact he only alludes to certain 
coincidences. But one can scarce- 
ly mention such titles of the au- 
thor's brochure as "The Oath 
against Modernism," "Training in 
Seminaries," "The Clergy and 



Secular Tribunals," "The New 
Breviary and Missal," "The Cath- 
olic Press," etc., without being 
vividly reminded of the "acta" of 
our present Pontiff. Again, when 
we read such utterances as those 
of Bl. Canisius : "He [Pius V.] 
is enkindled with a desire to re- 
new the face of the Church" ( page 
32), or that of Emperor Maximil- 
ian : "This Pope launches some- 
thing new every day" (page 33), 
we are reminded of things said by 
or of the present Pius. Especially 
does the treatment of German 
Catholics by Pius V when com- 
pared with the policy of Pius X 
towards Germany to-day, show 
similar traits. One of the great 
tasks of the saintly Pontiff of the 
1 6th century was to put into exe- 
cution the decrees of the Council 
of Trent. He began his reforms 
in Rome itself, visiting and 
preaching in the various churches. 
Those of his contemporaries who 
had the good of the Church at 
heart, were enthusiastic over the 
work of Pius V. Thus St. Fran- 
cis Borgia wrote to Father Xadal 
in Germany, on May 18, 1566: 
"God be praised ! He has given 
Flis representative such a holy and 
mighty zeal for the Catholic faith 
— a zeal which is regulated by 
saintly prudence — that all those 
who are weak and ill in spirit, 
are saved for the Church." Fa- 
ther Braunsberger's study is time- 
ly and noteworthy, not only be- 
cause he is an authority in this 
field, but also because he has been 
able to make use of hitherto un- 
published annals and reports. 
(Pius V. und die deutschen Ka- 
tholiken. Teilweise nacli ungc- 
druckten Quellcn. Von Otto 
Braunsberger S. J. 108. Ergan- 
zungsheft zu den Stinimcn aus 
Maria-Loach. B. Herder. 1912. 
70 cts.) — Albert Muntsch, S.J. 



1 88 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



— Die Sclbstoffenbarung Jesu 
bei Mat. it, 27 (Luc. 10, 22). 
Bine kritisch-exegetische Unter- 
suchung von Dr. Heinrich Schu- 
macher, (xviii & 225 pp. 8vo. 
B. Herder. 1912. $1.35 net, in 
paper covers). This scholarly 
treatise forms No. 6 of the Frei- 
burger Theologische Studien, edi- 
ted by Hoberg und Pfeilschifter. 
It deals with a gospel text which 
has acquired peculiar importance 
in our day through the comments 
of Harnack, Loisy, etc. Matth. 
XI, 27 is sometimes called "the 
Johannine passage in the Synop- 
tic gospels," and even Rationalist 
exegetes admit that if it can be 
shown to be authentic, the Johan- 
nean conception of Christ is not 
a product of later development, 
but an essential portion of the 
primitive Gospel. Schumacher tri- 
umphantly proves its authenticity 
and gives an exhaustive expla- 
nation of its meaning and import. 
The book, despite some inaccura- 
cies, deserves hearty recommen- 
dation. — A. P. 

■ — "Vocations." Conditions of 
Admission, etc., into the Convents, 
Congregations, Religious Institu- 
tes, etc.. According to Authentical 
Information and the Latest Reg- 
ulations. By Rev. H. Hohn. xx 
& 426 pp. i2mo. R. & T. Wash- 
bourne and Benziger Brothers. 
1912. $1.75 net. This is a hand- 
book for female aspirants to the 
religious orders and congrega- 
tions of Great Britain and Ire- 
land. Cardinal Bourne in a brief 
fore-word says that it contains 
"concise and useful information" 
and serves "the higher and more 
important purpose" of enabling 
souls whom God calls to a more 
perfect life to "find the fullest 
realization of their holy aspira- 
tions."— D. F. R. 



- — Prof. Joh. Ude, of the Uni- 
versity of Graz, presents us with 
a brief text-book of moral philos- 
ophy {Bthik: Leitfaden dcr na- 
turlich-vernunftigen Sittenlehre. 
xix & 164 pp. 8vo. B. Herder. 
1912. 85 cts. net). It is Thomis- 
tic throughout and clothed in 
strictly scholastic form. Whether 
this form of presentation is best 
adapted for a modern text-book, 
is a question concerning which 
there is much disagreement. Prof. 
Ude's Bthik is well-written and 
as readable as a scholastic text- 
book can be made. — C. D. U. 

— Dr. Constantine Sauter has 
published a German translation, 
with explanatory comment, of 
Dante's Monorchia. (Dantes Mo- 
narchic iibersetzt und erkldrt. xi 
& 209 pp. i6mo. B. Herder. 1912. 
$1.50 net). The translation is ex- 
cellent and the commentary il- 
luminating, though we don't like 
its occasional — shall we call it 
anti-papal ? — tone. Herder has 
gotten out the volume in the at- 
tractive style of his other Dante 
translations. The series is now 
complete and will form an orna- 
ment to any library. — A. P. 

— Dcr hi. Bernardin von Siena 
und die franziskanische Wander- 
prcdigt in Italien wdhrend des 
XV. Jahrhunderts von Dr. Karl 
Hefele (ix & 300 pp. 8vo. B. 
Herder, 19 12. #1.70 net). The 
author of this interesting book has 
examined all or nearly all of the 
(for most part unpublished) ser- 
mons of St. Bernardine of Siena 
and sympathetically describes the 
missionary activity of this amiable 
friar in fifteenth-century Italy. 
Those who share the current low 
opinion of Franciscan preaching 
in the quattrocento will obtain a 
far more favorable view from the 



XX 6 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



189 



study of this entertaining volume. 
—A'. E. 

Protestantismus unci Toleranz 

iin 16. Jahrhundcrt. Von Niko- 
laus Paulus. (vii & 374 PP- 8vo. 
B. Herder. 191 1. #1.85 net). The 
fact that we have left this attrac- 
tive volume unnoticed for more 
than a year does not argue that we 
deem it uninteresting or unimport- 
ant. It is one of the most interest- 
ing and important books that have 
come to our table for a long time. 
Msgr. Paulus, who is an acknowl- 
edged authority on the history of 
the Protestant Reformation, has 
collected all those recorded utter- 
ances of the Reformers which deal 
with toleration and religious liber- 
ty, and it will undoubtedly surprise 
not a few twentieth-century Prot- 
estants to see how intolerant in 
theory and practice the Reformers 
really were. The author does not, 
of course, deny that there were 
liberal-minded men among the ear- 
ly Protestant leaders, nor does he 
Protestant colleagues. But he 
proves beyond peradventure that 
the religious toleration of which 
our age loves to boast, is not "a 
fruit of the Reformation," and 
that E. Friedberg was perfectly 
justified in asserting : "Luther de- 
manded liberty only for himself 
and his own teaching, but not for 
opinions which he regarded as er- 
roneous." In his final chapter Dr. 
Paulus traces the modern idea of 
religious toleration to Rational- 
ism as represented by such wri- 
ters as Locke and Lessing, in con- 
junction with various factors of 
historical development, e. g., the 
multiplication of religious denom- 
inations, the increasing facili 
ties of national and international 
intercourse, the growth of reli- 
gious indifference and infidelity, 
the prevalence of material over 



spiritual interests, etc. It is to be 
hoped that this valuable work will 
not create new differences but 
convince Protestants and Cath- 
olics alike that our ancestors were 
honestly persuaded of the justice 
of their conduct when they re- 
fused to tolerate what they re- 
garded as religious error, and that 
in this, as in so many other re- 
spects, they were merely children 
of their time. — A. P. 

—Spiritual Progress: I. Luke- 
warniness to Fervor, aims to be 
a help to devout persons in deriv- 
ing ever-increasing advantages 
from the Sacrament of Penance. 
The great stumbling block is, of 
course, lukewarmness. The anon- 
ymous author presents a keen 
analysis of tepidity, both of the 
extreme and of the lesser kind. 
Though a translation from the 
French, the volume reads like an 
original. The spiritual counsel 
here proposed is sound and defi- 
nite. (B. Herder. 290 small pp. 
90 cents.) — A. B. 

Books Received 

[Every book or pamphlet received by the 
Fortnightly Review is acknowledged in this 
department; but we undertake to review such 
publications only as seem to us, for one rea- 
son or another to call for special mention.] 

ENGLISH 
Grace: Six Lenten Discourses Preach- 
ed in the Parish Church of Saint Mar- 
tin at Freiburg by Pastor Heinrich 
Hans jakob. Adapted into English by 
Rev. Joseph McSorley. C.S.P. iv & 
98 pp. i6mo. B. Herder. 1913- 50 cts. 

Trilogy to the Sacred Heart. Three 
Meditations on the Indulgenced Invo- 
cations: "Sacred Heart of Jesus, I 
trust in Thee," "Sacred Heart of Je- 
sus, I believe in Thy Love for me," 
"Sacred Heart of Jesus, Thy Kingdom 
come." From, the French of Rev. 
A. Gonon, Captain of the Shrine of 
the Sacred Heart at Paray le Monial. 
(Wrapper). 

The Missal. Compiled from the Mis- 
sale Romanum. lxxii & 1079 & 11 pp. 
6x31/' in- B. Herder. $1.50. 



ioo 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913- 



The Soliloquies of Saint Augustine. 
A Manual of Contemplative Prayer. 
(A Nezv and Exact Edition.) By L. M. 
F. G. vii & 184 pp. i6mo. London: 
Sands & Co.; St. Louis, Mo.: B. Her- 
der. 60 cts. 

Loretto Centennial Discourses 1S12- 
1912. With an Introduction by Mt. 
Rev. John J. Glennon, D.D., Archbish- 
op of St. Louis, viii & 173 pp. i2mo. 
B. Herder. 1912. 75 cts. 

Betrothment and Marriage. A Can- 
onical and Theological Treatise with 
Notices on History and Civil Law by 
Canon De Smet, S. T. L., Professor of 
Theology in the Grand Scminaire de 
Bruges. Revised and Greatly Enlarged 
by the Author. Volume I. Translated 
from the French Edition of 1912 by 
the Rcz>. W. Dobcll. xxxv & 450 pp. 
large 8vo. Bruges : Charles Beyaert ; 
St. Louis, Mo.: B. Herder. 1912. $2.25 
net. 

The Christian Church. Pastoral Let- 
ter of the Rt. Rev. James A. McFaul, 
Bishop of Trenton. Second Edition, 
Revised and Enlarged. 38 pp. 8vo. 
Benziger Brothers. 1913. 10 cts. 
( Wrapper.) 

The Roman Curia as it Nozu Exists. 
An Account of Its Departments: Sa- 
cred Congregations. Tribunals, Offices; 
Competence of Each; Mode of Proce- 
dure; How to Hold Communication 
With; The Latest Legislation. By Rev. 
Michael Martin, S.J., Professor of 
Canon Lazv and Moral Theology, St. 
Louis University. 423 pp. umo. Ben- 
ziger Bros. 1913. $1.50 net. 

Socitr Tln'rcse of Lisieux, the Little 
Flozver of Jesus. A Nezc and Complete 
Translation of L'Histoirc d'un Ante. 
With an Account of Some Favors At- 
tributed to the Intercession of Soeur 
Thcrcse. Edited by T. N. Taylor, 
Priest of the Archdiocese of Glasgozv, 
Witness before the Tribunal of the 
Beatification, xiii & 429 pp. 8vo. New 
York^ P. J. Kenedy & Sons. $2. 

Tolerance. By the Rev. A. Ver- 
meersch. S.J. Translated by W. Hum- 
phrey Page, K.S.G., Privy Chamber- 
lain to H. H. Pius X. ix & 374 pp. 
iinio. Benziger Bros. 

The Interior Life Simplified and 
Reduced to its Fundamental Principle. 
Edited by the V. Rev. Father Joseph 
Tissot, Superior-General of the Mis- 
sionaries of St. Francis of Sales. 
Translated by W. H. Mitchell, M.A. 
xl & 396 pp. 121110. London: R. & 



T. Washbourne, Ltd. ; New York : 
Benziger Bros. 1912. 

Practical Manual for the Superiors 
of Religious Houses. By Father Cos- 
tanzo Frigerio, S. J . Translated from 
the Italian by F. Loughnan. 81 pp. 
i6mo. New York: P. J. Kenedy & 
Sons. 1912. 40 cts. net. 

An Army Officer's Philippine Stud- 
ies. By Captain J. Y. Mason Blunt, 
U.S.A. (Retired.) xiii & 343 pp. 8vo. 
Manila, P. I. : University Press. 1912. 
$2 net. 

The Catechist's Manual. Brief 
Course. (Course of Religious Instruc- 
tion by Brothers of the Christian 
Schools). Authorized English Version. 
xiii & 243 pp. 121110. Philadelphia: 
John Joseph McVey. 1912. 75 cts. net, 
postage 10 cts. 

The Temples of the Eternal, or the 
Symbolism of Churches. The Mystic 
Meanings of the Houses of God and 
the Wonderful Lessons Written in the 
God-Given Plans, Divisions, Decora- 
tion, and Rites of the Tabernacle, 
Temple and Church Buildings. By 
Rev. Jas. L. Meagher. 513 pp. 121110. 
New York: Christian Press Associa- 
tion, 26 Barclay Str. $1.13 postpaid. 

The Divine Educator, or Guide to 
the Promotion of Frequent and Daily 
Communion in Educational Establish- 
ments. Adapted from the "Directoire" 
oj Pere Jules Lintelo. S.J. By F. M. 
de Zulueta, S.J. Including Reprint of 
Leo XIII's ''Mirae Caritatis." 321 pp. 
121110. New York : P. J. Kenedy & 
Sons. 1912. 75 cts. postpaid. 

Christology. A Dogmatic Treatise 
on the Incarnation. By the Rev. Jo- 
seph Pohle, Ph.D., D.D. Authorized 
English Version, Based on the Fifth 
German Edition, JJ'ith Some Abridg- 
ment and Numerous Additional Ref- 
erences by Arthur Preuss. iv & 309 pp. 
121110. B. Herder. $1.50 net. 

GERMAN 

Die Heidenmission. In vicr Predig- 
ten dem katholischen Volke dargestellt 
von Otto Isele, Pfarrer. 40 pp. 121110. 
Steyl : Druck und Verlag der Mis- 
sionsdruckerei. American agents : So- 
ciety of the Divine Word, Techny, 111. 
( Wrapper.) 

Meine dreissigjahrigen Erfahrungen 
als Priester in Madison, Wisconsin, 
Jubildums-Festschrift von Rev. Alois 
Zitterl, Rehtor der St. Erldsergemein- 
de. 1907. 183 pp. 8vo. Illustrated. 



XX 6 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



191 



LATIN 
Officium Hebdomadae Majoris a 
Dominica in Palmis usque ad Domini- 
cam in Albis, juxta Rubricas a SS. D. 
N. Pio X. Refonnatas Editum. Cam 
Approbatione Sacr. Rituum Congrega- 



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for 
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With Organ Accompaniment 

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Soprano & Alto with Tenor & Bass 
ad libt. With organ accompani- 
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Stewart. Score $0.80 

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Address all orders for church music, 
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tionis. vi & 644 pp., prayer-book size* 
in flexible leather covers. Fr. Pustet 
& Co. 1913- $i-5o. 

FICTION 

In the Service of the King. By 
Genevieve Irons. 148 pp. i2mo. Lon- 
don : Catholic Truth Society ; St. 
Louis, Mo.: B. Herder. 1912. 60 cts. 

Stanmore Hall and its Inmates. By 
the Author of "By the Grey Sea." "An 
Old Marquise." "Mere Gilette," etc.. 
etc. 353 pp. l2tno. B. Herder. 1913. 
$1.25. 

Their Choice. A Novel. By Hen- 
rietta Dana Skinner. 180 pp. 121110. 
Benziger Bros. 1913- $i- 

The Mighty Friend. A Modern Ro- 
mance of Labor-Warfare, Country- 
Life, and Love. Crowned by the 
French Academy. By Pierre L'Ermite. 
Authorized Translation by John Han- 
non. 619 pp. 8vo. Benziger Brothers. 
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VOLUME III. 

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A Plea for More Sociability 

By D. J. Scannell O'Neill 

In beginning it may be well to observe that it is not the 
province of the Church to create any other degree of sociability than 
that which already exists. Her duty is to teach, and if her 
children followed her teachings, there would be small cause for com- 
plaint in this regard. But they do not, and hence arises the conviction, 
on the part of earnest men and women, that it is to her interests 
that she insist that Catholics become more sociable to one another 
than they now are. That there is a vital need for this, every person 
who has given the subject a moment's notice knows. 

For instance, take the case of a young man removing from one 
city to another. He may be irreproachable in morals, and a constant 
attendant at Mass for years, yet he remains unknown to those with 
whom he is fitted to associate, unless he force himself upon stran- 
gers, who show no sign of wishing to make his acquaintance. Is it 
a wonder, then, that young men find their friends among Protestants 
and eventually marry outside the Church? This, it must be admitted, 
needs consideration. 

Then, take the case of a Catholic family moving into a strange 
parish or city. They may be entitled to a place within the most select 
Catholic circles, and this may be so acknowledged by Catholics them- 
selves whenever they think of it ; and yet Protestants are invariably 
left to show them the usual social courtesies. 

In one instance, to our own knowledge, the convert wife of a 
man in a prominent position in a certain city, was three years in the 
Church before a single Catholic woman called upon her. The lady, 
be it said, had formerly been prominent in the highest Episcopalian 
circles in her native city in the East, where she bore a name illustrious 
in American song and story. Do you not think she found adherence 
to the faith a lonesome affair? It is a fact that she did. 

But this is only a sample case of our treatment of converts 
coming into the Church, many of whom would make useful members 
of the household of the faith. 

How many Catholic young men and women every year, through 
similar influences, drift into indifferentism, or finally drop out of the 
Church altogether, owing to negligence on our part ? 



194 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 



While, as we said at the beginning, it is not the duty of the 
Church as such to look after this matter, it most unquestionably is 
the duty of her children to correct the blunders they make in this 
regard every day of their lives. We Catholics should be more sociable 
to one another than we are, and the moment has arrived when we 
should consider our failing. If the clergy are too busy to look after 
strangers and converts, let the laity do it. 



What Led to the Invention of Printing? 

By the: Rev. J. M. Lenhart, O. M. Cap., Victoria, Kan. 

II 

We have conclusive proof that, in Europe at least, paper was 
not the first material used for typographical books. Gutenberg made 
use of vellum or parchment 27 in his earliest editions of Donatus ; his 
Latin Bibles were issued in editions both of paper and parchment. 
Throughout the XVth century parchment was used alongside of paper 
in printing. 28 As late as 1499 and I S 00 > J onn Luschner printed for 
the monastery of Montserrat (Spain) among other books 20 breviaries 
on vellum and 398 on paper, 12 missals on vellum and 128 on paper, 
130 processionals on vellum and 300 on paper, 43 responsories on 
vellum and 308 on paper. 20 If cheap paper had been the prime 
mover of the invention of printing, Gutenberg and his fellow-printers 
would not have used the more expensive parchment. The manufacture 
of paper did facilitate printing, but in its absence printing on vellum 
would surely have been invented in the XVth century. 

Cheap paper could not have been instrumental in bringing about 
the invention of printing, neither in China nor in Europe. 30 In the 
XVth century as well as in the XXth, in China as well as in Germany, 
there were always people who did not buy books, no matter how 
cheap. Cheapness may induce some to buy more books; but it is 
not and never has been the prime motive for purchasing books. The 
Moslems had cheap paper, yet printing did not thrive among them, 
simply because there was no demand for books. 

27 The term "vellum" is strictly ap- pinger, Supplement to Hain's Reper- 
plied to the delicate skins of very torium, P. II, Vol. I, London, 1898, 
young calves, and "parchment" to the pp. 214-218 

integuments of sheep, goats, asses, " 9 A. v. d. Linde , Gesch. d. Erfind. 

swine, and antelopes, though the terms d. Buchdruckk., Ill, Berlin, 1880, p. 

are as a rule employed interchange- 720. . . 

ably (Scribner, op. cit., p. 22 sq. ; 30 "Printing on paper arose in China 

Brandscheid, op. cit., p. 58 sq.). as a consequence of paper invention 

28 Cf. f. i. the long list of "Dona- is a false opinion, stated by JacoD, 
tus*' on vellum, given by W. A. Co- p. 5 2 5- 



XX 7 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 195 

The Renaissance inevitably comes to mind when we speak of the 
XYth century. This movement may have caused some good, but it 
had no share in the invention of printing. True, the later humanists 
were enthusiastic over the "new art." Still, the motive power behind 
the invention lay outside the sphere of humanism. In 1445, German 
humanism was still in its infancy. There had been a few humanists 
in the Netherlands, Bohemia, and different places of Germany. Peter 
Luder, the first humanist to teach at any German university, com- 
menced his lectures in 1456, at Heidelberg 31 , but we cannot properly 
speak of humanism in Germany before the year 1460. This literary 
movement set in about 1460. 32 The passion for books prevailing in 
1445 cannot be charged to humanism. We have a palpable proof of 
this in the list of books printed by Gutenberg and his immediate 
successors. The inventor of printing issued at least seven different 
editions of the Donatus in addition to his famous impression of the 
Catholicoii, 33 both books which might have shocked any humanist and 
against which the authors of the Epistolae Obscurorum Virorum 
(1515-1517) directed their shafts of raillery. 34 

It is only in 1465, 33 twenty years after the invention, that we come 
across the first edition of any classical book: Ciceronis Officio et 
Paradoxa (Mainz, Fust and Schoffer, 1465 ). 36 A reprint of this 
edition was issued by the same firm within a year ( Febr. 4, 1466). 37 

Humanism, therefore, cannot claim the honor of having contributed 
to the glorious invention of printing. The first editions of the classics 
were in keeping with the medieval trend of education, which used 
the heathen authors as a medium for imparting moral instruction. An 
edition of Cicero's orations would have better satisfied the humanistic 
tendency than printing his moral treatise on "Duty." 

31 Janssen, op. cit., p. 99; Hundhau- bishop Martin of Braga (died a. d. 
sen in the Kirchenlexikon, vol. V, 2nd 580). Cfr. O. May, Die friiher dem Se- 
ed., 1593. neka zugeschrieb. Abhandl. De IV vir- 

32 Geiger, Renaissance u. Humanis- tutibus, Xeisse, 1892; Fabricius-Man- 
mus in Italien n. Deutschland, Berlin, si, Bibliotheca Latino, III, Florence, 
1882, pp. 323 sq. ; Kapp, Geschichte d. 1858, p. 38. The other piece of this 
d. Buchhandels, I, Leipzig, 1886, p. 361. edition: Senecae Liber de Moribus, 

33 Konr. Burger, Printers and Pub- immediately following the preceding 
Ushers of the XV. Century, London, booklet, is likewise spurious. Cfr. C. 
1902, pp. 504 sqq. Lycosthenes, Elenchus Scriptorum, Ba- 

34 Linde, op. cit., p. 811; Janssen, sel > r 55i. P- 693. 

op. cit., II, 18th ed., Freiburg, 1897, 3S On the last page is printed the 

pp. 60 sqq. poem of Horace: "Diffugcre nives... 

=5 The book Senecae De Qmttuor Pirithoo" (Carm. lib. IV, carm. VII 

Virtutibus Liber, printed in 1463 at t edlt - Muller] Leipzig, 1875, p. 92) ; 

Mayence by Fust and Schoffer (Co- cf - Reichling, Appendices, fasc. IV 

pinger, Suppl., P. II, Vol. II, London, (Munich, 1908), pp. 192 sq. 

1902, n. 5351, p. 75) is not a work of 37 Hain, Repertor. Bibliog., II, Stuttg. 

the Roman philosopher but of Arch- 1827, n. 5239. 



I9 6 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

The invention of printing, being neither the consequence of the 
spread of paper-making, nor the outcome of the intellectual movement 
called humanism, has its real causes elsewhere. 

Every great invention, even though the work of an individual 
genius, depends in its inception upon the circumstances and necessities 
of time and place. 38 In Germany, cities governed by a municipal 
administration according to self-constituted laws came into existence 
from the IXth to the Xlllth century. The powerful guilds worked 
their way gradually into the city administration, which at first had been 
a privilege of the nobility. This democratic victory broke down the 
barriers between the cultured nobles and the thriving burghers. The 
nobility with its international culture entered into the national 
sentiments of the German burghers. The latter, on their part, adopted 
the refined manners of the nobility. 39 The taste for the productions 
of art spread more and more among the middle classes of the people. 
The artistic creations themselves, it is true, were no more on such a 
gigantic scale as the far-famed cathedrals of the Xlllth century. They 
were shaped by the practical democratic mind of the people, 
ministering to the individual ease and comfort of the burghers, and 
assisting in the improvement and refinement of the lower classes. 40 
The increasing business life necessitated a knowledge of reading and 
writing on the part of more and more people. 41 The burghers, espe- 
cially the merchants and workingmen, needed instruction in the mother- 
tongue to be able to conduct their correspondence. The rising corpo- 
rations and guilds increased the need of a knowledge of the three R's, 
since without it book-keeping was an impossibility. 42 A new era of 
intellectual life commenced in Germany about the middle of the 
XlVth century. One university after the other was founded ; numerous 
schools were established and frequented by children and adults ; princes 
and barons collected libraries in their castles, and in the cloisters 
the traditional intellectual activity revived with new vigor. The 
enormous price of books and writing material was lessened by the 
spread of paper production. 43 The practice of reading and writing 
could be acquired much more easily. Those who had acquired a 
reading knowledge were anxious to possess books. Consequently, the 

38 Hartwig, Festschrift v. J oh. 42 Corn. Krieg, Lehrbuch d. Pada- 

Gutenberg (Leipzig u. Mainz, 1900), gogik, 3rd eel, Paderborn, 1905, p. 

p. 2; Kapp, op. cit., p. 31. 169. 

43 Kapp, Gesch. d. d. Buchhandels, 

Hartwig, I.e., p. 4- Tj p . I 6; Albr. Kirchhoff, Die Hand- 

40 Hartwig, op. cit., p. 4-5. schriftenhandler d. Mittelalters. 2nd. ed. j 

41 Hartwig, 4. Leipzig, 1853, p. 4- 



xx 7 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



197 



demand not only for school books but for bibles, prayer books, treatises 
on natural science, almanacs, and other popular works grew to such 
dimensions during the XlVth and XVth centuries that clerks, school 
teachers, notaries and others versed in the art of writing chose the 
occupation of book-making as an additional source of income. In 
Italy as well as on the banks of the Rhine regular shops were erected 
for transcribing books, and they issued books of every description on 
a larger scale. 44 A nourishing trade was the natural outcome of this 
had attained to a businesslike organization. 45 

Thus there was an intense craving for books among all classes 
of the people in Germany on the eve of the invention of printing 
The clergy and the nobility, the traditional guardians of education 
and science, joined hands with the burghers in promoting the interests 
of intellectual culture. 46 An era of intellectual activity commenced 
about the middle of the XlVth century, which formed a striking con- 
trast to the manifestations of the disintegrating process within the 
Church. 4 ' In spite of interior dissolution, an epoch of splendor in 
science and art had set in, which was destined to be checked by the 
oncoming Reformation. 48 



The Value of Labor 

By C. Meurer, Editor of the "Arkansas Echo," Little Rock, Ark. 
The Creator in His wisdom did not give the same abilities and 
inclinations to all men, hence a division of work is necessary for the 
progress of culture and civilization. It is the will of the Creator 
that man shall rule and govern the earth and nature. As long as each 
single man or family produced everything they needed for necessity 
and comfort, great progress was impossible; the workingman was 
unable to concentrate his ability and experience on one kind of work, 
so as to gain perfection therein. 

Division of work was the will of the Creator, and we see it ac- 
complished by the children of our first parents. We read Gen. IV, 20: 
"And Ada brought forth Jabel, who was the father of such as dwell in 
tents, and of herdsmen." 21: "And his brother's name was Jubal ; 
he was the father of them that play upon the harp and the organ." 

H W. Schreiber in the Festschrift je G. Schniirer. Das Mittelalter Mu- 

v - Jo/ >- Gutenberg, p. 26; Kapp, nich, 1908, p. 59. 

° P is c -l!-> PP- l6 and 20 - " Alb. Ehrhard. Das Mittelalter, 

Kapp, op. at., 16-22; Roberts, Mainz, 1908, p. 312. 

tarher History of English Booksell- 4S V. Hasak, Luther u. d. relig Li- 

tng, London, 1889, p. 1-17. terat. s. Zeit, Ratisb., 1881, p 20 



I9 8 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

22: "Sella also brought forth Tubalkain, who was a hammerer and 
artificer in every work of brass and iron." 

It is clear that there had to be makers of tools and instruments, 
wood-workers, house-builders, spinners, weavers and so on. From 
this division of work resulted another necessity : the determination of 
the selling price for each article produced. Men had to trade their 
products for the products of others. How did the first sellers fix 
the price? 

There were no property rights at that time; every man had free 
access to all the materials he needed for his special work. What 
price could he charge? He could only ask the value of the labor 
he had put into his product; there was no other measure of value. 
Even to-day the price of many articles is measured merely by the 
value of the labor they embody. For instance : A farmer raises two 
hundred bushels of potatoes per acre one year and only one hundred 
bushels the next. These one hundred bushels bring him nearly the 
same amount of money as the two hundred, because they embody 
nearly the same amount of labor. Therefore, it is the labor we pay 
for in the potatoes, although what we eat is not the labor but the 
substance of the potatoes. This substance is God's creation, free for 
all men. 

How is it possible for us to fix a price for the materials which 
God has created for all, and upon which we are all dependent? 
It is a presumption if men do it, for they thereby encroach upon the 
authority of God, who gave the earth to men not as their property, 
but merely to use and govern it. 

Our only real property is labor, as Leo XIII says in his Encyclical 
Rerum Novarum: "Verisshnum est, non aliunde quam ex opificum 
labore gigni divitias cizritatum." 

But to-day something besides labor enters into the price of 
goods, viz., profit. By the organization of the industrial world into 
big stock companies this profit is counted as interest, but no work 
whatever is done for it. Does this profit belong to the social order 
according to the will of God? If it does, then God created two 
classes of men, one class that has to work, and the other whose raison 
d'etre is to enjoy the fruits of the work of others. The latter class 
then, is exempt from the divine command : "With labor and toil thou 
shalt eat thereof all the days of thy life." 

If, on the other hand, these words are meant for all men without 
exception, profit in any form is against the social order as willed by 



XX 7 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



199 



God, because our labor only shall give us what we need: the daily 
bread for ourselves and our families. 

It is profit-taking that has upset the divinely constituted order of 
society. This explains why Jesus Christ used force against the profit- 
takers, who plied their trade in the vestibule of the Temple. 
This was the only occasion when He employed physical force against 
anybody, and He said: "It is written. My house is a house of prayer, 
but you have made it a den of thieves" (Luke XIX, 46). 



Language, Literature, and Religion 

In connection with certain remarks by "A Catholic Missionary," 
on page 139 of the current volume of the Fortnightly Review, 
the following observations from the pen of the Rev. William H. Kent 
in the London Tablet (No. 3,796, pp. 209 sq.) will no doubt be read 
with interest : — 

For some of us there is a peculiar interest in the intimate as- 
sociation of language, literature and religion. Even apart from 
those privileged tongues that were made the vehicle of the inspired 
writings, there are some forms of human speech that seem to have 
been in a manner dedicated to the service of the Church, and there 
are national literatures which have had at the outset a religious 
consecration; and others whose only extant remains have a religious 
character. Thus Cyril among the Slavs and Mesrob in Armenia 
gave the people at once the Sacred Scriptures and a national alphabet. 
There are ancient languages that only live in the liturgy, and one 
sweet western tongue that can only be studied in mysteries and 
Passion plays. Among living languages, again, there are some in 
which the common phrases of daily intercourse and the greetings 
passed in the field or the market-place bear the stamp of Catholic 
faith and piety. And there is more than one great national literature 
whose readers find themselves perforce breathing a Catholic at- 
mosphere. 

In such cases the language and literature may serve as safeguards 
of popular faith and piety. And sometimes their loss or neglect may 
constitute a real danger. It was surely a true instinct that made the 
Polish schoolgirls cry: "We will not speak the Protestant language," 
when they were ordered to say their Catechism in German. Of 
course, properly speaking, no language as such can be either Protestant 
or Catholic, and the Catholic Church, which is the Church of the na- 
tions, must needs speak all languages. Yet there may be circum- 



2 oo THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

stances in which all the local associations and influences may have 
the effect of giving such paradoxical expressions a real significance. 

The English language as the language of a people predominantly 
Protestant may seem, at first sight, to be wanting in Catholic as- 
sociations. And, as some readers will readily remember, Cardinal New- 
man, in one of his Dublin University lectures, has warned us that 
the Catholic faith could find little or no support in the national 
literature of England. Perhaps some Catholic students with a pre- 
dilection for early and middle English, or for some of the forgotten 
masters of a later age, may think that the Cardinal went too far in 
allowing that the national literature was lost to us. But, of course, 
he was speaking of more modern authors, and of those whose works 
command the attention of the world. And here it must be con- 
fessed that the Catholic element was scarcely conspicuous, and that 
the literature of England, at any rate at the date of his lectures, 
to wit some sixty years ago, was mainly a force hostile to the 
Catholic faith. And to this it might be added that, in spite of the good 
work already done in this field, the distinctly Catholic literature then 
extant in English was poor in comparison with that to be found in 
other languages. 

Here we may be told by some critics that we are still much in 
the same case, that the national literature of England is still pre- 
dominantly Protestant, and that the Catholic religious literature in 
the English language is poor in comparison with that to be found in 
French or German and some other tongues. And it may be argued 
that people belonging to these more favored nations would suffer 
some loss or incur some danger if they abandoned their own lan- 
guage and adopted English. On this last point it may be said at 
once that, though much must depend on local circumstances, there 
is very often a real danger in such cases. For the change is anal- 
ogous to that involved in leaving home and losing its beneficent 
influence. And often enough while the loss of his own language 
may cut a Catholic off from the religious literature of his people, 
the only English books or papers that come in his way may be 
such as have an evil influence. In some places it may be feared 
that a Catholic population would suffer moral, intellectual, and re- 
ligious damage if they were to abandon their own tongue, with all its 
sacred associations, and adopt another language such as English or 
German. 

But, happily, there is another and a brighter side to the picture. 
In this matter we may find some help in the analogous case of Ger- 
man. To Catholic Poles, oppressed by Protestant Prussians, this may 



XX 7 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 201 

appear, as we have seen, to be a Protestant language. But it is seen 
in a very different light in those happier lands where it has ever 
been the mother tongue of a true-hearted Catholic people, as in certain 
Swiss cantons, in the Austrian Tyrol, or in the Catholic Rhineland. 
And for the student of German literature who does confine his reading 
to the narrow range of modern criticism and philosophy, no language, 
assuredly, is richer in Catholic associations. It is no Protestant 
language that enshrined the mystical writings of Eckhart and Heinrich 
Suso and comes to us laden with echoes of medieval hymnology, to 
serve as the vehicle of the richest and most learned Catholic literature 
of later ages. 

In much the same way, if not in the same measure, the English 
language, too, has it Catholic memories and associations, and English 
literature is not so very Protestant as some good people suppose. 
It is true that the numbers of Catholic Englishmen are small and can 
bear no comparison with the many millions of Catholic Germans. 
And many of the Catholics of England come of some other race, 
while others, again, are converts from Protestantism. None the less, 
there are still many among us whose families have ever been both 
English and Catholic, and in their case, at any rate, the English 
language is as rich in Catholic memories and traditional associations 
as German, or French or Gaelic. At the same time, it may be truly 
said these hereditary English Catholics are a link uniting the present 
Catholic Church in this country with the Church of medieval England 
in which English was still the language of a loyal Catholic nation. 

All this, it may be said, cannot affect the fact that, in the present 
day English literature, like the English people whose mind it reflects, 
remains, and will remain, predominantly Protestant: and that our 
Catholic literature remains poor and inadequate, whether we compare 
it with Protestant literature at home, or with Catholic literature on 
the Continent. Well, nothing can be more foolish than an attempt 
to dispute or disguise facts. And if English Catholics wish to convert 
their non-Catholic countrymen to the Catholic faith, they must not 
indulge in idle dreams, or live in a fool's paradise, or lose sight of the 
difficulties of the situation or their own shortcomings. At the same 
time, it must be remembered that after all hope is needed for any 
enterprise to succeed. And critics who are disposed to take a de- 
sponding view will do well to ask whether they have really considered 
all the facts of the situation. 

For our part we venture to think that some verv significant facts 
have been too much overlooked or forgotten. For serious purposes 
of comparison it is not enough to take the actual figures at any one 



2 02 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

date, without considering what has gone before. We can all see this 
in regard to the question of a religious census of the population. The 
present number of Catholics, in this country or elsewhere, might be 
dwarfed by the overwhelming majority of their Protestant country- 
men. And yet the same figures might surely be regarded as a hopeful 
sign and an augury of success, if it appeared that the proportion 
of Catholics was much better than it had been in the last generation. 
And in the same way, if we are told that English literature is pre- 
dominantly Protestant, or that it must be reckoned with as a force 
in the main hostile to the Catholic faith, we are not content to take 
the facts of the present day and treat them as something absolute 
or stationary. On the contrary, we ask what was the case sixty years 
since, or at the beginning of the last century, and how does it compare 
with the facts of the present clay? Is English literature on the whole 
as Protestant, or as hostile, now as it was then? Or is there a larger 
Catholic element in the best literature of the present age? And we 
have little doubt that the result of such an inquiry would furnish some 
encouragement for Catholics. 

It is not possible to go into the evidence on the present occasion, 
though we may have some other opportunity of dealing with this inter- 
esting question; but we may at once say that in our view of the matter 
there is now a much larger Catholic element in the highest literature 
of this country, that Catholic writers take a more prominent place 
and get a better hearing, while even in the literature that comes from 
non-Catholic writers there is much that must, in the long run, tell 
in favor of Catholic truth, and help to throw light on the course of 
religious history. And while our own religious literature leaves much 
to be desired, it shows pleasing signs of progress. 

The Catholic Social Year Book for 1913 

By the Rev. Albert Muntsch, S. J., St. Louis University 
For the fourth time the very excellent Catholic Social Year Book, 
issued by the Catholic Social Guild of England has made its ap- 
pearance. In twelve sections it gives an insight into the development 
of Catholic social action during the year 1912, the three opening 
chapters being devoted to Reports of various Catholic Social Organiza- 
tions in England and to events which concern England more directly. 
What makes the successive issues of this practical year book 
more valuable to the Catholic social student is the fact that the various 
annual numbers so far published do not make that of the preceding 
year superfluous. Each number treats some particular phase of the 



XX 7 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 203 

Catholic social apostolate more fully. Thus, the present issue con- 
tains an entirely new feature — a diary of social events bearing on 
the social and industrial life of the people during 1912. While, 
therefore, the general plan of the manual remains much the same 
as in the three previous years, some sections have been curtailed, 
others extended. "Thus considerably more space has been given to 
the record of the activities of the Catholic Social Guild itself during 
the past year: it being considered that a detailed account of such 
matters as the formation of study clubs or the planning of a study 
scheme would be helpful to many. The matter of the book is, of 
course, entirely new." 

The chapter on Catholic Social Action in the United States has 
been contributed by the Rev. Dr. John A. Ryan. Most of us who 
have followed the development of Catholic social work in this country 
will, no doubt, subscribe to the words with which Dr. Ryan con- 
cludes his brief sketch: "Most of us [in the United States] are as 
yet overwhelmed by a sense of vagueness with regard to the whole 
matter of social questions, social evils, social study, social activity 
and social reform." 

Those who realize the truth of this indictment will, perhaps, find 
the last section of the Year Book more serviceable than the others. 
For it contains a well-prepared "Bibliography on Social Subjects." 

This section also contains a frank admission of the backwardness 
of Catholics, in general, in the field of social science : "Our Catholic 
social literature is still very scanty, and it is all the more necessary 
that beginners in social study should, whilst accepting the facts pre- 
sented, carefully weigh the principles which led to their selection and 
grouping, and the conclusions to which they are intended to point." 
(The Catholic Social Year Book for iQiJ. Fourth year of Issue. 
London: Catholic Social Guild). 



Bergson's "Philosophy" 

By C. E. d'Arnoux 

M. Bergson has lectured and returned home. His "philosophy" may 
be summed up as the Materialism of the XYIIth century, plus a few- 
confessions by way of spice. 

He assumes without cavil the prouuuciamento of Darwin, but says 
he finds a creative element in organism over and beyond mere mat- 
ter and its laws. Mind and brain are not identical, but the former 
exceeds the scope and compass of the latter. 



204 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

He further denies the identity of intellect and instinct ; un- 
fortunately, however, he destroys the distinction while explaining it, 
as will be shown anon. 

M. Bergson broadly discounts the findings of "Science" in the 
following words : "The affirmations of science are but arbitrary the- 
ories, and the 'proofs' they supply are extremely dubitable." Yet 
he accepts the Darwinian theory of "Natural Selection"! 

As is usual with gentlemen of his cloth, however, he fails to ex- 
plain how there can be more in the conclusion than is contained in 
the premises, — how though man or God has developed species by 
dint of thought, thought is omitted in the premises of evolution; 
how in the offspring of a combination between a lower and a higher 
being the higher can ever be excelled except by the admixture of 
thought, human or divine ; how white and black, for instance, 
can ever produce higher and better than white ; why no such modifi- 
cation of species has occurred since Strabo and Homer, 4,000 years 
ago, except where thought intervened (as, for instance, in the ele- 
vation of plant and animal species under the hand of the expert 
botanist and zoologist respectively.) 

It is, though, a great step towards truth that a man like Bergson 
should admit the instability of pure Materialism under its own 
search-light. While in one breath he admits and denies the distinc- 
tion between mind and brain, both of which he predicates as material ; 
and between intellect and instinct, both of which he attributes to all 
organism; and while he places the creative act in the free-will of all 
organisms, and makes it material, — he, at any rate, paves the way to- 
wards truths that have been held from the cradle of man and only 
latter denied. He exhibits a fine sample of the wrigglings of "Science'' 
within its own limitations. 

M. Bergson's "theories" seem all to be "extremely dubitable." 
Thus he says of the divergence of intellect and instinct : 

"Intellect and instinct are widely divergent ; the former is not 
derived from the latter [evolution to the contrary notwithstanding?], 
but they are both present in all life [organisms]. The awakening from 
torpor [he means the first activation of life] could be effected in this 
way: — life, i. c. consciousness, launched into matter, could fix its at- 
tention either upon its own movement, or upon the matter it moves 
through ; and it would thus be turned either in the direction of intu- 
ition or intellect. On the side of intuition, consciousness [which he 
defines as the sensation of freedom] could not go far; it found itself 
so restricted by its envelope [surroundings] that intuition had to shrink 
into instinct." 



XX 7 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 205 

This is a fair sample of Bergson's reasoning: Mere theory, gra- 
tuitous assumptions without a shred of proof, "extremely dubitable" 
conclusions ! 

I cannot help thinking, while reading Bergson's theories, that he 
is trying to find some ground of compromise this side of untenable 
Materialism and the foundations of Supernature ; only he seems to 
want to squeeze the latter within the narrow limits of the former. 
He has assimilated some sound ideas but tries to vest matter with the 
properties of non-matter. Some of his mind-pictures are graphic in 
their crudity, e. g.: 

"Beings advance in time, treading as it were upon a carpet which 
they weave with whatever colors and texture they wish ; but they are 
ever rolling this carpet up behind them and carrying it with them. 
Thus all of the past is preserved, though not, indeed, all as self-con- 
scious memories." 

When I studied philosophy professor and students would likely 
have interrupted such an effusion by quoting the hackneyed saw : 
"Verba facis, non scnsum." 

It is pleasant, though, to peep into the caldron of "Science" once 
in a while to see what is brewing. 

Mr. Bergson's arrival and departure has left in the minds of all 
sound thinkers the conviction that he has nothing to add to the lines 
of defence with which "Science" has surrounded itself; and that 
"the last word" is but a wordy echo which will never move the ship 
of Truth from its moorings. 

A New Home for Catholic Mechanics 

By Joseph Schaefkr, 9 Barclay Str., New York City 

Catholics who deplore the fact that we have no substitute for 
the Young Men's Christian Association, may be interested to know 
that the "Society of Catholic Mechanics" (Katholischer Gesellen- 
Yerein), which to some extent covers the field, has a fine record 
of achievements that is perhaps a sealed book to the Catholic public 
at large. The Society of Catholic Mechanics is a product of German 
soil. The headquarters of the society are in -Cologne, and there are 
several hundred club houses and several hundred thousand members. 
In the United States there are branch societies in New York, Chicago, 
St. Paul, Kansas City, Dayton, and Paterson. 

The Katholischer Gesellen-Yerein of New York was founded 
October 13, 1888, by the late Reverend A. F. Tonner, in St. Mary 
Magdalen's school hall, in response to the urgent request of several 



2o6 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

young men who had been members of the parent society in Germany. 
The original founder, Father Adolph Kolping, whose name is 
known at every German Catholic fireside, worked as a shoemaker be- 
fore beginning his studies for the priesthood. As a journeyman he 
had ample opportunity to see the moral pitfalls which threatened his 
colleagues, and upon his ordination to the priesthood, he devoted 
himself to the spiritual and temporal welfare of his former comrades. 
The object of the young laborers' societies which he organized 
was to induce the members to perform their religious duties, but social 
features were by no means lacking. The motto of the organization 
is: "Religion and Virtue, Diligence and Perseverance, Good Fellow- 
ship and Charity, Diversion and Recreation." Father Kolping, know- 
ing human nature too well to believe that young men are fond of 
dry sermons, combined social with religious features. 

The New York branch of the society, which has maintained a 
Home for a number of years past, has purchased a new site for the 
erection of an imposing structure, in which about 100 members are 
to have quarters. These members are German mechanics and laborers, 
who have immigrated to this country and find in the Home of New 
York all that solicitous care for their physical comfort and spiritual 
well-being that they received under their parental roof in the father- 
land. 

His Eminence Cardinal Farley was greatly pleased when he was 
recently apprised of the splendid achievements of the Society of Cath- 
olic Mechanics and expressed his gratification in the following letter : 
"I am more than pleased to learn of the progress being made 
by the Society of Catholic Mechanics, an international institution 
of several hundred thousand workingmen, who, under the guidance 
of the Church, are united together for the protection of its members 
against the evil influence of ir religion, socialism and kindred dan- 
gerous teachings, which rampant today, under the pretext of better- 
ing the laboring men, seek only to undermine Catholic faith, the 
Christian family and the State. 

"Such an organization as yours is indeed more than ever neces- 
sarv, and has my hearty approval. I wish it every success, and 
commend it to all those who may be able to aid it in enlarging its 
sphere of usefulness, and especially in enabling the New York branch 
of this excellent society to erect the new and larger building now be- 
ing planned." 

The new Home which is to be erected in a central location of 
New York will involve an expenditure of at least $60,000, not in- 



XX 7 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 207 

eluding the cost of the site for the building. Of this sum, $5,500 has 
already been realized by means of contributions. Those who are in- 
terested in this work of social charity can obtain further information 
by addressing: Joseph Schaefer, 9 Barclay Street, New York City. 



The Louvain Congress of Catholic Ethnologists 

By the Rev. Albert Muntsch, S. J., St. Louis University 

It is not too much to say that the first "Semaine d'Ethnologie 
Religieuse,*' held at Louyain last September, will mark the beginning 
of a more yigorous study of ethnology and primitive religions on the 
part of Catholic missionaries and scholars. The Congress has already 
borne fruit in the publication of the learned monographs and studies 
presented at the Louvain meeting and in the resolution to continue 
the work in a second congress, for which preliminary arrangements 
have already been made. The meetings will be held at Louvain the 
last week of August and the first week of September, 1913. 

In a previous number of this Review (Vol. XIX, No. 21 ) I 
called attention to the practical purpose of the lectures and exercises 
held in connection with the Congress. It is this feature which has 
made the meetings a splendid success. No less an authority than 
Rev. P. W. Schmidt, S. V. D., Secretary General of the Congress, 
states that "all those present were unanimous in affirming that the 
Congress was a complete success." 

As regards the nature of these "exercices pratiques," which 
formed so welcome a feature of the program, — their object, says 
Fr. Schmidt, was to get "missionaries with a scientific training and 
who had lived a long time among non-civilized peoples, to explain 
the method of properly putting questions to the natives, and to point 
out faults to be avoided in the procedure, and, above all, to show 
how to take notes and observations on questions of linguistics, soci- 
ology, and the science of religions." 

A splendid example of this Practician is given in a paper entitled 
''Practical Methods of Gathering Information on Religious Matters 
among L'ncivilized Peoples," read at the Louvain Congress, Sep- 
tember 3, of last year, and published in the original French in An- 
thropos (Vol. VIII, No. 1). Its author is the Rev. P. Aug. de Clercq. 
The rigid, precise, and minute methods employed by Fr. de Clercq 
in his investigations remind one of the scientific proceeding 
outlined in Bernheim's Lehrbuch dcr historischen Methode. Infor- 
mation gathered according to the system of Fr. de Clercq will have all 



2o8 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW • 1913 

the accuracy that it is possible to attain in such a difficult field as is the 
study of primitive religions. 

For from "the numerous differences which characterize individ- 
uals," says Fr. de Clercq, "there results in the first place that the 
traditional knowledge, proper to the tribe, is as a matter of fact un- 
equally distributed. One tribesman will have a better knowledge than 
another, he is gifted with a better memory and a clearer judgment 
and expresses himself in more precise and exact terms. Far from 
plying any firstcomer, therefore, with questions, it will above all be 
necessary to be sure of the character of the source from which you 
desire to draw your data ; you must know the individual whom you 
are interrogating, you must know his origin and rank (in the tribe), 
his intellectual and moral worth." 

The missionary has found out that special caution must be ob- 
served when questioning an individual who is now living outside 
his tribe, e. g., in a European centre, in the service of a white man, 
or as a soldier in a garrison. "He can, no doubt, give directions, 
but he will not be in a position to give precise details, clear-cut and 
exact in every way. This is because the black man always accom- 
modates himself to the milieu in which he lives, and without precisely 
denying the language and all the usages of his tribe, he changes them, 
gradually and imperceptibly, under the influence of his new environ- 
ment." 

Other practical articles of this kind read at the Louvain Congress 
have been published in leading scientific journals. Thus the discussion 
of Dr. Capart on Egyptian Totemism and a paper by Pere Cadiere, 
similar to that of Fr. de Clercq, have appeared in Anthrop'os. The 
article by Rev. P. H. Pinard, S. J., on the History and Method of 
the Science of Religion is reprinted in the Recherches de Science 
Religieuse, which will also publish the conferences of Fr. Bouvier on 
Magic and Magic Rites, and those of Fr. Cadiere on the Religion of 
Annam, of Fr. Schmidt, S. V. D., on Totemism, etc. The article by 
Fr. Schmidt on the History and Method of Ethnology will be pub- 
lished in the Revue des Sciences Philosophiques et TJieologiques. 

The Congress considered itself peculiarly fortunate in having 
among its delegates the R. P. Cadiere, of he Paris Society of For- 
eign Missions, who is regarded as one of the leading authorities on 
the religion of Annam, where he has labored for many years. The 
religion of Annam claims exceptional interest in that it is based 
on a popular and ancient form of belief, and also on a younger and 
more learned cult, which was derived from China. 



XX 7 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 209 

The coming congress will preserve in its main features the pro- 
gram of 1912, especially the division of the week into two parts — 
fixed and variable. The fixed part will take up in general the same 
subjects that were treated in 1912, with the exception of a few in- 
novations or amplifications which the progress of Science, or a 
greater present-day interest demand. But the variable part will offer 
subjects entirely new. It will treat: 1st, of Astral Mythology, (def- 
finitions, species, diverse forms) amongst different non-civilized 
peoples, amongst the Indians, the Indo-Germanic people in general, 
among the Assyro-Babylonians and Egyptians. 2nd, of Islam, its 
earliest history, doctrines, its moral and legal system, its various 
sects and modern forms, and finally, its cultural importance. 

With Rev. Father Schmidt, S. V. D., "we do not doubt that many 
will profit by this occasion to perfect themselves in their knowledge 
of the present condition of the science of religion and its related 
disciplines, to learn reliable methods of investigation and thus be pre- 
pared to take up wider scientific research, to become enthusiastic in 
this work, like many of last years' auditors, and to do what is re- 
quired of them in this field by taking use of those opportunities which 
their unique position affords them." 

FLOTSAM AND JETSAM 



On the Modification of the Eucharistic daily communicants in our schools. 

Fast Any change that may be found neces- 

Miss Sarah C. Burnett, San sar y in the discipline of the Church 

Francisco, Cal, writes to the Re- Wl11 ' , of cour A se ' be v f ry slow - in com ; 

^ . ing about. And, in the meantime, God 

' bless the efforts of those who, at the 

Through a misplacing of quotation cosU no doubt> of serious i nco nveni- 

marks m your Xo. 5, 1 I have been made ence to themselves, are trying to make 

to say that I am not in sympathy with the best of present conditions. But. 

the movement to procure a modifica- after allj they can reach only a n mited 

tion of the Eucharistic fast. To your num ber of cases. May I not ask them 

regular readers this error is no more, to pray for us who seek relief for 

I am sure, than amusing. But for the those whose cases cannot be hdped 

benefit of new subscribers, of whom by the thoughtfulness of their fellow- 

you no doubt have many, permit me Catholics, but only by the benevolent 

to explain that the paragraph in small i ndu i ge nce of Mother Church herself? 
print immediately following my name 

is from the Western Watchman, and Tjr c _, TT , ,„.,„,. A . 

t-1-.o b ,,~~~~ai . *.*. a- K. of C. Holy Week Celebrations 

the succeeding matter in ordinary type _, 

contains my comments thereupon. r The Iv - of C - column of the 

I am much interested in the plans Western Watchman, on March 13, 

of "Pastor" (Vol. XX, No. 5, p. 142), contained the subjoined items: 
and of "P. B. J." (Vol. XX, Xo. 4 , O ye Knights! Implore the gods 

p.^122), for providing breakfast for that you wi]1 not forget the night of 
Vol. XX, Xo. 5, p. 150. sweet airy dreams and silvery sprites 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



as arranged for by St. Louis Council, 
on March 18, where at the "Meeting 
of Parables" many gay things will trip 
o'er the velvet green of Glennon Hall. 
Missouri Council will have but a short 
session, so the members can embrace 
the tempting charm of the program. 
Laclede Council on March 18 will 
soothe the troubled minds of its mem- 
bers with the highly fascinating pro- 
gram of moving pictures. From a re- 
liable member of that council we un- 
derstand that there will be an exhibi- 
tion of the powerful emotional piece, 
"The Spanish Governor," followed by 
that side-splitting comedy, "The Boy 
and the Coat," closing with the trag- 
ical sketch, "The Secret Rose." All 
members are welcome, and, as Laclede 
Council entertains in a princely fash- 
ion, be sure to attend. 

/ 

Similar items could be quoted 
from Catholic papers appearing in 
other cities. 

The attention of these "Cath- 
olic knights" ought to be forcibly 
called to the fact that "gay things 
o'er the velvet green" and "side- 
splitting comedies" do not consti- 
tute fitting celebrations for the 
week in which Holy Church com- 
memorates the dolorous passion 
and death of our Divine Redeem- 
er. 

Pius X and the Pamphleteers 

A well-informed Rome corres- 
pondent writes to an English Cath- 
olic journal: 

Few pontificates have produced 
so many pamphlets as that of Pius 
X. It began with that extraordin- 
ary and mysterious "Green Pamph- 
let," on the reform of the Ro- 
man Curia, whose counsels and 
predictions were so closely ful- 
filled in the Sapienti consilio of 
three years ago. This produced 
a whole literature of gratuitous 
advice to the Pope on the best 
way of governing the Church. 
Then there were French pamph- 



lets, German pamphlets, Italian 
pamphlets, dealing with all kinds 
of ecclesiastical politics. The 
Marquis Crispolto Crispolti (to 
be very carefully distinguished 
from that brillant Catholic jour- 
nalist and writer, the Marquis Fi- 
lippo Crispolti ) has apparently 
grown tired of waiting for the ac- 
tual passing of the present pon- 
tificate, for he has published, and 
the press has widely advertised, 
a pamphlet describing what he 
calls "the weary close of a pon- 
tificate," in- which "the policy of 
the Apostolic See, together with 
the bark of Peter, is drifting away 
between uncertainty and fear.'' 
Curiously enough, this brochure 
makes its appearance just when a 
Spanish ambassador crosses the 
Vatican, for the first time in 
nearly three years, to an- 
nounce that the firm policy of the 
Holy See has met with its reward, 
while it is openly admitted by 
French politicians that they would 
like to see some kind of diplomatic 
relations restored with the Holy 
See, and while all the papers of 
Italy are discussing, as an event of 
the 'first order, the speech made 
at Venice recently by the Count 
Dalla Torre, the head of the Cath- 
olic Popular Union. "Never, per- 
haps," says this liberal Crispolti, 
"was so much paper printed 
against a Pontiff as against Pius 
X." Crispolti has added his own 
contribution; but, his brochure 
notwithstanding, there is not the 
least indication of any weariness 
of Pius X over his policy, which 
is exactly the same to-day as it 
was nine years ago. 

An Unsolved Psychological Problem 

In his account of the Norwegian 
Antarctic expedition, which led to 
the discovery of the South Pole 
(The South' Pole. Translated by 



XX 7 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



A. G. Chater. New York: Lee 
Keedick, 2 vols., $10 net) Capt. 
Roald Amundsen pays a warm 
tribute to the services of Fred- 
erick A. Cook during the terrible 
sufferings of the crew of the Bel- 
gica in Antarctic waters, in the 
winter of 1898-99. It will be re- 
membered that the crew was at- 
tacked by both scurvy and insanity. 
''Cook's behavior at this time won 
the respect and devotion of all. It 
is not too much to say that Cook 
was the most popular man of the 
expedition, and he deserved it. 
From morning to night he was 
occupied with his many patients, 
and when the sun returned it hap- 
pened not infrequently that, after 
a strenuous day's work, the doctor 
sacrificed his night's sleep to go 
hunting seals and penguins, in or- 
der to provide the fresh meat that 
was so greatly needed by all ... . 
Upright, honorable, capable, and 
conscientious in the extreme — such 
is the memory we retain of Fred- 
erick A. Cook from those days." 
Will any one ever solve the 
psychological problem of Dr. 
Cook? 

A Caution from Lourdes 

As the number of pilgrims to 
Lourdes is increasing every year, 
and as enterprising imposters often 
extend their operations to foreign 
countries, it may be useful to call 
attention to the protest of the Bish- 
op of Tarbes and Lourdes against 
the sacrilegious doings of a person 
who offers for sale to pilgrims 
what he calls "The Lourdes Hy- 
gienic Plastron." It is ornamented 
with a scutcheon representing the 
scene of the apparition of the 
Rlessed Virgin to Bernadette, be- 
sides which is printed a prayer 
which the patient should offer to 
God every day "to obtain the al- 



leviation of suffering." The dio- 
cesan authorities of Tarbes and 
Lourdes had formerly stigmatised 
the sacrilegious abuse made of the 
name of Lourdes in connection 
with water, objects of piety, sou- 
venirs, etc., and now Bishop 
Schoepfer, in condemning most en- 
ergetically the practices of the in- 
ventor of the "Lourdes hygienic 
plastron,'' repeats that he re- 
proves and holds up to public 
contempt all such practices, which 
are calculated to sadden the hearts 
of all true Christians and to en- 
courage superstition in the minds 
of the uneducated. 

The "Revue Internationale des Societes 
Secretes" 

No. 2 of the current volume of 
the Revue Internationale des So- 
cietes Sesretes, besides four ar- 
ticles de fonds, of which the first 
is on the "Illuminati of Bavaria,'' 
contains an exhaustive partie do- 
cumentaire, with well digested in- 
formation concerning secret fra- 
ternities in all parts of the world. 
We are astonished at the wide 
range of information displayed 
and the multiplicity of sources 
laid under contribution. Under 
the heading "Germany" there is 
a long excursus on "Freemasonry 
and Women." This chapter dis- 
cusses the activity of a well-known 
German Freemason, Dr. Zimmer, 
of Zehlendorf near Berlin, who 
urges the lodges to be more active 
in work for women. Owing to his 
activity there was formed in Ber- 
lin, in 1906, under Masonic aus- 
pices a union to promote welfare 
work among women. This insti- 
tution called the "Foyers de Jeunes 
Filles" is really "a feminine branch 
of alumnae of masonic schools." 
This is stated on the authority of 
the Kolnische V olksseitung , Tan. 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



6, 1913, which is also quoted as 
saying that "educational estab- 
lishments of this kind art not suit- 
ed for our young Catholic girls." 
There are also items on the Boy 
Scouts, on the Cinematograph and 
Freemasonry, on the law against 
the Jesuits in Germany, on the 
activity of Jews against Christians, 
on Modern Protestantism, on Cre- 
mation, Temperance, Socialism, 
etc. 

We renew our recommendation 
of the Revue Internationale des 
Societes Secretes, which deserves 
the support of all loyal Catholics. 
It can be ordered through B. Her- 
der, St. Louis, Mo. 

An International Catholic News Bul- 
letin 

A news agency for the service 
of the Catholic press has been 
started at Rome under the name 
"Bulletin de L'Agence Internatio- 
nale." It is now in its second 
year and has already done good 
work in supplying Catholic jour- 
nals with reliable news, especially 
on matters of a controversial 
character. Thus the issue for 
February 2, 1913 (No. 32) con- 
tains up-to-date information on 
a subject which at present is not 
a live topic in our own country, 
but is causing considerable dis- 
cussion in Europe — the Boy 
Scouts. (We intend to take up 
this subject once more in this mag- 
azine after the heated controver- 
sy in Europe has resulted in some 
clearly established facts.) Under 
the caption "Pour le Dossier des 
Boy-Scouts" we find interesting 
items on "Feminine 'Scoutism' 
and Protestants," "Boy Scouts 
and Protestants," "The French 
Bishops and the Boy Scouts," 
"Echoes from Belgium," "An 
Advocate of the Scouts," "The 



Pope and the Scouts." The sec- 
ond budget of items is concerned 
with a "Letter of His Eminence 
Cardinal Merry del Val to Count 
de Man" on the work of the"Cer- 
cles Catholiques d'Ouvriers." The 
third installment contains infor- 
mation which will be most wel- 
come to those interested in con- 
temporary European literature. 
For it is devoted to comment on 
the literary work of a much- 
talked-about German writer of 
fiction : Baronin Enrica v. Handel- 
Mazzetti. She has been accused 
of depicting her characters in her 
novels in such a way that those 
who profess Protestantism arc 
generally the more polished, cul- 
tured, and representative — in a 
word, the more winning charac- 
ters ; whereas Catholics are set 
down as simpler beings, at times 
even awkward and grotesque, 
though they are triumphant in the 
end by virtue of "their inner 
force." It has been alleged by 
French and German critics that 
this is especially the case in such 
works as Jesse unci Maria, Die 
arnie Margareth, and Stephanie 
Schwertner. The comment in the 
Bulletin seems to support this 
charge. It is to be observed, how- 
ever, that other critics, e. g. Dr. 
Adolph Trampe (Theologie und 
Glaitbe, 1. Heft, 1913, page 45), 
energetically defend the German 
authoress against this charge. We 
have found these Cahiers Ro mains 
of the AIR (Agence Internatio- 
nale "Roma") intensely interest- 
ing reading. — Albert Muntsch, 

s. J. 

The Eucharistic Fast 

We are glad to be able to quote 
the following from the London 
Monthly, the organ of the En- 
glish Jesuit Fathers (585, p. 309) : 



XX 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



213 



The enormous extension which 
the zeal and piety of the Holy 
Father has given to the practice 
of Frequent Communion, has 
brought into debate once more 
the question of the Eucharistic 
fast. To exhort everyone to par- 
take, even daily of the Bread of 
Life seems to indicate a disposi- 
tion so to modify the conditions 
of reception as to make it poss- 
ible for those who are debarred 
by these conditions as they are. 
Such modifications have already 
been made in favor of chronic 
invalids. But there are many who 
are as much prevented by exter- 
nal circumstances from observing 
the Eucharistic fast in its full 
rigor, as are the sick by the state 
of their health. And from the 
nature of the case those so situated 
come almost wholly from the class 
of the poor and hardworked, and 
must, therefore, suffer, in addition 
to their material disadvantages, 
the far more grievous privation 
of immense spiritual treasures. It 
is not to be wondered at, then, 
that the Holy See is being ap- 
proached by requests for a miti- 
gation of the Eucharistic fast to 
meet these cases of hardship. The 
movement has started in that land 
of bold experiments, the United 
States, and though it naturally 
meets with opposition from con- 
servative minds, just as did the 
system of Frequent Communion 
itself, and for the same general 
reason, viz., the fear of abuse and 
irreverence, still, it has the support 
of some of the hierarchy, and of 
many pastors, and is growing in 
force and extent. It seems to us 
that it is possible so to legislate 
in the matter as to allow access 
to the Holy Table to numbers who 
are now shut from the privilege, 
without opening the door to ir- 
reverence. If the appeal for miti- 



gation becomes general through- 
out the Church, no doubt the Holy 
Father will make some definite 
pronouncement. He has already 
shown how thoroughly he apprec- 
iates the dictum — Sacramento 
propter Jwmines. In his original 
Decree, he says, expressly, that 
"the primary purpose [of the Sac- 
rament] is not that honor and 
reverence to our Lord should be 
safe-guarded," but to secure to 
the faithful union with God and 
strength to resist sin. 

The Craze for Short Sentences 

The passing of the period in 
sentence construction calls forth 
a well-timed protest from the 
Dial. An impatience that cannot 
tolerate a period of more than 
twenty words, or two clauses, it 
remarks, is not an impatience to 
be humored. "The present mode 
of cutting up one's written dis- 
course into snippets, or verbless 
interjections, makes in reality hard 
reading and produces an unsightly 
page." It refers to an anonymous 
letter which it has received, in the 
form of a copy of one of its own 
sentences, with an exclamation 
point in parentheses added, pre- 
sumably in protest at the length 
of the sentence. Yet the offending 
collocation contained only forty- 
five words. It proceeds to cite 
precedents : 

We have this moment, at the 
very first page turned up in open- 
ing Ruskin, chanced on a sentence 
of one hundred and seven words 
— which is short for Ruskin. (The 
sentence is the second in the third 
chapter of "The Seven Lamps of 
Architecture.") It is true our own 
sentence contains a double involu- 
tion, a relative clause within a rel- 
ative clause; but who with any 
head at all on his shoulders need 
get lost in so unintricate a maze? 



214 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



After ten minutes' reading of 
Macaulay or Gibbon, the offend- 
ing passage might almost strike 
one as curt. Scott and Dickens 
and Thackeray, not to mention 
Meredith and Mr. Henry James, 
do not hesitate to pack into a 
single sentence all that it can com- 
fortably carry. But those of us 



who cannot stand the strain of 
sentences more than ten words 
long can always go back to our 
primer and enjoy the brevity and 
lucidity of its style. 'See the cat. 
The cat has caught a mouse. The 
cat will eat the mouse. Poor 
mouse !' " 



ET CETERA 



The Rev. Lucyan Tokarski is 
contributing a study on the new 
Breviary to the Polish Miesiec- 
znik Koscielny. One feature in 
this article is worthy of special 
notice. This is a table showing 
at a glance the whole system of 
distribution of the Psalms over the 
various hours of each day in the 
week; followed by another table 
exhibiting the exact measure of 
the abbreviation effected by the 
recent changes. These tables 
bear some resemblance to the 
Breviary tables showing the laws 
regarding the occurrence and con- 
currence of Sundays and festivals 
and ought to be made accessible to 
the English speaking clergy, for 
nothing like it has appeared any- 
where else. 

At the suggestion of Archbishop 
Riordan, the annual ball and other 
festivities of St. Patrick's day in 
San Francisco (see the article 
"Consistency, thou art a jewel" on 
p. 161 of our No. 6) were post- 
poned till after Easter. 

That insufficient wages for girls 
are in many instances a contrib- 
utory, now and then perhaps 
even the chief cause of immorality, 
few will deny. But the spread of 
the notion that they not only 
may be a cause, but are in point 



of fact a justification, for a girl 
embracing a life of shame is 
apt to cause an amount of de- 
moralization alongside of which 
that produced by low wages would 
be insignificant. And the notion 
is no less false than it is perni- 
cious. It implies not only a gen- 
eral want of character which is a 
gross libel on the vast majority 
of women, but is contrary to the 
obvious facts of life. To choose 
a life of shame in preference to 
living on six dollars a week means 
not only want of virtue, but want 
of sense. It is inconceivable that 
many girls deliberately make such j 
a choice. With those that do j 
make it, it is a result of many 
causes, in character, training, and 1 
environment, of which insufficient | 
wages is only one. And life upon $8 I 
or $12 a week is not so delightful | 
as to remove the influence of these I 
temptations and weakness. To 
admit that these may be yielded I 
to without turpitude is to remove | 
a defence of virtue that has been j 
built up through ages of Christian j 
aspiration and discipline and self- j 
sacrifice, and for which no mini- j 
mum-wage law can supply a sub- 
stitute. 

The Fortnightly Review has 
lost a generous benefactor — one of J 
the few it ever had— through the \ 



XX 7 



THE FORTXIGHTLY REVIEW 



215 



death at Altoona, Pa., recently, of 
the Rev. Father Dominic Zwickert. 
We commend his noble soul to 
the prayers of our readers. 

If the knighthood of St. Gregory 
was ever really deserved by an 
American Catholic, it was deserv- 
ed by Mr. Frederick P. Kenkel, 
upon whom it was formerally con- 
ferred March 25th. Both as ed- 
itor of the St. Louis Amerika and 
as director of the Social Reform 
Bureau of the Catholic Central 
Society, Mr. Kenkel has labored 
faithfully and efficiently for the 
Catholic cause, to which, we sin- 
cerely hope, he will be spared for 
many years to come. 

We heartily subscribe to the fol- 
lowing words of warning uttered 
by our esteemed contemporary the 
Sacred Heart Review (Vol. 49, 
No. 10) : 

"An anonymous leaflet comes 
to us, postmarked Chicago, com- 
plaining of Catholic papers that 
are given to praising Brann's Icon- 
oclast, a paper now edited by a 
man named Windle. The Icono- 
clast denounces anti-Catholic big- 
ots very vigorously and because 
of this some Catholic editors quote 
freely from it. As the Review, 
so far as we can remember, 
never quoted a line from the 
Iconoclast and never will, the 
complaint does not touch us. 
We long ago came to the con- 
clusion from a perusal of the Icon- 
oclast, that while it might say a 
strong word against bigots occa- 
sionally, its tone and temper were 
too violently radical for a Catholic 
paper to take much stock in any- 
thing it might say." 

A writer in the Month remarks, 
that one result of the new rubrics 



will be a greater demand for green 
vestments, since that liturgical col- 
or will now claim a large place 
in the calendar by reason of the 
rule by which Sundays take pre- 
cedence of greater and lesser doub- 
les. It may be added that by the 
rubric which provides that a Sun- 
day Mass transferred to a week- 
day is now to exclude the cele- 
bration of votive Masses, the green 
color is sometimes obligatory even 
on week-days. And by a curi- 
ous coincidence this new law 
enjoining "the wearing of the 
green" took effect for the first 
time on the day devoted to pass- 
ing the Irish Home Rule Bill. 
L. X. 

Rev. Prof. P. W. Schmidt, 
S. V. D., editor of Anthropos, the 
well-known International Review 
of Ethnology and Linguistics, 
which has been frequently men- 
tioned in this journal, has re- 
ceived a well-merited distinction 
from one of the learned societies 
of Europe. The royal Anthro- 
pological Institute of Great Bri- 
tain and Ireland has presented 
him with the Diploma of Honor- 
ary Felloiv in this society. Rev. 
Fr. Schmidt made known the re- 
ception of this high honor in order 
to show thereby his appreciation 
of the valuable assistance he has 
received from Catholic missiona- 
ries in all parts of the world. As 
Fr. Schmidt himself writes in Vol. 
VII, page 498, of his journal : "As 
the results obtained for our science 
by the publications in Anthropos 
have been made possible only 
by the devoted collaboration of 
many helpers, especially of the 
missionary contributors, the editor 
feels himself obliged to inform 
them of this distinction, which be- 
longs to them as well as to him." 



2l6 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



An article in the February num- 
ber of the Umpire Reviezu ex- 
plains the great care that is taken 
by the railway lines of Canada to 
ensure the safety of passenger 
rains, especially in the mountains. 
A track-walker precedes every 
train half an hour ahead. Section 



overseers survey the fourteen or 
more miles of track allotted to 
each, inch by inch, in a handcar 
every day. Would that we could 
add "tout comme chez nous!" to 
this encouraging item. Unfortun- 
ately traveling in this country is 
as unsafe as it is safe in Canada. 



LITERARY NOTES 



— Controversies like the Mc- 
Cann marriage affair some years 
ago are not without their advan- 
tages to the Catholic world: they 
serve to exhibit in a striking man- 
ner, in comparison with other re- 
ligions, the sanctity of the doctrine 
and institutions of the Catholic 
Church. A literary fruit of this 
controversy is an instructive 
pamphlet of 67 pages : The Church 
and Christian Marriage, by Rev. 
Daniel Coghlan, D. D., of May- 
nooth, Ireland. The author dis- 
cusses first Christian marriage as 
a contract and sacrament ; then the 
relation of Church and State to 
Christian marriage; the marriage 
law of Trent and under the Ne 
Temere ; mixed marriages ; and 
finally the case of Mrs. McCann. 
The author's last word is: Avoid 
mixed marriages. (Benziger 

Bros. )— J. K. 

— We are glad to call attention 
to Handbooks of Lessons in Phys- 
ical Training and Games, by 
William A.' Steelier, B. S. G. 
Thus far three parts have 
appeared, each being an advance 
upon its predecessor. The aim 
was to prepare books which every 
class teacher could use in the class 
room, in the corridor, basement or 
the school yard. The price for 
Parts I and II is 35 cents each, for 



Part III, 50 cents. (J. J. McVey, 
Philadelphia).— A. B. 

— We should be carrying coal 
to Newcastle were we to praise 
Father F. M. de Zulueta's new 
contribution to our Eucharistic 
literature. From the first, the 
author ranged himself on the side 
of the champions of the com- 
munion decrees of Pope Pius X. 
His faith in the providential mis- 
sion of the Holy Father is ab- 
solute, his confidence in the 
ultimate success of the Pope's 
Eucharistic policy indomitable. 
And there is such an irresistibil- 
ity about it all ! No doubt, Fr. Z's 
latest publication, The Divine 
Educator, will meet the favorable 
reception which its merits deserve. 
The book is a safe guide to the 
promotion of frequent and daily 
communion in educational estab- 
lishments. Its very moderate 
price (50 cts.) brings it within 
reach of the lightest purse. (P. J. 
Kenedy. ) — Bibliophile. 

— Faustula. By John Ayscough. 
(Benziger Brothers. $1.35 net )- 
The well known English writer 
who has been issuing his work 
during recent years under the 
nom de plume ' of "John Ays- 
cough," gives us in Faustula a 
tale of ancient Rome, with its 



XX 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



■17 



scenes laid mainly in the time of 
Julian the Apostate. Stories of 
this type appeal to certain readers 
on account of the archaeological 
erudition they contain, and such 
knowledge may here be gained in 
abundance. Faustula is a patrician 
girl, who, through the machina- 
tions of a wicked step-mother, is 
sent to the Atrium to become a 
Vestal Virgin. At Laurentum she 
meets Fabian, a Christian, whom 
she had known in her childhood. 
He instructs her in the mysteries 
of the Christian religion, and 
Faustula becomes a sincere follow- 
er of the teachings of the Naza- 
rene. She is condemned to be 
buried alive. The last fifty pages 
of the book tell the story of her 
rescue. Faustulus, the father of 
the maid, is well described as a 
type of the easy-going, pleasure- 
loving Roman patrician, It is a 
beautiful story, and, like Sien- 
kiewicz's Quo Vadis, shows the 
power of Christian faith opposed 
by the might of heathen Rome. — 
A. M. 

— Father Benson has taken good 
care not to give way to wild 
phantasy in his latest novel which 
deals with the persecution of 
Catholics under Queen Elizabeth. 
For he says in the first sentence 
of his Preface : "Very nearly the 
whole of this book is sober his- 
torical fact ; and by far the greater 
number of personages named in 
it once lived and acted in the man- 
ner in which I have presented 
them." It is precisely in this 
fidelity to an important epoch that 
the chief value of the story lies. 
It presents an accurate picture of 
the manners and the fierce relig- 
ious strifes of the time. The 
story receives its well-chosen title 
from the cry of Blessed Edmund 



Campion, who was martyred for 
the Faith : "Come Rack, Come 
Rope!" But why should Msgr. 
Benson refer so often to the little 
sentimental scenes between the 
two lovers in the opening chapter ? 
(New York: P. J. Kenedy & 
Sons. $1.35 net).— A. M. 

— The proportion of fiction 
published in this country, accord- 
ing to a Washington investigator, 
has been steadily diminishing. In 
1890, of a total of 4,600 books 
printed, 1,100, or about 25 per 
cent., were fiction. In 1900, of a 
total of 6,350 books, the fiction 
comprises nearly 1,300, or about 
20 per cent. And in 1910, of a 
total of 13,500 books, the percen- 
tage of fiction had fallen still fur- 
ther, to about 9 per cent. It is 
only by taking account of the 
amount of fiction appearing in the 
magazines and Sunday supple- 
ments, however, that any correct 
conclusion in respect to its popu- 
larity can be drawn. 

— A neat and instructive book- 
let has come to us from Cincinnati, 
compiled by a Jesuit Father and 
bearing the Imprimatur of Arch- 
bishop Moeller. It is entitled A 
Word About Sodalities, and its 
object is "to give non-sodalists 
reliable information in brief about 
the Sodality of the Bl. Virgin, its 
advantages, its objects, etc., as also 
to supply zealous sodalists with 
something to hand to earnest en- 
quirers." We know of no other 
brochure which will do this so 
well, and which compresses the 
essentials into so small a space. 
The booklet (32 pages) may be 
obtained from The Director of 
the Young Men's Sodality, St. 
Xavier Church, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
(Price 5 cts. ; $1.50 per hundred, 
postage prepaid.) — A. M. 



21 8 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



— Father Robert Kane, S. J., 
deserves great credit for his latest 
book : God or Chaos. This is not 
a textbook of theodicy in the strict 
sense of the word, but it practical- 
ly covers all questions that are 
usually treated in that department. 
Father Kane is a master of clear 
and precise expression. Many an 
"old" problem is here treated with 
refreshing novelty. (P. J. Kenedy 
& Sons. $1.25 net).— J. K. 

■ — The Christian Brothers have 
followed up their "Uniform Series 
of Catechisms" by a Catechist's 
Manual, designed to increase the 
efficiency of the teacher. This En- 
glish edition is adapted from the 
French original, which elicited 
from none less than Pius X the 
praise that it attains its "noble 
purpose in a masterly way, by the 
analytic and logical development 
of all that the master needs as a 
remote and a proximate prepara- 
tion for this science of sciences." 
The adaptation has been carefully 
made with a view to the special 
needs and conditions of religious 
training in our country, (xiii & 
242 pp. i2mo. Philadelphia. John 
Joseph McVey. 1912. 75 cts.) 

— Fr. Joseph McSorley has ad- 
apted into English Heinrich Hans- 
jakob's Lenten discourses on 
Grace. These discourses are well 
worth meditating. The transla- 
tion is exceptionally well done. 
Our only regret is that Fr. Mc- 
Sorley has not added chapter head- 
ings and a table of contents. We 
note that the price of this transla- 
tion is less than that of the orig- 
inal German edition, — which 
shows that the complaint of "Bib- 
liophile" in a recent number of 
this Review admits of exceptions, 
(iv & 98 pp. i2mo. B. Herder. 
1913. 50 cts.) 



— Benziger Bros, send us Part 
2, Vol. Ill, of Bishop Egger's 
Predigten. Bishop Egger, of St. 
Gall, had the gift of appealing to 
the hearts of his hearers, and it 
is to be hoped that his printed 
sermons will enable others to do 
so with equal success. {Predig- 
ten fiir den Pfingstkreis des Kir- 
chenjahres. II. Tell. 2. Aufl. 201 
pp. i2mo. Benziger Bros.) 

— Fr. Pustet & Co. have pub- 
lished a German translation of 
the late Fr. Luis Martin's essay on 
St. Teresa, which has been deemed 
worthy of being reprinted in P. 
Ribera's Vlda de Santa Teresa de 
Jesus (Barcelona 1908). It is 
the best introduction we know to 
the mystic life and science of the 
great Carmelite Saint who stands 
unique among mystic writers. Fr. 
Martin bases his deductions main- 
ly on the Interior Castle, but 
writes with a full knowledge of 
all of St. Teresa's works. {Die 
heilige Theresia von Jesus, Le- 
hrerin der Mystik. xii & 144 pp. 
i6mo. 50 cts.) 

— Questions on Vocations. New 
and Improved Edition. By a 
Priest of the Congregation of the 
Mission. (St. Vincent's Mission 
House, Springfield, Mass., 1912. 
Price 9 cts. a copy). An old 
Jesuit Father, long since passed 
to his reward, who was highly 
regarded as a confessor and di- 
rector of souls, once spoke thus 
to a mother concerning the relig- 
ious vocation of her daughter: 
"Would you expose a delicate 
plant to the frost in order to 
strengthen it and render it more 
vigorous? A religious vocation, if 
exposed to the blighting influence 
of the world, runs the risk to 
which the exotic plant would be ex- 
posed in a northern winter." His 



XX ; 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



219 



warning was unheeded and such 
a religious vocation was killed. 
Apparently, as yet, religious vo- 
cations and vocations to the priest- 
hood are not as frequent among 
our Catholics of the United States 
as they should be or as they are 
in Catholic countries. The little 
pamphlet before us treats fully 
and clearly of the matter of vo- 
cations. Let parents and teachers 
acquaint themselves with its con- 
tents, learn what vocation is and 
how to foster it, and we believe 
that it will appear, not that God is 
less generous to us than to other 
people, in calling us to the highest 
places in His service, but that we 
have not learned to recognize the 
signs of His calling in our young 
Christians' hearts, or to furnish 
them with the atmosphere and ali- 
ment favorable to the complete 
development of religious or priest- 
ly vocations. — S. T. O. 

— Politeness. A little Book pre- 
pared for the Children taught by 
the Sisters of St. Joseph. (St. 
Louis, B. Herder. 1912. 5 cts.) 
We learn in the Foreword of this 
little brochure of sixteen pages, 
that the Rule of the Sisters of St. 
Joseph obliges them "to teach their 
pupils politeness ; after religion 
there is nothing of greater impor- 
tance.'' Politeness is nothing less 
than the expression, in every-day 
life, of the love of God and our 
neighbor. It is the virtue of 
charity exercised in small affairs. 
No wonder, then, that the Sisters 
of St. Joseph find it so important 
and are directed by their holy 
foundress and inspired by their 
Patron Saint to teach it to their 
charges. Other teachers will find 
their tiny text book, with its sug- 
gestive preface exactly suited to 
their needs.— S. T. O. 



— Restriction of the output of 
new books seems as far off as dis- 
armament, but there is one con- 
sideration put forward by a writer 
in the Bookseller that may give 
so many publications. During the 
and thus misses the success that is 
the practical difficulty of reviewing 
so many publications. During the 
busy times of the year, when books 
are tumbling over one another as 
they fall from the press, it is a 
physical impossibility for review- 
ers to do anything like justice to a 
large proportion of them. But if 
this justice is delayed, it might as 
well be denied, for the life of the 
average book is short. On the 
other hand, for a meritorious 
book not to be reviewed at all 
means that it gets lost in the crowd, 
and thus misses the sucess that is 
its due. 

— The Little Communicant. In- 
structions and Prayers for Chil- 
dren. Compiled by Rev. Bonaven- 
ture Hammer, 0. P. M. (Benziger 
Bros. Price, 25 cents.) This 
little book contains instructions on 
the fundamental truths, and pray- 
ers for all occasions. The instruc- 
tions are an epitome of the cate- 
chism, and the prayers are either 
liturgical, or approved, or mod- 
eled closely on the liturgy. The 
book is therefore free from the 
least trace of sentimentality. At 
the end is a short glossary of 
words whose meaning may not 
be familiar to children. The book 
is exactly suited to young chil- 
dren, and is preparatory to the 
missal and the rest of the liturgi- 
cal books, which should be the 
prayer books of the full-grown 
Christian. The manner of serv- 
ing at mass is included, so that 
altar-boys are also provided for. 
— S. T. O. 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



— Pioneers of the Cross in Can- 
ada. B\ Dean Harris. Toronto: 
McClelland & Goodchild. Amer- 
ican agent, B. Herder, St. Louis, 
Mo. $1.50 net. In this work 
Dean W. R. Harris, of Salt Lake 
City, tells once more the story of 
the pioneer missionaries of East- 
ern Canada in the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries. The emi- 
nent author seems to have found 
some new data for his work. "I 
have tried," he says, "to be his- 
torically accurate in this essay; 
have arranged and put together 
the bits of information I found 
scattered here and there among 
the old and comparatively un- 
known, writers; have brushed the 
dust and mildew from valuable 
leaves of ancient chronicles, and 
I now submit the work for the 
instruction and I trust the edifi- 
cation of my readers." Dean 
Harris tells the story of the Ca- 
nadian missionaries of Eastern 
Canada in 28 chapters. The book 
begins with a preliminary dis- 
course on the general missionary 
activity of the Catholic Church. 
The list of illustrations includes 
the three Jesuit martyrs, Fathers 
Breboeuf, Jogues, and Gabriel La- 
lemant, and Fr. Paul Ragueneau, 
the head of the Huron missions 
from 1644 to 1649. The style is 
not up to the Dean's usual stand- 
ard. Thus on page 2 speaks 
of "slavery. .. .the natural state 
of imminence among numbers of 
human beings." On page 4 we 
find such a grammatical mistake 
as, "Even Trajan, whom men say 
was the best of the Roman Em- 
perors." On page 13, "death in 
prolific agony." Blemishes of this 
kind do not of course diminish 
the value of the work, but they 
are a strange commentary on the 
advertisement which the publish- 
ers give to the book in their cov- 



er-announcement : "Its literary 
style is of a high order." Still 
we may hope with the author that 
his book will prove "useful and 
opportune at this memorable pe- 
riod of our history." — A. M. 



Herder's Booklist 

[This list is furnished monthly by B. Herder, 
17 South Broadway, St. Louis, Mo., who keeps 
the books in stock and to whom all orders 
should be sent. Postage extra on "net" books.] 

NEW BOOKS 

In the Service of the King by G. 
Irons, net 0.60. 

Stanmore Hall and Its Inmates. $1.25. 

Spiritual Progress. Fervor to Per- 
fection, net 0.90. 

Life, Science and Art. Being Leaves 
from Ernest Hello, net 0.50. 

Grace. Six Lenten Discourses by 
H. Hansjakob. net 0.50. 

Jones Instructed on Confession by 
Rev. G. Bampficld. 0.10. 

Vocations. Conditions of Admission 
etc. by Rev. H. Holm, net $175. 

Corinne of Corrall's Bluff by M. 
Knoivles. net $1.10. 

Gordon Grandfield or The Tale of 
a Modernist by Rev. J. Kennedy, net 
$1.10. 

Our Lady in the Church and Other 
Essays by M. Nesbitt. net $1.50. 

Social Reform on Catholic Lines 
by Rev. John A. Ryan, net 0.10. 

Marriage Laivs. Brief Explanation 
of the Decree "Ne Temere" by Rev. 
S. Woyzvod. 0.25. 

Working for God or Living a Chris- 
tian Life from the Writings of St. 
Alphousus Liguori. net $0.30. 

Through Refining Fires by M. Haidt- 
mont. net $1.60. 

Sing ye to the Lord. Exposition of 
Fifty Psalms by R. Eaton. Second 
Series, net $1.50. 

Our Lady in the Liturgy. Considera- 
tions on Certain Feasts of the Mother 
of God by M. Barrett. O. S. B. net 
$1.10. 

Tolerance by Rev. A. Vermeersch, 
S. J. net $1.75. 

The Interior Life Simplified and Re- 
duced for its Fundamental Principle. 
Edited by Rev. J. Tissot. net $r.75- 

Their Choice by Henrietta Dana 
Skinner. $1.00. 

The Roman Curia as it nozv exists 



XX - 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Fischer's Edition 

Hymn to St. Rita of Cascia 

for 
Congregational Use 

(Unison Chorus) 

With Organ Accompaniment 

by 

A. MONESTEL 

10 

Vocal parts, per 100 75 

NEW MASSES 
Mass in honor of St. John the Bap- 
tist; for 4 mixed voices with organ 
accompaniment. J. E . Turner, 

O.S.B $0.60 

Mass in honor of St. Cecilia; for 
Soprano & Alto with Tenor & Bass 
ad libt. With organ accompani- 
ment. C. Jasper. Score . . $0.60 
Voice parts a $0.20 
Mass in honor of St. Pius V.; for 
Soprano & Alto with Tenor & Bass 
ad libt. With organ ace. H. J. 

Stewart. Score $0.80 

Voice parts a $0.25 
Address all orders for church music, 
irrespective of publication to 

J. Fischer & Bro. New York 

7, 8, & 11, Bible House 



by Rev. M. Martin, S. J. net $1.50. 

The Practical Catechist from the 
German of Rev. J. Xist. Edited by 
Rev. F. Girardy, C. SS. R. net $1.75. 

Soeur Thcrcse of Lisieux, The Little 
Flower of Jesus. A new and com- 
plete translation. Edited by T. N. 
Taylor, net $2.00. 

The Catholic Who's Who and Year 
Book 1913. Edited by Sir F. Bur- 
nand. net $1.50. 

The Mighty Friend. A Modern Ro- 
mance of Labor, Warfare, Country- 
Life and Love by Pierre L'Ermite. 
net $1.50. 

The Adventures of Turco Bullworthy 
by J. Fletcher, net $0.80. 



Wm. Kloef 

Church Decorator. Painting 
and Gilding of Statues 
and Altars. Scen- 
eries for Stages 

9 16-9 18 ALLEN AVENUE 
ST. LOUIS, MO. 




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state requirements 

For schools investigate our Steel Sanctary Desks, warranted unbreakable, Booklet FB 

120 page Blackb'd & Sen. Supply Catalog FC 
American Seating Co. Chicago, lllionis 



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THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 



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Missions and Missionaries of California 

VOLUME III. 

By Fr. Zephyrin Engelhardt, O. F. M. 

Numerous footnotes, illustrations, and facsimiles tabular reports 683 
pages. Price, cloth binding, $2.75 net. By mail $3.00. Apply to author, 
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XX 7 



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Woman Suffrage 

By the Rt. Rev. E. M. Dunne, D. D., Bishop of Peoria 

Catholic preachers and writers opposed to woman suffrage have 
been warned repeatedly against the danger of identifying their personal 
opinion with infallible dogmas of the teaching Church. The warning, 
however, seems altogether unnecessary. Rather should the dispensers 
of such an admonition be urged to cultivate the habitual attitude of 
mind and heart truly Catholic of standing instinctively with and by 
the Church, viz. sentire cum Bcclcsia. Why repeat incessantly that 
Rome has made no ex cathedra pronouncement on the subject? — 
what nobody contends. Yet were a census of opinion taken among the 
members of the Sacred College, Hierarchy and Clergy throughout 
Christendom, those declaring themselves in favor of woman suffrage 
would be very few and far between. Surely we must attach some im- 
portance to the practically unanimous opinion of those composing the 
Bcclesia docens. 

We have it dinned into our ears that His Eminence So & So, 
His Grace This, and His Lordship That are most enthusiastic ad- 
vocates of female suffrage, and that even the nuns under their juris- 
diction turn out on election day and cast their votes. 

Transeat. One Cardinal and a couple of bishops, with an occa- 
sional editor thrown in for good measure, do not constitute the teach- 
ing body of the Church. They must indeed feel pretty lonesome. 
These few prelates happen to be confronted, not by a theory, but 
by an actual condition. Before the women in their dioceses obtained 
the legal right to vote, we do not recall any vehement episcopal 
clamoring for the measure. It is only since female suffrage has be- 
come a fact with them that they exhort the Catholic women to exercise 
their civic right, and justly so, as a matter of self-defense. 

The argument that even nuns vote in some localities is not very 
cogent, and should, methinks, be used rather sparingly, with the 
tremolo and soft pedal. In some hospitals they even administer 
anaesthetics to men undergoing surgical operations and are detailed 
as special nurses to attend them during convalescence. But that is 
hardly a reason why the custom should be introduced elsewhere. In 
fact, a few irrefragable arguments might be adduced to prove that 
it should be tolerated nowhere. The presence of nuns in polling booths 
and the introduction of politics into convent life, salvo meliori judicio, 



226 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

are not very conducive to piety or to the cultivation of the religious 
spirit. Whoever succeeds in convincing the Roman Curia of the con- 
trary will have accomplished a most extraordinary feat. 

The great trouble with the advocates of woman suffrage is that 
they never seem to meet the issue squarely. Their favorite cartoon 
argument is to depict a line of unshaven, unkempt hoboes bearing 
the inscription: "These can vote." They are followed by a stately 
procession of elegantly attired matrons with the melancholy motto: 
"These cannot." Which proves absolutely nothing unless it be that 
men can and should do some things which women should be forbidden 
to do, and vice versa. Both sexes have their proper sphere of 
activity. The political arena is the proper place for man ; the domestic 
circle is the God-given place for woman. The suffragettes and their 
adherents are so inclined to mistake rhetorical persiflage for proof, 
to pompously explode straw arguments which the opponents never 
advanced, and to accuse the latter of ignoring the rules of logic, — it 
never occurs to them that their own style of argument usually contains 
a petitio principii. "The time of scoffing," they exclaim, "is past. 
Female factory hands who meet to combine against the iniquity of 
sweated labor cannot be dispersed with shouts of 'go home and mind 
the baby.' " The trend of this sentimental gush is to make us admit 
not only the existence of industrial evils oppressing the gentler sex, 
but more particularly votes for women as the specific remedy. Do 
not industrial and economic injustices similarly affect men voters? 
Why is not the ballot a panacea for their labor troubles? There is 
nothing to prevent the female factory hands from combining into a 
union which, more speedily than the ballot, will enable them to redress 
their grievances. 

Labor, Property, and the Right to Work 

By C. Meurer, Editor of the Arkansas Echo, Little Rock, Ark. 

God made labor the foundation of the "social order." The work- 
ingman needs the materials which God created. His productive work 
is conditioned by these materials. Therefore he must have the right 
to acquire property in land and materials. The Creator has put these 
lands and materials at the disposal of all men. He has not given the 
title to anyone in particular. Man shall acquire the right of property 
by his labor. That is the natural law, and it is reflected in our Amer- 
ican homestead and mining laws. 

A man who clears and cultivates land and raises crops on it, is 
the rightful owner not only of the crops he raises but of the land 



XX 8 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 227 

he works. The claim that the land shall belong to the man who labors 
on it, is more and more being acknowledged as just; the new Irish 
land laws are a proof for this assertion. 

The man who digs ore, melts it and forms it into articles for use, 
thereby becomes the proprietor of the metal and also of the mine 
from which he digs. 

The properties thus acquired by labor may be sold for the value 
of the labor put into them. 

Work alone is therefore the just foundation of property. It is 
the will of the Creator that no man shall acquire property in any other 
way than by labor. 

But that is not the law in any country to-day. Man may every- 
where acquire property without labor, and use his gains to acquire 
more of it. That is the reason why Blackstone cannot find a founda- 
tion, for these property rights in natural law, though he does not advise 
us to inquire into the reason : "These inquiries, it must be owned, would 
be useless and even troublesome in common life. It is well if the 
mass of mankind will obey the laws when made, without scrutiniz- 
ing too nicely into the reasons of making them." (2 Bl. Com. 2.) 
He has forgotten what he said before, viz. : "The principal aim of 
society is to protect individuals in the enjoyment of those absolute 
rights which were vested in them by the immutable laws of nature, 
but which could not be preserved in peace without that mutual as- 
sistance and intercourse which is gained by the institution of friendly 
and social communities." (1. Bl. Com. 124. ) 

These communities are the states. They shall protect first of all 
those absolute rights which are given to all men by the immutable 
laws of nature. The laws of to-day proclaim equal rights, but the 
rights of the poor and the rich are not equal. It has been said that 
the inequality of natural gifts is the cause of this inequality. This 
is true in a certain degree; but the inequality of natural gifts has not 
created the "social question." This question is the necessary conse- 
sequence of our property laws, which deny the right to work to a 
large proportion of the people. 

To-day a man has the right to give work to as many men as he 
can pay ; with the means for work he owns the right to work, and 
thereby becomes the boss of his employees. . 

Judge Cooley says : "Nature does not classify men as masters 
and servants, employers and employed, nor specify that some shall 
have the privilege of setting the others to work, and take the bulk 
of their production as a recompense for so doing. Man works to 
supply his wants, and the wants of those dependent upon him. The 



22 8 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

division of masters and servants arises in the same way, and is jus- 
tified by arguments that support slavery. Captivity, sale, heredity; 
these are the three ways in which one becomes the workman or 
servant for another. Let us examine these. I. Captivity is now ob- 
solete and except in the most primitive civilizations, it is not a 
justifiable method of securing a servant. 2. Sale. This is the uni- 
versal method, at present, of securing the assistance of others. The 
worker sells his services to the employer; this according to Black- 
stone, who takes Justinian to task, is very just. But let us see: 
'Every sale implies a price, a quid pro quo, an equivalent given to 
the seller in lieu of what he transfers to the buyer.' But what 
equivalent can be given for life and liberty, both of which the wage 
slave surrenders to his trust employer? The wages — or price which 
he seems to receive — comes not from the employer, but is only a 
portion of the result of his own labor. In this case, therefore, the 
buyer gives nothing and the seller receives nothing save that which 
is his own. Of what foundation, then, is the claim of the employer 
to the surplus earnings of the employed?" (Cooley's Bl. Com. 406.) 

Under the head of Employment Judge Cooley says: "Every per- 
son has a right to choose his own employment, and devote his labor 
to any calling, or at his option to hire out in the service of others. 

This is one of the first and highest of all civil rights The right to 

reside in a country implies the right to labor there." (Principles, 
3d ed., 255-6). 

Mayor S. M. Jones, of Toledo, said in his speech at Cincinnati, 
May 19, 1899: "It is admitted by all thoughtful people that a social 
system based on competition has failed to provide a plan whereby 
all who are willing to work may work and live, and the consequence 
is that in our country to-day there is an ever increasing army 'bear- 
ing the curse of the wandering foot.' Turgot said: God, by giving 

man wants, and making his recourse to work necessary to supply 
them, has made the right to work the property of every man, and 

this property right is the first and most sacred right of all The right 

to work! This is the right that must be established and for which 
we need a new Emancipation Proclamation." 

It is clear that the right to work and our modern property rights 
are in such hopeless contradiction that one of the two has to be 
changed. The right to work does not exist under present circum- 
stances. As it is a natural right it has to be re-established, and that 
can only be done by bringing the property right back to the limit 
set by God and the natural law. Man is created for a higher pur- 
pose; he is to become a citizen of heaven, but not a god of this 



xx 8 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



229 



world and master of his fellowmen. That is contrary to the com- 
mandment which the Savior calls "equal to the first": "Thou shalt 
love thy neighbor as thyself." 

What Lead to the Invention of Printing? 

By thk Rev. John M. Lenhart, O. M. Cap., Victoria, Kan. 

Ill 
All these conditions were favorable for the invention of printing. 
The book-makers were scarcely able to satisfy the ever increasing 
demand. A hurried production with all its disadvantages was the 
natural result. Scribes often wrote from memory. Half-educated 
people took to transcribing books and produced works full of all kinds 
of mistakes. Even scientific books were often written as dictated. 
No wonder that scholars lamented the inaccuracy of books. 49 Still 
the demand continued to grow. 

Naturally, inventive people tried to solve the problem of quicker 
and cheaper manifolding of books by mechanical devices. 50 The best 
solution of the problem was the invention of typography. Krieg 
writes: "The invention of printing satisfied the universal craving for 
education and knowledge." 51 But this is not the whole truth. The 
new invention not only satisfied the universal craving for knowledge, 
it was positively created by it. Schmoller proves this point well by 
reference to the invention of the spinning machine. "The invention 
of printing," h e says, "was the direct consequence of the universal 
spread of the art of writing (and reading), in the same manner as the 
rise of the weaver's trade in the XVIIIth century necessitated the in- 
vention of the spinning machine, since hand-spinning was no longer 
equal to the weaver's demand." 52 

W. L. Schreiber, our foremost authority on book-printing, dif- 
fers somewhat from this view. He holds that on the eve of the in- 
vention of printing "a quicker or cheaper manufacture of books 
was not desired in the least; people rather clamored for more ac- 
curate copies, even if they were more expensive." 53 This is true only 
in part. Book-selling, with its adjunct book-making, originated in, 
and developed from, two different centres: first from the stationers 
at the European universities, and later from the "text-writers" in 
the cities. 54 In Germany, the class of book-makers never attained the 
importance of their fellow-tradesmen at the Italian and French uni- 
versities. 55 The indpendeent copyists in the cities gained first 

2 Schreiber, op. cit., p. 26. kdmpfe, Strassburg, 1875, P- 71. 

h Urandscheid, op. cit., p. 93. 53 In the Festschrift, p. 26. 

op at p. 168. « Kapp, op. cit., p. 19. 

Strassburg cur Zeit dcr Zunft- S5 Kapp 15 



230 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW iQi3 

place in the production of books during the Middle Ages in Germany. 56 
The demand for books, and the ensuing production, were naturally 
directed not so much to scientific, but to popular works in accord- 
ance with the predilection of the burghers." Popular books, in the 
XVth as in the XXth century, were bought in spite of faulty 
texts People did not clamor so much for accurate texts as for more 
books Schreiber admits the force of this observation when he con- 
cedes that books full of mistakes were generally not scientific works. 
The scholar, it is true, was more disposed to procure correct texts 
at -reater expense, but the masses of the people preferred cheap, 
even though faulty books, to more expensive though accurate ones. 
Typography, therefore, was necessitated by and invented on account 
of the strong popular demand for books. 

Mixed Marriages in Canada 

By a Canadian Parish Priest 

The remarks of a Canadian missionary on "Mixed Marriages in 

Canada" (in Ontario rather), Fortnightly Review, Mid-Febr. 1913, 

though based on official statistics, do not give a true and complete idea 

of the situation. The writer has overlooked a few important aspects 

of the question. 

He says that 36% of all the Catholic marriages contracted in the 
Province of Ontario, in 1910, were mixed marriages according to 
the Report of the Registrar General for 191 1. If this were so, 
the fate of the Catholic Church in Ontario would be sealed for ever. 
In fact at the present birth-rate in Ontario, 30% of mixed marriages 
would be sufficient to offset all natural increase; 36% would swallow, 
besides, the influx by immigration. The actual state of things, I must 
say, is not so bad, at least for the French and foreign-born element 
of the Catholic population. 

Your Canadian missionary forgot to discriminate between the 
Catholics speaking the English language and those speaking other 
languages. He forgot also to take into account the disgraceful work 
of several marriage-factories, in which Protestant ministers prostitute 
their ministry and unite people in wedlock by hundreds and thousands 
regardless of every rule of prudence and propriety. This shameful 
traffic has been going on for years in spite of the bitter complaints 
of the Registrar General. See the Reports of Births, Marriages, and 
Deaths for Ontario, especially the Report for 1905, pages 6 and 7. 
In 191 1, in Windsor alone 398 mixed marriages were thus contracted. 
Most of the contracting parties came from Michigan, where the marl 
ce Kapp, 19; Kirchhoff, op. cit., p. 34- " Ka PP- 20 - 



XX 8 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



231 



riage laws are more severe, and they ought to be reckoned separately. 

The Catholics of French nationality and others whose mother- 
tongue is other than English, generally do not marry outside their own 
people. They live in detached groups and have little intercourse, or at 
least little intimacy, with Protestants and consequently do not intermar- 
ry with them as a rule. You will find among them big parishes without a 
single mixed family. The rate of their mixed marriages would hardly 
exceed 2%. I am speaking of the French people and foreigners 
not yet anglicized. As to those already anglicized they are as fond 
of mixed marriages as their English speaking brethren, if not more so. 
35% or s0 of the whole Catholic population of Ontario are not yet 
anglicized or, at least, not to any great extent. 

The great bulk, therefore, of the mixed marriages of Ontario 
comes from the English speaking element, and its rate is truly ap- 
palling — 38^5°/o f° r tn e English speaking cities. No wonder that 
the English Catholic population of Ontario, in twenty years, did 
not increase at all in spite of an immigration superior to the exodus. 

There are in Ontario eighteen cities, thirteen of which are almost 
exclusively English. For the sake of accuracy I drop from the list 
Niagara, on account of the marriage traffic going on there. The other 
cities suffer from the same traffic except where the French or 
some other foreign Catholic element prevails. 

To give the reader a correct idea of the situation of these cities 
in relation to mixed marriages, I reproduce two tables from the above 
mentioned official Report for 191 1, pages 117 and 134. The first table, 
embracing the twelve English speaking cities, will give an exact no- 
tion of the terrible work of disintegration going on among our Eng- 
lish speaking Catholic population. 



•pi. , m , , Catholic Mixed 

first laDle Marriages Marriages 

Belleville 7 6 

Brantford 25 5 

Guelph 8 6 

Hamilton ... 120 66 

Kingston 22 15 

London 23 19 

Peterborough 13 11 

St. Catherine's 22 12 

St. Thomas 4 4 

Stratford 10 5 

Toronto 294 200 

Woodstock 5 2 

Total 553 351 



q , m 1 1 Catholic Mixed 

oeCOna laDle Carriages Marriages 

Port Arthur . . . \ 22 10 

Fort William . . \ a. 34 9 

Ottawa J 332 75 

Niagara 1 50 133 

Chatham I b. 33 13 

Windsor J 144 398 

Total 615 638 

a. French or foreign element preva- 

lent. 

b. Cities of marriage traffic. Most of 

the marriages in these three cities 
came from the United States. 



232 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

351 mixed marriages and 553 Catholic ones (first table) give, 
as I have said, 38^% of mixed marriages. 

But this is not all. A careful study of the official Report shows 
that the more French the cities or counties are, the lower is the rate 
of mixed marriages. And the less French they are the higher the rate. 
In Toronto and London, for instance, where the French-Canadians 
constitute only 10% and 6% respectively, the mixed marriages is up 
(first table) to 4 o 4 / 5 / and 4 5°/o- In Ottawa, where the French- 
Canadians form about 66% of the Catholic population, the mixed mar- 
riages were only 18/5% (second table). In the big county of Pres- 
cott-Russell, where the French-Canadians form about 90%, the mixed 
marriages rate falls to i 2 / 5 % that is, 4 out of 288 (same Report, 

page 102). 

The Registrar General has thus furnished the French-Canadians 
with a powerful argument against Anglicizing themselves. It is plain 
as a pikestaff that the English speaking Catholics of Ontario will stop 
increasing except by large immigration. While non-Catholics will 
multiply naturally and by the accession of apostates from the Church, 
our English speaking Catholics will remain without increase. This 
is what they are told by the Report of the Registrar General^ 

If the French-Canadians and others not of English or Irish des- 
cent will become Anglicized, they will naturally fall into the same line. 
They will intermarry with Protestants, and most of their offspring 
will be lost to the Church. 

A no less alarming fact is that 90% or 95% if not more of 
these mixed marriages were celebrated before Protestant ministers. 
Even Catholic couples, too often get married before preachers, thus 
adding to the number of those already on the way to apostasy. The 
victims of such marriages but rarely come back to holy Church. 

The Land Sharks and the Suckers 

By the Rt. Rev. Abbot Charles Mohr, O. S. B., St. Leo, Florida 
The suckers will simply take no warning. They keep on biting 

just the same. After they are caught they shout "Mordio!" and "If I 

had only known !" 

A few weeks ago speech upon speech was made in our national 

Congress denouncing the sharks who are enticing people to Florida — 

and still the suckers come ! ! 

Before me right now lies a letter from a man in Europe, asking 

if it is true that we, the Benedictine Fathers at St. Leo, guarantee 

the lands of a certain company, etc. A few weeks ago the Pittsburg 



XX 8 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 233 

Catholic had a most misleading article concerning St. Joseph's colony 
here in Pasco County. I wrote to the business manager denouncing 
the article. I received silent contempt for my trouble. 

A certain agent whose lands I had "knocked," called the other day 
and said: "Look here, Father Abbot, all the world is land-hungry: 
the weather is fine and suckers are biting. If they do not gobble my 
bait, hook and all, they will bite elsewhere. If they are going to be 
fooled anyhow, why not let me fool them and get the benefit''?! 

Behold here the Moral Code of all land sharks. I cannot com- 
prehend how any Catholic can buy land anywhere without inquiring 
beforehand about church and school in the promised land. If people 
consulted their pastors they would make fewer mistakes. To a gentle- 
man who had bought land miles and miles away from any church or 
Catholic school, I remarked : "Why did you not ask your parish priest 
before you came here?" He said: "Gracious! No priest would give 
you genuine information. They all hate to see a parishioner leave, for 
every one that goes away means a pewholder less." 

I do not believe that our Northern priests are mercenaries. They 
are all interested in the welfare of their flocks and will not withhold 
any information asked for. 

I am tired of shooing the suckers away. The more you shoo, the 
faster they come. So let them rush in as fast as their legs can carry 
them. If they get "stung" and come to me, my song will be: "Shoo!! 
fly don't bother me ! !" 

No one buys a horse before seeing it, no one insures in a com- 
pany before investigating its ability to pay, but thousands will buy 
land before doing either. 

Another Missionary on the Mitigation of the 
Eucharistic Fast 

By Al. La Cr. 

The discussions published in favor of the mitigation of the 
Eucharistic fast so far have mostly had in view more frequent com- 
munion on the part of the people. It seems to me, more stress ought 
to be laid on the advantages of such a mitigation to the priest in 
mission districts, though these, too, of course, would ultimately redound 
to the benefit of the people. 

In comparison with the Protestant ministers, we priests are to 
a great extent handicapped. A preacher can with ease take care of 
twice as many places as the priest; and the real reason is the inability 
of priests to have regular services, i. e. Mass with sermon and instruc- 



234 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 



tions, in the afternoon. Many a priest's work could be doubled with 
less effort and less nerve-wrecking (hours of driving, etc.). How 
this can be true, may be seen from the following. 

A missionary has four places to take care of, all 10 — 15 miles apart. 
Under present conditions, he can attend to each one only one Sunday 
a month ; because, usually, the distances are too great to cover, binat- 
ing as usual. If the same missionary could celebrate Mass without 
fasting, he could breakfast at 7 A. M. ; have Mass at 9.30, or so, with 
sermon, etc. ; dine at 12 M. ; then after a little rest, go to the other mis- 
sion and repeat the same at 3 P. M. or later. If local conditions are 
not extraordinarily bad, such trips could be made just as well as many 
a buggy ride taken Sundays for pleasure. In this way he could do 
twice as much for his four places; or else, take care of even eight. 
And the whole work could be done with less strain on one's health 
than at present, when we must crowd our work all into about five 
hours of the Sunday forenoon. 

The question of the priest's support is another weighty considera- 
tion. Eight (or even 6 or 7 ) small missions can more easily support 
a priest than three or four. Many a "money sermon" might then be 
omitted for a more necessary one on the teachings of our faith. If 
we wish to find causes for the leakage in the past — and present — here 
is one : the inability of the priest to take care of more places on Sun- 
days. Our pioneer priests made heroic efforts, but how much more 
could they have done and how many more souls could they have saved, 
had they not been hampered by the fast! Thousands have been lost, 
simply because the priests could not afford to come, or could not look 
for the stray sheep — time and money were wanting. They had all they 
could do— Sunday forenoon. There was no use trying to go any- 
where Sunday afternoon, because they could not say Mass. In short, 
but for the fast the chances of religious ministration would have been 
80-100% better. The Protestant ministers took the priest's place at 
the right time — Sunday afternoon ! 

Such conditions continue. The example cited is a true picture of 
actual conditions. I myself attend to a mission ten miles distant, 
binating on one Sunday a month. The drive is over hilly roads and 
takes from 1 hour 40 min. to two hours ; last month it took me from 
9 A.M. to 12 M. (Heard a dozen confessions; mass and sermon.) 
This feat did not affect me much; but what a snap would this have 
been for me, if I could have done it between meals at 3 P. M. ? I 
would imagine it to be a real joy ride. The late Father Moran, O. P., 
an old missionary, once strongly expressed his desire that the Eucha- 
ristic fast be abolished, saying: "I often wished, and really expect, 



XX 8 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 235 

that our Holy Father, Pins X, with his good practical sense, would do 
away with this fast; nothing ruins the health of our good priests 
more than the necessity of the long Sunday fast." This was about 
five years ago. I disagreed with him at the time, because I was strong, 
healthy, and inexperienced. Since then, I have come into contact with 
missionary conditions and changed my mind. 

However, if we wish the cause to go ahead, we must get our bish- 
ops to take it in hand ; give them a better chance to realize the 
situation, and give them also our moral support to push the case at 
Rome. Perhaps this can be done at retreats and other diocesan gather- 
ings. It stands to reason that the mitigation of the fast must absolutely, 
rigorously guard against any abuse of the Blessed Sacrament. The 
use of liquor before Holy Communion could not be tolerated. The 
fare might be limited to eggs, butter, milk and cereal foods. Smoking 
could easily be abolished ; this really seems less becoming than eating 
or drinking. With such limitations there can be no desecration of the 
Blessed Sacrament. On the contrary, the purpose of preserving rever- 
ence towards it may be better served if the foul breath of many 
communicants is remedied by previously taking some food, 1 



The Teaching of Religion in Our Parochial Schools 

By C. D. U. 

The Wichita Catholic Advance, edited by the Rev. John W. Maher, 
D. D., in its Vol. XVIII, No. 26, prints a disquieting editorial article 
on what it asserts to be a serious defect of our parochial school system. 

W T e quote the salient passages : 

Religion is the only defense and sole apology for our elaborate school 
system. Catholic schools are built primarily to teach Catholic children their 
religion. But is this done enough? What are the facts ?.... Can we say that 
religion occupies the place of honor rightly due it, in [our] parochial schools? 
Religion, properly understood, means to us the catechism. In saying this we 
do not minimize the importance either of prayer or good example. Prayer 
and good example are however, liable to evaporate, whereas a catechism lesson 
well explained and well learnt will cling to the mind for life. Any adult who 
enjoyed the advantage of a good religious instructor in school-days is still 
able to give a sufficient reason for the faith that is in him, whether his practice 
belie his belief or not. A half hour devoted to merely answering impossible 
questions, such as are found in too many catechisms, cannot be judged an ample 
justification for the expenditure of millions. Nor will our people get the 

1 It may be argued that some of the for Catholics in out-of-the-way places, 

priest's work may be done on week- especially, if they have become a little 

days. In missions, this is not true. lukewarm. Besides, they must work. 
Weekday services have little attraction 



236 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

worth of their money until they differentiate their own schools from all others 
by the sign : "Here the Catechism is taught." 

Impelled by fond and foolish parents, the teachers in Catholic schools 
feel they must compete with the public school. It is deemed a great victory 
if the Board of Education will accept a grade card from parochial teachers 
at its face value. Such competition loses all merit under the scrutiny of an 
impartial judge, for if the primary object of Catholic schools be to obey the 
decrees of some State or county superintendent then is the crushing burden 
assumed by our people a public testimony to their lack of judgment. 

We think all who are familiar with the workings of our parochial 
schools will admit that there is grave reason for the complaint that 
quite a number of them are not teaching religion as competently and 
as thoroughly as they ought. 

The Catholic Advance suggests the following remedies: (1) Re- 
verse the order of importance attached to the subjects taught in our 
schools. (2) Give our female religious communities an improved 
course in the art of teaching the catechism. (3) Let the local pastors, 
wherever possible, give the daily catechetical instruction themselves. 

The catechist, as the CatccJiist's Manual of the Christian Brothers 
remarks, must take hold of and elevate the whole man, and Dr. Maher 
is undoubtedly right when he says that "to do this requires more 
emphasis than is generally given the catechism now-a-days in Catholic 
schools." 

We may add that it requires also a better training both in religion 
and pedagogy than most of our teachers possess. So long as many 
pastors cannot or will not attend to the catechetical instruction them- 
selves, and the duty of giving this instruction devolves upon the teacher, 
the second demand of the Advance, viz. : that the female religious 
communities, which are in charge of most of our parochial schools, 
be more thoroughly trained in catechetics and whatever pertains there- 
to, most assuredly embodies a timely and important demand, and one 
cannot but hope that it will be heeded. 

Catholic Leakage Among Aliens 

By a Missionary 

Catholic leakage unfortunately is not limited to English speak- 
ing Catholics. The non-English speaking element also has suffered 
and still suffers heavily from it. The causes however of their apostasy 
were not and are not the same. Consequently the means to check it 
must differ. Their condition and situation, at least for most of them, 
were at first better than ours. But as time goes on their position 
will grow worse and worse, for to their own dangers will be added 



XX 8 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 237 

those from which we suffer. I mean that with the adoption of Eng- 
lish the safe-guard of their mother-tongue will vanish. To it they owe 
their preservation from mixed marriages and other dangers that have 
proved so disastrous to our people. 

The foreign immigrants suffer chiefly from three causes of leak- 
age, namely, 1st, Want of priests of their own nationality or language; 
2nd, Unduly forced Americanization ; 3rd, The fascination exerted 
by the wealth and showy appearance of non-Catholics and kindnesses 
received from them. 

The want of priests speaking their language, loving them, 
able because of the same nationality, to understand their soul, has 
driven away from the Church thousands of foreign-born Catholics. 
Priests who show dislike and contempt for those of their people who 
cannot speak English, have not American ways, and stick to their 
mother-tongue and racial traditions, are not fit to exercise the pastoral 
charge. Foreigners are sensitive and they will have no sympathy 
for such priests. If such a state of things is due to unavoidable cir- 
cumstances, if priests of this or that nationality cannot be had, God 
will supply the deficiency. But if they are not utilized where they 
can be had, simply because they would retard the process of "Amer- 
icanization," the objective guilt and sin takes on the proportions of a 
crime — the crime of Cain killing his brother Abel, not in body, but in 
soul. 

Some years ago I heard from a priest at Springfield, Mass., the 
following anecdote about the late saintly Bishop O'Reilly, who was 
wont to give English speaking priests to foreigners and foreign priests 
to English congregations. One day he received a delegation from a 
French parish asking for a priest of their language. The reception 
was rather unfriendly. But the delegates put the case so strongly, 
arguing that it was not a matter of nationalism on their part, but the 
salvation of their children, that the Bishop was overwhelmed, and: 
for a moment remained as if praying. His upright soul was suddenly 
enlightened, no doubt, on the terrible consequences of his action. For 
he told them : "Go home and I shall send you a priest of your na- 
tionality as soon as possible." And he added : "Be sure, I shall always 
be a friend to the souls of your children." — He was henceforth, con- 
cluded the priest who told me this story, more charitable towards us 
and more sympathetic. 

2. Undue pressure on non-English speaking immigrants to force 
them to surrender their respective mother-tongue and adopt English, 
has also been a fruitful cause of Catholic leakage. Of course these 



23 8 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

foreigners sooner or later have to face the dangers which imperil 
the faith of their English speaking brethren. But why should we 
subject them to these dangers before their time, unprepared and in the 
most unfavorable circumstances imaginable? Have we not overlooked 
the most elementary rules of prudence, charity, and justice? Uncon- 
sciously, perhaps, in a great many cases, we have taken the very means 
to deliver them into the hands of the common enemy. A few instances 
of the fate we are preparing for our immigrants will make clear what 
I mean. I shall take two cases from the same people. I have them 
from two priests: one a French-Canadian, the other an Irishman. 
Here is the report of the French-Canadian priest : 

The city of Quebec with 60,000 or 70,000 French-Canadians speak- 
ing the French language, has only 22 French Protestants: 1 to 3,000. 
My informant, who knew very well the whole Province of Quebec, 
added that the same average proportion of 1 to 3,000 would be pretty 
accurate for the whole province. 

The second instance is Detroit, Mich. My Irish informant gave 
me the following report and statistics : About 35% of the population 
of Detroit is Catholic. But as Detroit is an old French city, ceded to 
the United States in 1795, and as the number of foreign immigrants, 
all except French, was small, the Catholic percentage, to-day, ought 
to be no less than 80 or 85. But, he added, mixed marriages have 
taken thousands away from the Church. Detroit, instead of having 
100,000 Catholics or so out of a population of 300,000 ought to have 
about 240,000, a loss of 140 000, mostly French. 

I could not verify the accuracy of the statement regarding Detroit. 
Even if it had to be modified a little, it would not affect my argument. 

A Glimpse into the Methods of the Modernists 

By a Convert 

A lurid sidelight on the methods of the Modernists is thrown by 
Msgr. Robert Hugh Benson in his Confessions of a Convert, just 
published by Longmans, Green & Co. He says on page 86 sq. : 

"I think it must have been in the October of this year that I 
reached such a pitch of distress that, with my Superior's permission, 

I wrote to a distinguished priest an account of all my difficulties 

His answer was very surprising to me then. It is less surprising to 
me now; since the priest in question has, finally, died out of Catholic 
communion. He defined for me very carefully the doctrine of Papal 
Infallibility and the exact sense put upon it by the general feeling of 
the Church and advised me to wait. He told me— what I have since 



XX 8 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 239 

found to be not the case — that while the 'minimizers' seemed to have 
been victorious as regards the wording of the Vatican decree upon 
Papal Infallibility, it was the 'maximizers' who had been winning ever 
since; and he added that although he himself, as a 'minimizer,' felt 
himself individually justified in remaining where he was, he would 
not feel himself justified in officially receiving any one into the Church 
except on the terms that now prevailed, viz., on 'maximizing' principles; 
he added that 'maximizing' views were impossible to persons of rea- 
son. The conclusion, therefore, practically, was that I had better re- 
main where I was. One sentence in his letter gave me, I think, an 
inkling into the objective disloyalty of his position : I had asked him 
to remember me in his Mass and, in return, he begged to be remembered 
in mine. After my reception into the Church he wrote to me again, 
asking how I had surmounted the difficulty which he had indicated. 
I answered by saying that I could not be deterred by such elaborate 
distinctions from uniting myself to what I was convinced was the 
divinely appointed centre of Unity and that I had simply accepted the 
Decree in the sense in which the Church itself had uttered and ac- 
cepted it. 

"For a little while, however, his first letter quieted and reassured 
me, and I was only too willing to be reassured. My Superior, too, 
remarked that I could not very well have a plainer indication of God's 
Will that I should remain in the communion where He had placed me. 
The very fact that I had written to a priest and received an answer 
of discouragement seemed to me then — and to him still, I imagine — 
an evident sign of where my duty lay. It seemed to show that even 
within the Roman Church wide divergencies of opinion prevailed, and 
that there was not that Unity for which I had looked. The ultimate 
history of the priest in question, his excommunication, and his death 
outside the Church showed, of course, that such is not the case, and 
that men are not allowed to represent the Church who misrepresent, 
even in good faith, her teaching." 

Msgr. Benson is very charitable indeed in assuming good faith 
on the part of the priest who tried to disuade him from entering the 
Church. But the recently published autobiography of Father Tyrrell 
— for it is he undoubtedly to whom the then Anglical curate 
applied in his spiritual distress — make it almost impossible to sustain 
that assumption. Dishonesty is a predominant characteristic of the 
Modernists,, and many of us are only gradually coming to realize what 
a providential measure the condemnation of Modernism really was. 



240 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW I9i3 



A New Book on the Philippines 

By P. B. in Manila 
An Army Officers Philippine Studies, by Capt. J. Y. Mason 
Blunt, U. S. A. (Manila: University Press, xiv & 344 pp. $1.08 post- 
paid) 'is a book 1 that claims our attention for a variety of reasons. It 
is the first comprehensive publication within the last decade that treats 
from a Catholic standpoint many controversial matters about the Phil- 
ippine question. Of course not all Americans will agree with the 
author in his conslusions, especially that class of people who seek 
"to exalt our national dignity and superiority by the process of forever 
trying to sink Spain deeper and deeper into a veritable muckhole of 
alleged ignorance, incompetency, perfidy, and general cussedness, 
religious and political." (Ed. Forw., p. IX). But the unbiased student 
will find in this book valuable information on some questions that have 
not yet reached their final solution. 

Captain Mason J. Y. Blunt, the author, was born in 1849, of a 
prominent American family and spent a great part of his life in foreign 
countries. He served in the French army, fought with the Papal 
Zouaves under the famous general Charette, later joined the British 
army, and finally returned to the United States where he continued his 
military career. In 1901 he was made captain in the 15th Cavalry and 
sent to the Philippines. One year later he was retired because of 
physical disability. He secured a position in the Philippine Con- 
stabulary and found time for research to prepare a series of papers 
on the Philippines. On his deathbed he entrusted his manuscripts 
to Father John R. Volz, professor in St. Thomas University, who 
edited them under the title quoted above. 

There are seven papers in the volume. The first gives "General 
Characteristics of the Filipinos." What the author has to say here on 
the Filipinos in private and social life proves him to have been 
:a keen and just observer of men. "General Condition of the Philip- 
pine Islands Prior to the Katipunan Rebellion of 1896" is the title 
of the second paper. The author begins with a description of the 
Spanish administration. "That the Filipino Colonial Government, 
according to Anglo-Saxon standards, was defective in its machinery 
is a fact" (p. 37). But "as a colonial government th e Philippine ad- 
ministration suited Spain, just as the present government of these 
Islands administered by the Philippine Commission suits the United 
States" (p. 38). And whatever may be said against the Spanish 

' This book must not be confounded Philippines, by James H. Blount (see 
with The American Occupation of the this Review, Vol. XX, No. 2). 



XX 8 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 241 

colonial system, it can never be denied that "Spain with the aid of 
this very system held her colonies in undisputed possession by the 
colonists themselves longer than any other nations ever did theirs" 
(p. 39). The chapter closes with an account of the reforms and 
improvements made in the Philippines in the last decades of the 
Spanish administration. And indeed, if one does not stop in 
Manila but also visits the provinces, he will notice everywhere that 
Spain really civilized the country. It is true that some improvements 
have been slow in materializing, but improvements were made. It 
is also true that under American administration these improvements 
are rapidly going on, especially concerning education. But under 
Spanish rule they were not forgotten, as some publicists would have 
us believe. Concluding his second paper, our author sums up as follows : 
"Prior to 1896, the Filipinos had every reason to be as contented 

a community as could be found in any colony (p. 57) The vast 

majority lived in competence if not in affluence, and by far the greater 
portion of the cultivated land was owned by natives.... There had 
been an onward march of general progress" (p. 58). 

Why, then, did the Filipinos revolt against Spain? That is ex- 
plained in the following paper: "Secret Societies of the Philippines." 
After having laid down some general principles on the subject of secret 
societies, Capt. Blunt reviews all the secret societies in the Islands 
from the first introduction of Masonry in 1834 to the present. A 
characteristic of all these secret societies is that they all had political 
ends, especially in the last half of the 19th century. Some propagated 
revolutionary tendencies under a religious cover. The most important 
of all these secret societies was the Katipunan (1892-96), which ac- 
tively fostered the revolution against Spain. "In form and organization 
[this society] claimed to be masonic" (79). What Capt. Blunt has 
ascertained about this society shows clearly that it was indeed a "fearful 
organization.'' "The only two crimes it recognized were disobedience 
and disloyalty. Its punishment for them was death. The Katipunero 
might lie, rob, or murder if he chose, provided his action did not 
affect or injure the interest of the Katipunan. But did he disobey its 
mandates or betray its secrets to the authorities, even under torture, 
there was then no place in the Philippines so remote as to hide or 
shelter the unfaithful Katipunero from the far-reaching arm of his 
society." (pp. 85 sq.) "There are still very many survivors of the 
Katipunan of 1892-96, and the greater part of them unquestionably 
exercise an immense influence on the masses of the population." 
(p. 86). But Capt. Blunt probably yields to pessimism when he says: 
"A combination of them and of the present political parties may some 



242 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

clay breed a new revolt, possibly as formidable to the power of the 
U. S. in these Islands in the future as was to that of 1896-97 to the 
Spanish rule in the past." Predictions to that effect are sometimes 
heard. But the present political leaders of the people are prudent 
and earnest men who aim at the welfare of their country. Moreover, 
the present political constellation in the U. S. gives reason to believe 
that the desire of the Filipinos for self-government will be gratified in 
the near future. 

Capt. Blunt's fourth paper bears the heading: "Filipino Revolu- 
tions and Revolts." There is first a historical sketch of all revolts in 
the 19th century, beginning with the first disturbance in 1807 and 
ending with the revolution of 1896-97. Then the writer points out 
the reasons of these uprisings, especially of the last one. "In as- 
signing a cause for the revolt of 1896-97, nearly all writers, English 
and American, give. . .'the friars' and their 'intermeddling in polities' " 
(p. 185). Blunt proves that it was not the friars but entirely different 
causes that led to the revolution, viz. : the secret societies, which began 
with Masonry and ended in the "Katipunan." 

"The War of Conquest" is the fifth paper. It relates in extenso 
the events that followed the surrender of Manila, in August 1898, 
until Aguinaldo was captured in March 1901. "In the Civil Govern- 
ment of the Philippines" Blunt casts a brief critical glance at the policy 
that prompted American intervention in Filipino affairs (277 sqq.). 

The American nation in general, and the leaders of the ex- 
pansionist branch of the Republican Party in particular, made a big 
mistake when, misled by the information of consuls in the Far East, 
they assumed that the Philippines would gladly come under the govern- 
ment of the U. S. The Filipinos, on the contrary, expected from the 
American nation an independent republican form of government. The 
history of the preceding revolutions and revolts should have taught 
us this lesson. Moreover, the Islands did not prove to be "an unex- 
ploited 'El Dorado'. . .which [the Spaniards] had been too lazy or igno- 
rant to develop" (p. 286). So this new possession proved to be "a white 
elephant, whose purchase price and maintenance had been and still 
was enormous" (p. 287). Another mistake was that the Republican 
party did not decide at the beginning what it wanted to do with the 
Philippines. Whenever the question of self-government was forced 
to the front, the Filipinos were practically told to "wait and see." That 
this policy resulted in antagonizing the masses of the Filipino people 
is quite natural (p. 288). 

In the last paper the author discusses a very delicate question : 
"The Position of the Insular Government towards the Catholic Church 



XX 8 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 243 

in the Philippines." He frankly declares that the insular government 
is hostile to the Church. This statement he bases on the relations 
between government and Church during the last ten years. The first 
Commission appointed to investigate "abuses" in the Islands was com- 
posed entirely of Protestants, who, without a deeper knowledge of the 
close connection of Church and State in the past, were far from being 
"unbiased in their sentiments, impartial in their statements, correct in 
their conclusions." That may be seen in the report, where "witnesses 
testifying against the Catholic Church were allowed to wander at will 
over the wide field of glittering generalities, instead of being required 
to confine themselves to the narrower limits of positive statements of 
absolute facts." The government also proved itself unfriendly to the 
Church in the decisions it made regarding church property. Much 
property that had been unjustly taken away during the revolution by 
the schismatic Aglipayans was legally handed over to them by the 
government as the "last peaceable possessors." Aglipay, the apostate 
priest, openly boasted that the then Governor had promised him, if need 
be, to support his Iglesia Independiente by American canon. Whether 
true or not, "it was important that these statements at that time 
were allowed to pass unchallenged by the civil government." There 
can be no doubt that the civil government favored the schism in the 
hope "that the native competition which would inevitably arise between 
the two forms of belief, might react wholesomely upon the individual 
workers themselves." (Prof. Worcester. ) The government as a body 
stands in opposition to the faith of the large majority of the 
the people. Another blow to the Church was the introduction of the 
American public school system that excludes religious instruction. 
It is true the priests are allowed by law, on request of parents, to 
give three times a week half an hour religious instruction after regular 
people. Another blow to the Church was the introduction of the 
school hours in the schoolroom to those pupils who care to stay. 
But this concession does more harm than good, as can be easily under- 
stood. It makes religion appear to be of minor importance than even 
base-ball, for instance. 

This is the quintessence of the last of Capt. Blunt's seven papers, 
which, incidentally, deals also with the so-called "friar question." The 
author holds, and tries to prove, that the opposition against the friars 
was created artificially. 



244 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 



The Policy of Concealment 

By Arthur PrSuss 

The Records of the American Catholic Historical Society of Phil- 
adelphia, with which is combined the American Catholic Historical 
Researches, begins in its first number for 191 3 the publication of a life 
of Msgr. Henry Conwell, second bishop of Philadelphia, written by 
the late Martin I. J. Griffin and revised and edited by the Rev. Lemuel 
B. Norton. 

Bishop Conwell's administration was made sorrowful for himself 
and famous in ecclesiastical history by the Hogan schism. "Every 
act of his as Bishop of Philadelphia seems to have been connected 
with the Hogan trouble either as effect, cause or occasion for some 
of its incidents," says Mr. Griffin, and the question naturally arises: 
"Why revive this unpleasant ghost of the past? 

We recognize old Martin Griffin's rugged honesty and imper- 
turbable love of truth in the answer to this question, given in the in- 
troduction to the first instalment of Conwell's life: "Simply because 
we believe the truth to be the best remedy for historic errors ; even as 
pure air is the best antiseptic for some wounds. Bishop Conwell's first 
mistake (what though his motive were so genuine that it may seem 
harsh to censure him even thus mildly ) was in retaining part of the 
truth. Those greater scandals which profane history has charged to 
the Church are nowadays losing their once obstinate grip, by mere 
process of better ventilation all over the premises. What reproach 
there still persists is becoming more justly apportioned where it fairly 
belongs ; whereas ecclesiastical dignitaries thereby come to be lightened 
of ignominious burdens never strictly their own property from the 
outset. We may rest assured that calumny, once granted an inch, 
will not spare to take an ell ; hence the sooner we apply the yardstick 
of truth, the sooner will calumny be constrained to make good her in- 
jurious detractions from the fair name and honest report of her vic- 
tims. ..." 

May the story of Bishop Conwell's life, with his fatal mistake of 
withholding part of the truth, be widely read, and may we all learn 
therefrom the important lesson that nothing can be gained by the 
policy of concealment, which has been and is such a bane on Catholic 
life and activity. Like truth itself, in the immortal words of Tertul- 
lian, the Church has nothing to fear except concealment and obscura- 
tion. ("Nihil Veritas erubescit nisi solummodo abscondi."—C. Va- 
lent., 3.) 



XX 8 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



245 



FLOTSAM AND JETSAM 



About English Dictionaries 

The Nation reminds us that the 
first dictionary of English words 
in which the meanings of the 
words were explained in English, 
was published three hundred and 
sixty-one years ago. At that time 
the dictionary was little else than 
a select vocabulary. John Bullo- 
kar produced "a compleat diction- 
ary" in 1616, and this work con- 
tained only 5,080 words. Thomas 
Blount's "Glossographia" followed 
in 1656, with a slightly increased 
vocabulary, but was soon super- 
seded by Edward Phillips' "New 
World of English Words" — a 
small folio of 300 pages contain- 
ing 13,000 words. Phillips, who 
was a nephew of Milton, pub- 
lished his work in 1658. A sixth 
edition of it which seems to have 
held its ground for nearly half a 
century, was edited and published 
with a vocabulary enlarged to 
20,000 words by John Kersey, in 
1706. He improved upon this in 
1713 when he issued "A New 
English Dictionary," which though 
printed in smaller form contained 
manv more words than Phillips' 
book. 

Seven years later the English 
world of letters was startled by 
the publication of Nathan Bailey's 
English Dictionary, in the compil- 
ing of which the first attempt 
was made to collect a complete 
vocabulary of the English words 
then in use. Bailey's work con- 
tained 45,000 words, and although 
it passed through no less than 
twenty-six editions, little has been 
written of its industrious com- 
piler. 

Bailey's work was followed by 
one compiled by John Wesley, 



which appeared in 1753, and of 
which the eminent author de- 
clared : "Many are the mistakes in 
all the other English dictionaries 
which I have yet seen, whereas 
I can truly say I know of none in 
this !" 

Two years later appeared the 
work which gained for Samuel 
Johnson the erroneous sobriquet 
"Father of English Lexicogra- 
phy." Johnson's Dictionary was 
published April 15, 1755, and con- 
tained 50,000 words. 

This total was not materially 
increased until the appearance of 
Webster's "American Dictionary" 
in 1828, followed by Joseph Wor- 
cester's "Comprehensive Pro- 
nouncing and Explanatory Eng- 
lish Dictionary" in 1830, and their 
subsequent revisions. Even then 
the tide of English speech did not 
reach the flood. Worcester's Dic- 
tionary contained but 105,000 
terms and Webster's 160,000. 

Then, there appeared the Amer- 
ican revision of the Imperial Dic- 
tionary, which was published in 
several volumes under the name 
of "The Century Dictionary," (is- 
sued in 1889), for which the edi- 
tors claimed 200,000 words. This 
book was followed by Dr. Funk's 
"Standard Dictionary" with 318,- 
000 words published" in 1894, in- 
creased in Funk & Wagnall's 
"New Standard Dictionary" to 
the high-water mark — 450,000 
terms — in 1913. 

Dr. Afurray's New English 
(commonly called the Oxford) 
Dictionary which is not yet com- 
plete, is in a class by itself, beinf 
based on historical principles. 
Compared to it even the Standard 
Dictionary is like a child's primer. 



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1913 



The Oxford Dictionary is not yet 
sufficiently appreciated in this 
country, but the time is sure to 
come when it will be indispensible 
to every writer and student of 
English. 

Secrecy in Catholic Fraternal Societies 
The following observations of 
the Sacred Heart Review (Bos- 
ton, Vol. 49. No. 15) show that 
a principle for which we have long 
contended is gradually gaining 
ground among thinking Catholics : 
"There is no spiritual or moral 
reason for the secrecy of the Cath- 
olic fraternal order. The reason 
is psychological. Candidates for 
membership are attracted by se- 
crecy. Inasmuch, however, as this 
playing at secrecy arouses sus- 
picion among non-Catholics who 
have a tendency, anyway, to sus- 
pect the Catholic Church of ulte- 
rior motives, many thoughtful 
Catholics feel that it might very 
well be done away with. The 
Catholic Church itself is open and 
above board. It welcomes investi- 
gation of its faith and practice. 
It has no secret degree work. No 
Catholic fraternal order can be in 
possession of any mystery to com- 
pare in the slightest degree with 
the divine mystery of the Mass 
which the Catholic Church throws 
open to the whole world. 

"Our Catholic fraternal orders 
are doing good work in many 
ways. That they could do all the 
good they are doing, just as well 
without the secrecy, is a convic- 
tion that we believe to be growing 
among Catholics, even among 
those who are themselves enrolled 
in such organizations." 

The Snapdragon That Newman Loved 

If for any plant might be set 

up the plea of "Ancient Lights," 

that plant might well be the snap- 



dragon growing on the walls of 
Newman's old rooms at Trinity. 
Through the recent extensions to 
Balliol, we read in the Tablet, the 
wall exactly opposite his window 
is now built up against. There is 
still the wall further on, but the 
exact spot under Newman's win- 
dows is spoilt for snapdragon. 

Newman, in the familiar record 
of his leave-taking of his first 
College, Trinity, says: "There 
used to be much snapdragon grow- 
ing on the walls opposite my 
freshman's rooms there, and I 
had for years taken it as the em- 
blem of my own perpetual resi- 
dence even unto death in my Uni- 
versity." Not till thirty-two years 
later, and on a 26th of January, 
did Newman re-visit Oxford, and 
then see for the last time the 
snapdragon of his love. 

Through the courtesy of a cor- 
respondent, the same journal is 
privileged to share with Newman- 
lovers a letter which tells a still 
unrecorded circumstance of that 
much recorded visit: — "Cardinal 
Newman visited Trinity in 1878. 
One of the servants told me he 
took the Cardinal up to his old 
room, and, after glancing round, 
he said, 'Oh, what a change in the 
room! No carpets, no sofa, no 
easy chairs in our day; but we 
had our beloved books.' He then 
went to the window, which was 
open, and looked out, and I heard 
him say, 'Ah! there is my be- 
loved snapdragon on the wall now 
just as it was in my day.' ' 

If, finally, the snapdragon per- 
ished in its old place, its seed will 
not wholly perish. Not a hundred 
miles from St. James' Presbytery, 
Spanish Place, flourishes a cut- 
ting from the parent plant, and 
others of its offspring are to be 
found far afield, some even in the 
United States. 



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247 



A Plea for More Sociability 

Our esteemed friend Judge J. 
H. M. Wigman writes to us from 
Green Bay, Wis. : — 

To the suggestion in your last 
issue "A plea for More Sociabil- 
ity," may be added that when a 
Catholic young man or a Catholic 
family moves into a strange parish 
or city, let them obtain from their 
parish priest a recommendation to 
the priest of the parish they move 
to, or to any priest of the city 
they intend to locate in. The 
priest can call it to the attention 
of some of his parishioners. Re- 
cently a family moved to this 
city who had taken the precaution 
to get a recommendation from 
their pastor to a priest here, who 
called Mrs. X's attention thereto. 
Mrs. X. called on the lady and 
shortly afterwards invited her to 
a meeting of the Catholic Women's 
Club, where she was introduced to 
the ladies, etc., and from thence 
on was no longer a stranger in a 
strange land. 

A Protestant League Against Vicious 
Journalism 

A "Citizens, Protective League'' 
has just been formed in Denver, 
and what does the reader think is 
its object? To protect the city 
against disease or crime? No; 
against vicious journalism. It 
appears that increasing numbers 
of citizens have become disgusted 
with the course of the Denver 
newspapers. It is not chiefly the 
squabbles between rival editors 
that they object to, though these 
are unseemly enough, but the prac- 
tice of sensational journalism in 
its worst forms. Filth is ladled 
into Denver homes by some of 
these sheets. They seize upon 
every scandal and story of vice 
and spread the whole forth in 



startling and exaggerated reports. 
The thing has gone so far that 
a league has been formed to com- 
bat this public evil. The intention 
is to keep up a rain of protests 
against the publication of all the 
revolting details of crime, and by 
combined action to bring the truth 
home to yellow editors that their 
course is not only offensive to the 
public sentiment of their city, but 
will surely lead to the withdrawal 
of public support. 

Such a movement is both a re- 
proach and an encouragement to 
journalism. That a city should 
need to organize against a demor- 
alizing press is a shame, but the 
fact that it is done, and that the 
example may be imitated, gives 
some ground for hoping that the 
profession may soon be freed from 
these excesses of nastiness. 

The Rise of Nations 

Glancing at the world's history 
it would seem as if destiny, or 
shall we not rather say some high- 
er power, had arranged or fore- 
ordained that certain nations 
should rise and flourish in spite of 
obstacles and mistakes, and that 
this will be successive. The civ- 
ilizations of Babylon, Egypt, and 
Greece were succeeded by the dom- 
inance of Rome. This, broken 
up, gave birth to the nations now 
merged in Italy as the great pow- 
ers, the commercial and banking 
nations of the world. Then came 
Portugal into world-wide prom- 
inence in wealth and colonial 
possessions, while, with its fall, 
rose Spain, the discoverer of 
America, and the leading State in 
the world for a time. Since then 
we have seen France advance un- 
der Napoleon to meridian splen- 
dor, enriched by the treasures and 
plunder of Europe, and facile 



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1913 



princeps in commerce, riches, and 
power of arms. Waterloo brought 
England to the front, and it has 
since dominated by its wealth and 
naval power the great nations. But 
its sun would seem to be sinking 
towards the West, and its light 
is flushing the face of the young 
and hustling United States. Be- 
fore many generations, perhaps, 
the Western Hemisphere will have 
captured the crown of the uni- 
verse, while the Teuton of the 
Baltic will press closely on its 
heels. And when, mayhap, Amer- 
ica has held the sceptre for gen- 
erations, the power, and pomp, 
and gold will follow the sun again, 
and re-appear in the East where 
the yellow races are shaking off 
their slumber of twenty centuries, 
and with opening eyes are taking 
note of the methods and ways of 
the opulent nations of the West. 
These things, however, are hidden 
in the mists of the future, and 
it is not given to man to pierce 
them.— T. D. 

The Teacher— A Hero 

It is easy from the arm-chair 
and writing-desk of the theorist 
to expatiate on the teacher's high 



and glorious calling and the need 
for ideals. But it is another thing 
to go each morning into a not 
over cheerful or commodious room 
where some hundred youngsters, 
often in sodden clothes and with 
hungry faces, are mechanically 
droning forth their lessons in that 
sing-song so trying on the nerves. 
How is freshness to be preserved? 
How is one to continue for twenty 
or thirty years a life like that 
without a lowering of ideals? In- 
deed, what motive force can be 
found in $500 or $600 per annum 
for an educated man to continue 
it at all ? The Greeks were so im- 
pressed with the hardship of the 
lot that it was a current saying, 
when a man had proved a misfit 
or a failure, that he had turned 
schoolmaster. And it is quite true 
that if they have not some spark 
of that charity which Dr. Lorenz 
Kellner postulates, they are the 
most pitiful drudges imagin- 
able. If they have it and pre- 
serve it in the wear and tear of 
their severe life they are heroes 
worthy of all honor, they are in- 
valuable citizens weaving unseen 
and unknown the future greatness 
of their country.— G. J. P. 



ET CETERA 



The daily papers have recently 
been telling us of the discovery, 
made by Dr. Reisner, of Harvard 
University, of a secret chamber 
in the body of the Sphinx. We 
are informed on excellent author- 
ity that there is not the slightest 
foundation for the story. 

The second American Catholic 
Missionary Congress will meet in 
Boston on October 19th next, un- 
der the auspices of the Catholic 
Extension Society. But one pa- 



per will be read at each session; 
the balance of the time is to be 
given to discussion. Every priest 
in the United States and Canada 
is an accredited delegate to this 
congress. There will also be some 
addresses by laymen. 

A certain Catholic layman finds 
it "strange that whenever 'the 
religious issue' is raised in poli- 
tics, it is invariably in connection 1 
with candidates for office whose I 
Catholicity is of the vague and | 



XX 8 



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249 



nebulous sort and which would 
surely prove qaantite negligeable 
if those candidates were elected to 
office." This phenomenon is not 
as strange as it appears when we 
consider that genuine and really 
zealous Catholics, for reasons not 
far to seek, scarcely ever venture 
into partisan politics in this 
country. 

The editor of the Portland 
Oregonian the other day express- 
ed his contempt for the Christ- 
ianity of the monks who with- 
draw from the world to save 
their souls. This brought out the 
following terse and cutting com- 
ment from the Catholic Sentinel, 
of the same city: "It is highly 
probable that without the work 
of monks of that type the editor 
of the Oregonian would be run- 
ning around somewhere in the 
forests of Northern Europe as 
a half -naked savage. The editor 
is a better judge than we of the 
utility of saving him from that 
destiny." * 

The Scientific American calls 
attention to an important change 
that has recently occurred in the 
map of Asia. The vast region 
of Mongolia has ceased to be a 
part of China, and is now inde- 
pendent. The Mongols are chiefly 
famous in the world's history as 
invaders and conquerors in Asia 
and eastern Europe. They were 
vassals of the late Manchu dy- 
nasty, but not of the Chinese gov- 
ernment, and their separation 
from China resulted automatically 
from the proclamation of a re- 
public. Their secession from China 
was aided by Russia, which thus 
secures a "buffer state" on its 
Chinese frontier. 

The Antigonish (N. S.) Cas- 
ket says editorially (Vol. 51, No. 
17:) 



"A writer in the Fortnightly 
Review, discussing the causes of 
such losses as the Church has sus- 
tained in the United States, says 
that mixed marriages are the most 
destructive cause working to the 
detriment of the Faith. We be- 
lieve it. We have often won- 
dered how the Catholic party to a 
mixed marriage can contemplate 
the future cheerfully. There is 
always the question — What about 
the children if the Catholic party 
dies ; and there is always the ques- 
tion — What will be the effect on 
the growing child of seeing the 
parents differ in religion? That 
some cases turn out happily is no 
answer. Escape by some from 
a danger which overwhelms the 
great majority can not serve as 
an excuse for anyone running in- 
to danger." 

The subjoined strictures on the 
Easter music performed in the 
churches of San Francisco, by Mr. 
Frederick W.Goodrich in the Port- 
land Catholic' Sentinel (March 
27), unfortunately apply to prac- 
tically all of our large and a 
great many of our smaller cities: 

"Very little liturgical music ap- 
pears on the choir lists of that 
city ; instead we find names of 
composers whose masses are the 
reverse of what is correct. La 
Hache, Cimarosa, Mercadante, 
Farmer, are the names chiefly 
found in the programme, indi- 
cating an absolute absence of reg- 
ulation and obedience to the di- 
rections of the Holy Father. Con- 
certed Vespers, explicitly forbid- 
den by the Motu Proprio of His 
Holiness, are still in evidence. 
Still there are some law-abiding 
churches to be found, and their 
musical programmes are oases in 
the desert of bad and incorrect 



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1913 



LITERARY NOTES 



— After a careful persual of 
Father Andrew Klarmann's latest 
novel, The Fool of God (Pustet 
& Co., 531 pp; $1.50) several 
capable and not unappreciative 
readers agree, in substance, on the 
following opinion concerning it. 
The story gives evidence of much 
power and ability in the author, as 
well as of painstaking effort in the 
collection and elaboration of ma- 
terial, which of its very nature 
must have been anything but co- 
pious and definite. The subject 
matter is interesting and has the 
advantage of novelty, while its 
treatment gives proof of the en- 
terprise of the writer. The book- 
making is quite satisfactory. On 
the other hand, there are appar- 
ent inconsistencies in the story 
and a lack of depth and finish 
in the development of characters; 
there is a surfeit of imagery and 
descriptive detail that makes for 
needless bulkiness, and, summar- 
ily considered, one would have 
been better pleased with the tale 
had the author deferred publica- 
tion until, after a thorough over- 
hauling, he had reduced its bulk, 
rounded it out into an easier form, 
and welded the separate parts in- 
to a more symmetrical, unified 
whole. Then, too, pagan Egypt 
would seem to be painted just a 
bit too roseate. And as to the 
title, it is scarcely a happy one, 
and its import is obscure. — 
James Pretjss, S. J. 

— Last year we reviewed in this 
magazine the Abbe V. A. Huard's 
excellent manual of Zoology for 
the use of schools and recommend- 
ed the work to Catholic educators. 
The learned author has lately pub- 



lished another scientific work, 
forming part of his "Cours 
Abrege d'Histoire Naturelle, a 
1' Usage des Maisons d'Educa- 
tion." This is a compendium of 
Geology, and we think it will find 
greater favor even than his earli- 
er book on Zoology. For Geol- 
ogy, if not taught ex professo, 
may form part of the course in 
Physical Geography. After some 
preliminary notions, in which he 
treats of the divisions and subject 
matter of the science, Abbe Huard 
discusses in so many chapters 
Physiographic, Lithographic, Dy- 
namic and Historic Geology. The 
fourth part will no doubt appeal 
most to the average reader inter- 
ested in scientific questions, for in 
the seventh chapter of the "Fourth 
Part," he discusses in the first 
article "The Primitive History of 
the Human Race," and in the 
second, "What Are We to Think 
of the System of 'Transform- 
ism'?" These two brief articles 
contain a good summary of the 
approved conservative teaching on 
the questions under discussion. 
The book bears the Imprimatur of 
Bishop Roy, Administrator of 
Quebec. There are good illustra- 
tions and a very handy index. 
(Abrege de Geologie par I' Abbe 
V.-A. Huard, A. M., Directeur du 
Naturdliste Canadien. Quebec. 
Imprimerie de la Cie de "l'Evene- 
ment." 1913.) — Alb. Muntsch, 
S.J. 

— The Dream of Gerontius. By 
Cardinal Newman; The Wedding 
Sermon, by Coventry Patmore; 
The Cradle of the King. A Christ- 
mas Anthology ; and Easter 
Poems. A Religious Anthology. 



XX 8 



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251 



(Burns & Oates. Price, in Japon 
wrapper, 25 cts net, in limp 
calf, 50 cts. net.) These beau- 
tiful booklets present masterpieces 
of poetry in a worthy form and 
make most acceptable gifts. The 
first two have as frontispiece the 
portrait of the author, the Christ- 
mas poems are adorned with a 
Madonna and Child, and the 
Easter collection has a Diirer pic- 
ture, — Our Lord appearing to 
Mary Magdalen.— S. T. O. 

— The Jesuit Father C. Frige- 
rio's Practical Manual for the Su- 
periors of Religious Houses [of 
women, this should have been 
mentioned in the title], of which 
F. Loughnan presents an English 
translation, is the fruit of wide 
experience in the art of directing 
religious persons. It treats frank- 
ly, yet discreetly and with unction, 
of all that is most practical and 
difficult in the government of com- 
munities of women. (New York: 
P. J. Kenedy & Sons. 1912. 40 cts. 
net, postage 4 cts.) — S. W. 

— The Rev. Joseph Hanss of- 
fers Kurze und packende Beispiclc 
cum Einheitskatechismus, which 
may prove useful even to those 
who teach the catechism according 
to some other text-book than that 
compiled under the auspices of His 
Holiness Pope Pius X. (288 pp. 
i2mo. Fr. Pustet & Co. 1913. 
75 cts.)— H. P. 

— The Good Shepherd and His 
Little Lambs. By Mrs. Hermann 
Bosch. (Longmans, Green & Co., 
New York.) Mrs. Bosch's prac- 
tical, simple, natural and attractive 
method of treating children is al- 
ready well known. In the present 
beautiful little volume are con- 
tained a series of talks preparatory 
to first Holy Communion. Many 
an older lamb might find there 
fruit for his devotion. — S. T. O. 



— Angels of the Sanctuary. Lit- 
tle Heart-to-Heart Talks ivith 
Those Who Serve the Altar. By 

B. F. Musser. (Benziger Bros. 
25 cts.) The author writes as an 
altarboy to other altarboys, pre- 
senting motives for devotion to 
Our Lord in the Blessed Sacra- 
ment. We think that most boys 
could digest stronger spiritual 
meat, but no doubt many will be 
helped by this mild and conscien- 
tiously prepared nourishment. — 
S. T. O. 

— The Catholic Church from 
Without. By Rev. James A. Ca- 
rey, Member of the Maine Cath- 
olic Historical Society. With a 
Preface b\ the Very Rev. Francis 

C. Kelley',D. D., LL. D., President 
of The Catholic Church Extension 
Society of the U. S. A. (The 
Catholic Church Extension Society 
of America, 332 S. Michigan Ave , 
Chicago. Price Five dollars per 
hundred.) The extracts, from 
non-Catholic writers, which make 
up this book are very interesting 
reading for the insider. They 
ought to prove at least one thing 
to the outsider for whose benefit 
they, have been so diligently col- 
lated and arranged, — his own in- 
consistency. As evidence they are 
valueless, because of their source, 
but as bait to attract the notice of 
the fish, they ought to serve. The 
variety of names which appear in 
this small pamphlet is amazing. 
How many outsiders occupy them- 
selves with the doctrines and do- 
ings of the Church ! We hope our 
friends the "enemy," (for so they 
are denominated in the words of 
that old outsider Ovid, quoted on 
the cover) will pass from this be- 
ginning to a serious consideration 
of the question, and so to conver- 
sion. — S. T. O. 



252 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



Books Received 

[Every book or pamphlet received by the 
Fortnightly Review is acknowledged in this 
department ; but we undertake to review such 
publications only as seem to us, for one rea- 
son or another to call for special mention.] 

ENGLISH 

Our Lady in the Liturgy. Considera- 
tions on Certain Feasts of the Mother 
of God. By Dom Michael Barrett, 
O. S. B. viii & 237 pp. i2mo. London : 
Sands & Co. ; St. Louis, Mo. : B. Her- 
der. $1.10. 

The Practical Catechist. From the 
German of Rev. James Nist. With an 
Introduction by Rev. James Lin- 
den, S.J. Edited by Rev. Ferreol Gi- 
rardy, C. SS. R. xi & 556 pp. 8vo. B. 
Herder. 1912. $1.75. 

Sing Ye to the Lord. Expositions of 
Fifty Psalms. By Robert Eaton, Priest 
of the Birmingham Oratory. Second 
Series, xi & 402 pp. i2mo. London: 
Catholic Truth Society ; St. Louis, Mo. : 
B. Herder. $1.50. 

Papal Program of Social Reform. 
An Analysis. By Dr. August C. Breig. 
72 pp. iomo. Milwaukee, Wis.: Die- 
derich-Schaefer Co. 1913. (Wrapper.) 

The Ordinary of the Mass the Food 
of Prayer. A Series of Meditations 
and Prayers. By the Rt. Rev. J. O 
Smith, 6.S.B.. Abbot of Ampleforth. 
vii & 558 pp. i2mo. Benziger Bros. 

Levia Pondera. An Essay Book. By 
John Ayscough. viii & 371 pp. 8vo. 
Longmans, Green & Co. 1913. $1.75 
net. 

History of St. Mary's School, Mem- 
phis. Tenn. Illustrated. Price 50 cts., 
postage 10 cts. extra. Address : Pas- 
tor of St. Mary's Church, 155 Market 
Str., Memphis, Tenn. 

Confessions of a Convert. By Rob- 
ert Hugh Benson, ix & 164 pp. i2mo. 
London and New York: Longmans, 
Green & Co. 1913. $1.20 net. 

Archbishop Smith and the Mosaic 
Authorship of the Pentateuch. Coin- 
piled by S. T. B. With a Memoir of 
the Archbishop, xxxiv & 316 pp. 8vo. 
Aberdeen: The University Press, iqit. 
(American agent : B. Herder, St. Louis, 
Mo.) $2.25 net. 

The Official Catholic Directory for 
the Year of Our Lord 1913. Complete 
Edition, viii & 1166 & 2=;o & 192 pp. 
T2ino. New York : P. J. Kenedy & 
Sons. 

Eugenics. A Lecture by Lawrence 
F. Flick, M. D. With a Foreword by 
Francis P. Siegfried. 39 op. l6mo. 
Philadelphia: John Jos. McVey. 1913. 
(Wrapper.) 10 cts. 



FICTION 

A Hundredfold. By the Author of 
"From a Garden Jungle," etc. 216 pp. 
i2mo. Benziger Bros. 75 cts. net; 
postaee 7 cts. 

GERMAN 

Geschichte der Jesuiten in den L'dn- 
dern dcutscher Zunge. Von Bernard 
Duhr S. J. Zzveiter Band. Geschichte 
der Jesuiten in den Ldndern deutscher 
Zunge in der ersten H'dlfte des XVII. 
Jahrhunderts. In two parts, xviii & 
703, x & 786 pp. large 8vo. Richly il- 
lustrated. B. Herder. 1913. $12.15 net. 

Die heilige Theresia von Jesus, Leh- 
rerin der Mystik. Von P. Luis Martin, 
General der Gesellschaft Jesu. Auto 
risierte Ubersetsung aus dem Spani- 
schen. Mit erlauternden Anmerkungen. 
xii & 144 pp. i6mo. Fr. Pustet & Co. 
1913. 50 cts. 

Predigten fur den Pfingstkreis des 
Kirchenjahres von Dr. Angus tin Egger. 
Bishof von St. Gallen. II. Teil. Her- 
ausgegeben von Dr. Adolf Fdh, Stifts- 
bibliothekar. 2. An flag e. 201 pp. l2mo. 
Benziger Bros. 

Wcibliche Jugendpfiege. Winke filr 
schulentlassene Mddchen und Hire El- 
tern. Von Dr. Adolf Bertram, Bischof 
von Hildeshcim. 55 pp. i6mo. M.- 
Gladbach : Volksvereinsverlag. 15 Pf. 
(Wrapper.) 

Kurze und packende Beispiele cum 
Einhcitskai echismus , zusammengestellt 
und nach Fragen geordnet von Joseph 
Hanss, Pfarrer in Ludzuigshafen-Frie- 
senheim. 288 pp. i2mo. Fr. Pustet & 
Co. 1913- 75 cts. 

Geschichte der Schopfung im Lichte 
der Naturforschung und Offenbarung. 
Genicinverstdndlich dargestcllt von 
Hartmann Falbesoner, Gynurasialpro- 
fessor. Mit einem Titelbild und sahl- 
reichen Abbildungcn im Text, x & 379 

. RENCH 

Abrcae de Geologic Par L'Abbc 
T T .-A. Huard. Dircctcur du Naturaliste 
Canadicn. Conservateur du Musee de 
V Instruction Publiaue ct Entomologiste 
Officicl de la Province de Quebec. 1=7 
pn. ]2mo. Quebec: Imprimerie de la 
Cie de I'fivenement. 1913. (Wrapper.) 

Frederic Duval: Les Livres qui s' 
Imposent. Vie Chrcticnne; Vie Sociale: 
Vie Civique. fie cd.. revue et augmen- 
ts. Paris: Gabriel Beauchesne. 117 
Rue de Rennes. 191 3. 6 fr. (Wrap- 
per. - ) 

LATIN 

Epitome Theologiae Moralis Univer- 
sae per Definitiones, Divisiones, et 



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253 



Summaria Principia pro Recollectione 
Doctrinae M oralis et ad Immediatum 
Usuvi Confessarii et Parochi Hxcerp- 
tum e Suinma Theol. Mor. R. P. Hier. 
Noldin S. J. a Carolo TelcJi, Doctore 
S. Theol. et Professore Theol. Mor. et 
Juris Can. in Pont. Coll. Josephino, Co- 
lunibi Ohioensi. xxxii & 539 pp. pocket 
format. Innsbruck: Fel. Ranch (L. 
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& Co. 95 cts. 

Novum Jesu Christi Testamentum 
J'ulgatae Editionis . . . . 537 pp. pocket 
format. Fr. Pustet & Co. 1913. Cloth 
75 cts. ; morocco $1. 



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beg to announce that Messrs. F. 
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Ohio, (436 Main street) are now 
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The Fortnightly Review is edited, 
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A Catholic Social Reform Bureau 

We have so often referred to the Central Bureau of the Catholic 
Central Society and commended its efforts for a sane and sound so- 
cial reform, that requests have repeatedly come to us to give some 
information in these pages on the Bureau and its work. Such infor- 
mation is abundantly available in leaflets published by the Bureau, 
but it may help the good cause to put it into concise form for those 
of our readers who are not yet in touch with this movement, as all 
good and loyal Catholics ought to be. 

The Central Bureau of the Central Yerein is an office directed 
by the Committee on Social Propaganda of the German Catholic Cen- 
tral Verein. It is located in St. Louis and presided over by Air. F. P. 
Kenkel, K. S. G., editor of the St. Louis daily German Catholic 
Atnerika. The working force is composed of three men and two 
younger persons engaged in clerical and stock work. 

The object of the Bureau is, first of all, to carry out the pro- 
gramme of instruction and social reform of the Committee on Social 
Propaganda. This Committee, a standing organization, is at present 
composed of the following members : 

Rt. Rev. G. W. Heer, Prot. Apost., Dubuque, la., Chairman; 
Nic. Gonner, Dubuque, la.; Joseph Frey, New York, N. Y., Presi- 
dent of the Central Yerein ; Rt. Rev. Jos. Soentgerath, Columbus, O. ; 
Rev. Theo. Hammeke, Philadelphia, Pa. ; Rev. Fred. Siedenburg, S. J., 
Chicago, 111.; Joseph Matt, St. Paul, Minn.; J. Q. Juenemann, St. 
Paul, Minn.; F. P. Kenkel, St. Louis, Mo. 

The formation of this Committee . was the outcome of the de- 
cision of the Central Yerein Convention held at Dubuque, Iowa, in 
1907. The Committee submitted a programme at the Cleveland Con- 
vention (in 1908), on which occasion the erection of the Central Bu- 
reau was decided on, and Mr. Kenkel appointed Director. 

The financial Secretary of the Central Yerein, Mr. Rudolph Krue- 
ger, of St. Louis, was engaged as business manager. He was fol- 
lowed, upon his resignation, by Mr. Hy. B. Offenbacher, of Milwau- 
kee, Wis., in September 1909. Mr. Kenkel is also assisted by Mr. 
Aug. F. Brockland, Associate Diretor, and Mr. Aug. Prodoehl, be- 
sides the clerical help mentioned. The growth has been gradual and 
healthy, the force being increased only as occasion demanded. Yol- 
unteer co-operation from without has always been generously given. 



2 5 8 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

The scope of the Central Bureau may be briefly stated thus : 

A. Publication of a Magazine, of Brochures and Leaflets on Social 

and Apologetic Topics. 

B. Organization. 

C. Agitation. 

D. Influencing of Legislation (esp. Social Legislation). 

E. Arrangement of Lectures and Lecture Tours. 

F. Arrangement of Courses in Social Study. 

G. Sale of Books and Pamphlets on Social Topics and Questions of 

Controversy. 
II. Sale of Stereopticons and Rental of Stereopticon Slides. 
I. Press Service: Items and articles of special import are furnished 

to the Catholic press from time to time. 
J. Providing Speakers for Special Occasions. 
K. Campaign for the Erection of the Central Yerein's proposed 

Catholic School of Social Science. 
L. Social Research. 
M. Information Bureau. 

The Central Bureau edits and publishes a monthly magazine, the 
Central-Blatt and Social Justice, the first Catholic periodical in the 
United States devoted exclusively to social research and endeavor. 
This magazine has just entered on its sixth year. It has German and 
English sections and contains editorials, special articles and Central 
Verein notes. In addition the Bureau issues, from time to time, brochures 
and leaflets on social and apologetic topics. Some of these have been 
very well received. Thus the Bureau sold 130,000 copies of the little 
anti-Menace leaflet, "The Slime of the Serpent" (two cents), within 
three months — between January 1, 1913, and March 31, 1913. Or- 
ders came from all over the United States and even from the Canal 
Zone. Thousands of copies were distributed below cost, for propa- 
ganda purposes. 

The Bureau has published a list of useful pamphlets (e. g., The 
Ethical Basis of the Social Question, by Rev. B. J. Otten, S. J. ; A 
Minimum Wage by Legislation, by Rev. Dr. John A. Ryan; Modern 
Socialism, by Rev. H. J. Maeckel, S. J. ) and a number of leaflets some 
of which have been distributed free of charge. Most of the Bureau's 
brochures and leaflets have been noticed from time to time in the 
Fortnightly Review. 

In connection with this phase of its work the Bureau has given 
advice for the installment of libraries of social literature and has sold 
a large number of books to societies for that purpose. The total 
number of leaflets and brochures distributed up to April 1, 1913, is 



XX 9 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 259 

690,000; the total number of copies circulated of the Central -Blati 
and Social Justice, 420,000. 

The Bureau has also done some special work, such as the print- 
ing and distribution (among a limited circle) of a pamphlet against 
the legal sanctioning of vasectomy. 

The Bureau has five lecturers in the field, among them the famous 
convert from Socialism, Mr. David Goldstein. 

The Social Study Courses arranged by and under the auspices 
of the Bureau at Spring Bank, Wis., and Fordham University, New 
York, have been warmly recommended by several members of the 
hierarchy and have been instrumental in bringing about the arrange- 
ment of other courses under different auspices. Two courses are 
planned by the Bureau for 1913, one in the East and one in the West, 
to be held in the third week of August. 

The Bureau supplies lantern slides with appropriate lectures on 
social and religious subjects, e. g., child labor, occupational diseases 
and industrial accidents, the German Volksverein and its work, the 
life of Christ, the Holy Eucharist, etc. 

The Bureau is helping to counteract the influence of the low- 
class moving picture shows by exercising a practical censorship over 
films and supplying illustrated lectures for film and moving picture 
shows. 

For two years past the Bureau has been issuing articles on so- 
cial and religious subjects for the benefit of the Catholic, and to some 
extent also of the secular press. Its information bureau has sup- 
plied reliable information on a variety of questions, ranging from 
vasectomy to replies against individual slanders of ecclesiastics and 
public attacks upon the Church. 

At present the Bureau is devoting a good deal of attention to 
the projected establishment of a Catholic School of Social Science — 
"Ketteler Academy," — to be the first of its kind in the United States. 
We shall devote a separate article to this important project in our 
next issue. 



2 6o THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

Protecting the Young Against Alcoholism 

By Tin-: Rev. U. F. Mueller, C. PP. S., Professor of Philosophy, 
St. Charles Seminary, Carthagena, O. 

The late Surgeon-General M. S. Metzler vouches for the following 
utterance of the German Emperor in 1906: "Would to God that I 
could drive out the alcohol devil from my people. I myself quit 
drinking beer ten years ago and use wine but sparingly." 

This persistent advocacy of temperance in word and deed is 
bearing fruit. March 26 — 28 the "Erste Deutsche Congress fur alko- 
holfreie Jugenderziehung" was held at Berlin in the assembly hall of 
the Prussian diet, under the honorary presidency of the Chancellor 
of the Empire, assisted by nearly all the members of the cabinet. 
Its nucleus was formed by governors of provinces, generals of the 
army, professors of the leading universities ( especially physicians and 
pedagogues), leaders of the most distinguished scientific and reform 
societies of the realm. 

Around this kernel were grouped 1400 delegates of various ped- 
agogical, social-reform and temperance societies. Total abstainers were 
most likely in the minority. Yet all agreed with the famous saying 
uttered some years ago by Field-Marshal Count v. Moltke: "It is a 
sin to give stimulants to children." 

Only scientists known for their impartiality were given the 
floor. The first session treated theoretically and inductively the effects 
of stimulants upon children and youth. 

Dr. phil. et med. Weygandt vigorously condemned the use of 
alcohol by nursing mothers, because by it the babe is alcoholized. 
Before puberty and during the early change of life, alcohol proves 
very harmful to all the organs of the body, especially the nervous 
system. It lowers efficiency in learning and lays the foundation for 
neurasthenia. Dr. Weygandt was seconded in this contention by Dr. 
Peter Jensen, who proved inductively from an enquete in Berlin 
schools, that in many cases drinking directly lowers mental efficiency. 
He found that 28% of the school children used intoxicants regularly 
or occasionally. 1 

Dr. Niebergall of Heidelberg University showed the deteriorating 

effect of drinking upon religion and morality. His fundamental 

thesis was: "Alcohol undermines reverence for preacher, teacher and 

parents, the child's authority for religion. It lowers morality by 

1 An enquiry made a few years ago were abstainers. 27% used liquor in 
in New York City showed similar con- some form. These 27% were nearly 
ditions. Only about 73V0 of the pupils all children of foreign parentage. 



XX 9 TH E FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 261 

stimulating the passions and numbing discretion. He was supported 
by Elsa v. Liszt, who showed from experiences gathered in the ju- 
venile courts that nearly all juvenile delinquencies are to be traced 
to the saloon. 

The resolution reached was : "Children and young people gener- 
ally should not take any alcohol, not even in the form of light 
beer." 

The second session examined the modes of temperance instruction 
in vogue. Prof. Gonzer gave an able review of the U. S., England, 
Sweden, France and Roumania. Experience proves, he concluded, that 
instruction on the evil effects of alcohol, to be effective, must be 
given by competent teachers (not amateurs), early in life beginning 
in the primary school and continue during the whole school course, 
even in the university. Dr. Flaig reported that in the German 
Empire such instruction is obligatory only in Wuerttemberg and 
Oldenburg. In other states much is done but nothing systematically. 

In the evening the members of the congress were guided by Dr. 
Mietke through an exposition, where charts, anatomical models, 
readers, textbooks, and other means for instructing the young on the 
evils of alcohol were on exhibit.' 

The next day was devoted to "method.'' Dr. Hiehler treated of 
the "home." Here the foundation must be laid : negatively, by des- 
troying the myth that beer and wine are wholesome ; positively, by ed- 
ucating the child to self-restraint. 

Prof. E. Werner of Heidelberg University treated the "funda- 
mentals" of a sound temperance instruction. He emphasized that 
the school must not only teach but educate. Hence sound doctrine 
must be assisted by training the will to enjoy other pleasures than 
the euphoric effect of alcohol. The next five speakers outlined prac- 
tical programmes for a. the primary, b. the high schools, c. the colleges 
and universities, d. the household, e. the technical schools. 

The last day was given to a mustering of the armies engaged in 
fighting the use of stimulants among the young. We must content 
ourselves with sketching the reports of the two Catholic societies. 

The League of the Cross (total abstainers) was represented by 
the Camillian Father Syring. "As early as 1897," he said, "we felt that 
steps must be taken to caution our youth against the dangers lurking in 
the cup that cheers. Our vigorous agitation was crowned with success, 
when, in 1903, we gained the support of the Katholikentag of Cologne. 
The next year we were able to start our Guardian Angel Society, which 
in 8 years has grown to 100,000 members. After school-dismissal (be- 
tween 14-18) we gather our young total abstainers into the Jugendbund. 



2 62 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

For student abstainers we have clubs. By April these will be strong 
enough to have their own organ. University students' associations 
are still weak, about 1000 in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland com- 
bined." 

The Catholic Moderation Society was represented by Dr. Haw. 
"Although we do not pledge our full-grown members to total absti- 
nence, yet by 1906 it became apparent to all of us that children and 
youths must be total abstainers. Hence we started Guardian Angel 
clubs of total abstinent children and youths. We, too, have gained 
about 100,000 members. Our most zealous promoter is the famous 
Bishop Keppler of Rottenburg. We lay stress not so much on the 
physical as on the moral benefit of abstinence. Many of our grown 
members have become total abstainers, for example's sake." 

Germany to-day leads in the temperance movement. Catholics 
were not the first, but they are fast catching up. 

A zealous and eloquent Franciscan, P. Elpidius, like another Father 
Matthew is constantly traveling up and down the country administer- 
ing the pledge to thousands. 

He claims that Catholics ought to be in the front rank fighting 
alcoholism, with the weapon which Leo XIII declared the only effect- 
ive one; for alcoholism (chronic alcoholism which is due to habitual 
moderate indulgence ) is the fiercest of the three great modern scourges, 
viz. : Alcoholism, Syphilis and Phthisis, because the latter often root in 
the former. Yet, he complains, Catholics are still backward in this 
fight. 

If the German Catholics are behind, where are we? True we have 
the C. T. A. U. with 70,000 members, but it is at a standstill and hardly 
able to hold the inheritance bequeathed to it 40 years ago. 

What are we doing for the young? I know, some bishops pledge 
them to abstinence at confirmation, some priests do the same at first 
Communion. But how many pledges will be kept, if not backed by 
solid instruction ? In most parishes and dioceses nothing at all is done. 

The secular schools give temperance instruction, — in some places, 
perhaps, too much. Then, again, much of this instruction is unsound. 
Nevertheless, it has produced good effects. How long will such in- 
struction be barred from our parochial schools? I purposely say barred, 
because I know positively that there is a rule against it in many 
schools. 

For several years I have tried to get the ear of the Catholic 
Educational Society on this important matter. So far in vain. I was 
treated courteously, it is true, but never given a chance to get before 
this august body. 



XX o THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 263 

Is there anyone who will dare to claim that we Catholics need no 
such instruction ? Then God pity us. We are blind leaders of the 
blind. "Dixi et salvavi animam mcaui." 

P. S. A more detailed report of the Congress will appear in the 
Catholic Temperance Advocate, 804 Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 

What Led to the Invention of Printing? 

By the Rev. John M. Lenhart, O. M. Cap., Victoria, Kan. 

IV 

The German universities were not as largely frequented as the 
Italian or French ; they bore no cosmopolitan character, but were na- 
tional or provincial institutions. r,s The wealthy German students pre- 
ferred to study at foreign universities ; hence the university students 
of Germany were recruited from the poorer classes, and as a conse- 
quence the German universities played a very subordinate role in 
the manufacture and selling of books/' 9 In spite of this draw-back the 
multiplication of manuscript books and the corresponding trade of 
book-selling in the non-academic circles of Germany were extensive. 
The text-writers in the cities, besides scientific books in Latin, pro- 
duced a still greater number of German works intended for the gen- 
eral public; they catered to the literary wants even of the lowest 
classes. 00 

Quite naturally the inventor of printing followed these lines, and 
the first printed book extant is a German popular treatise. 01 This ex- 
plains the fact that German bookselling and book production had de- 
veloped prior to the invention of printing on a more extensive and 
more businesslike scale than in other European countries. 02 This 
heavy trade in books was not occasioned as in Italy, France, England 
and Spain, by the literary aspirations of the university circles ; it 
radiated from the educated classes of the German people at large. 
Through her book-loving citizens Germany gained an ascendency over 
her neighbors in regard to the intellectual maturity of her common 
people. From her reading and writing burghers strong impulses went 
forth to influence the genius of Gutenberg in devising that "new art" 
which Archbishop Berthold of Mayence hailed (in i486) as a sort of 
divine art ("divina quaedam ars") 03 and which led Bishop Andreas 
of Aleria to call Germany in a letter to the Pope (in 1468) "a 
country to be extolled and revered by all generations to come.'' 04 Ty- 

08 Kirchhoff, op.cit., p. in. ° 2 Kirchhoff, 122. 

" Kapp, op.cit., p. 16, 53. C3 Linde, op.cit., III., p. 726; F. Falk, 

" Kirchhoff, 118. Die Druckkunst im Dienste der Kirche 

61 Cfr. this Review, Vol. XIX, No. Cologne, 1879, p. 4. 
!5. P- 440. M Linde, op. cit., p. 706. 



264 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

pography was invented, not in the university centres, but in the capital 
of an Episcopal State, in "Golden" Mayence. 05 It came to light, not 
among scholars reared in the ideals of ancient Greece and Rome, but 
among people practising the precepts of mediaeval faith. 

Germany would not have been fit to become the cradle of print- 
ing had it not harbored a cultured people superior to those of the sur- 
rounding countries. 66 Printing would never have been ushered into ex- 
istence on the banks of the Rhine, had not a more advanced culture 
prevailed in Mayence and the numerous cities of the Upper Rhine 
than in other parts of Germany or Europe. 07 In this favored val- 
ley a uniform and high civilization had developed sooner than in any 
other district of the Empire. os In these cities was first prepared 
and effected that change which caused the most momentous revolution 
of German mercantile conditions : the transition from the old mode 
of payment in kind to the new mode of payment in money. In these 
cities flourished later (in the XHIth century) that high culture and 
great wealth whose monuments of stone still tower against the sky.™ 
These cities in the XlVth and XVth centuries maintained and de- 
veloped such an elevated state of intellectual life that they outdis- 
tanced the remainder of Germany in every direction. 70 The cultured 
inhabitants of these cities constituted both the incentive and the first 
support of the "new invention" about the middle of the XVth cen- 
tury. "There is no other invention," writes Wimpfeling (in 1507), 
"of which Germans can be so proud as that of printing, which. . .has 
made us the benefactors of humanity." 71 

The invention of typography and its rapid spread are unique in 
history. Ancient book-making and book-selling reached its zenith in 
Imperial Rome during the first centuries of the Christian era. In 
Rome as well as in Athens, transcribing books was regarded as me- 
nial labor to be performed by slaves. Whilst Athens could count her 
slave-copyists by tens, Rome numbered them by thousands. 72 By 
dictating a single text to numerous slaves who wrote simultaneously, 
the Romans could easily take a thousand copies of a small book in 
one day." Consequently a flourishing book-trade was established in 
the "Capital of the Universe." The wholesale diffusion of written 
books at that time almost equalled that of printed books at present. The 
prices of books were very moderate. 

The Greeks, and still more the Romans, come very near the idea 

<ir ' Lindc, 724; Kapp, op.cit., p. 53. 70 Hartwig, 4. 

,;,! Hartwig, op.cit., p. 2. " Linde, op.cit., p. 712. 

67 Hartwig, 2. " Kapp, op. cit., p. 6. 

G? Hartwig, 2. " J. B. Weiss, Weltgeschichte, III, 

69 Hartwig, 3. 6th ed., Graz, 1900, p. 25. 



XX 9 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 265 

of manifolding books by printing. 74 Still, they did not take the last 
and most difficult step. 75 "Fourteen centuries had to pass," writes 
Weiss, "till people took the small [sic!] step which brought them near 
the printing press." 76 We cannot believe that the inventive genius 
was wanting. What was lacking was a suitable material for the 
manufacture of printed books. 

"On account of the numerous copyists," Kapp remarks, "Im- 
perial Rome did not feel the need of a larger multiplication of liter- 
ary works." 77 The slave-scribes easily supplied the demand. "There 
was no need of the press," writes Weiss, "the slaves supplied its 
place.'' 78 

This is true. But we may fairly ask whether the demand for 
books was proportionate to the normal conditions of a cultured peo- 
ple. Kapp and Weiss evidently suppose that it was. But they are 
wrong. The great mass of slaves was excluded from all literary 
education, though many teachers of the rudiments were slaves 79 as 
well as the copyists. Girls of all ranks were, as a rule, debarred 
from instruction : all they ever received was a very elementary in- 
struction from their mothers and nurses. 80 The poet Juvenal 
(d. about A. D. 140) styled "educated ladies more unbearable than 
women addicted to drinking." 81 With the advance of the Christian 
religion a gradual change took place, and in the IVth century the 
education of girls had made some progress, especially in Christian 
homes. 82 We see that only a small portion of the people shared the 
benefit of instruction, and even this instruction, as imparted to the 
Roman boys, was insignificant according to modern standards. The 
government absolutely did not care for schools or teachers till the 
time of the Emperor Vespasian (d. 79), when it began to give a sal- 
ary to a few teachers of higher studies. 83 All the school teachers and 
most of the professors of higher studies had to eke out their scant 
living by giving private instruction 84 in a state of life commonly re- 
garded as opprobrious. 85 Through the influence of the Christian re- 
ligion universal education for all classes, free-born and slaves, men 
and women, began to develop. 

Considering the limitations of literary life in ancient Rome, Ro- 
man book production must be regarded as falling below the normal de- 
mand of a cultured people. The existing demand was that of a lim- 
ited class ; the free-born men and a few Roman lathes could easily 
get their books from the stationers or from their slaves. 

14 Kapp, 6; Weiss, 25-26. sn Krieg, op. cit., p. 54; Rauschen, 42. 

M Kapp, 7. M Rauschen, 43. 

Op. cit., p. 26. " Rauschen, 43. 

Op. cit., p. 6. S3 Rauschen, 15. 

™ Op. cit.. p. 26. S4 Rauschen, 15, 17, 18. 

"Rauschen, op. cit., p. 15. ^ Rauschen, 17. 



j6 6 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

The Truth About the Spanish Pioneers 

By Arthur PriCuss 

Mr. R. B. Cunninghame Graham, in the London Saturday Review 
(No. 2,995), calls attention to an English translation of Peter Mar- 
tyr's famous work De Orbe Novo, recently published in two volumes 
by the Putnams (The Bight Decades of Peter Martyr of Anghera. 
Translated by Francis Augustus MacNutt. London and New York: 
Putnams. 19 12. 50s. net ). 

Peter Martyr d' Anghera (or Anghiera) was an eminent savant 
and author of the fifteenth century. He was born at Arona, Italy, in 
1457, and migrated to Spain in 1487, where he became a favorite of King 
Ferdinand. In 1501 he was sent as ambassador to Egypt. In 1504 he 
became prior of the Cathedral of Granada and took holy orders. His 
three chief works are the Opus Epistolarum, the Legatio Babylonica, and 
the Decades de Orbe Novo, which he began in 1493 and continued 
as a history of the discovery of America to 1525. 

His De Orbe Novo, now available in an English translation, is a 
chronicle based on hearsay. Peter's position as canon of Granada 
and as member of the Council of the Indies and royal historiographer 
gave him an opportunity of talking with every one of mark, 
from Columbus downwards, who returned from the New World. Sol- 
diers and sailors, missionaries, adventurers, Indians, and governors 
of provinces, — he knew them all, talked with them, entertained them 
in his hospitable house, and from every one of them learned some- 
thing, which he seems at once to have set down in fluent but dog Latin. 
Thus his book is a complete omnium gatherum of facts and legends 
about the Indians, observations on the climate, plants, soil, rivers, 
lakes, mountains, men, and manners of each new province as it was 
discovered, conquered, and accounts of it came to his ken. His 
Decades are a mine of curious if undigested knowledge. 

Mr. Graham, who is a Protestant, admits that Peter Martyr was 
"singularly clear-sighted and free from prejudice." As an example 
of his perspicacity he cites his opinion of Cortes. A comparison of 
Peter with Prescott leads to this remarkable conclusion: "In this his 
keen Latin mind, his training and his natural fairmindedness put him 
[Peter Martyr] upon a different level as to credibility from men who, 
such as Prescott, wrote as blind partisans, puffed up with pride, both 
of religion and of race." 

The publication in English of the De Orbe Novo will assist in the 
pioneer work undertaken in favor of historic truth by such men as 



XX 9 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 267 

Bandelier and Lummis. We cannot forbear quoting a very charac- 
teristic portion of Mr. Graham's review : 

Our Western Pharisees, a large and unctuous band, are always ready to 
exclaim against the Spaniards' cruelty. Certainly no one can deny it ; but il 
comes with a had grace from men of a generation who have known the bom- 
bardment of the defenceless town of Casa Blanca, the horrors of the Congo, 
of the Putumayo, and of Tripoli, not to speak of a hundred others I could 
name, and in which we ourselves have had our share. The fact is, human 
beings alter little, and as to-day there are humane and broad-minded 
men, so were there such when Peter Martyr wrote. The great Las 
Casas, the Apostle to the Indians, is an instance; hut Pedro Cieza 
de Leon and Bernal Diaz del Castillo, both common soldiers as well as 
chroniclers, protest emphatically and often against the horrors that they saw 
and the injustices. Peter Martyr himself was another instance that proves 
that men of kindly feelings are not the product of a single age. Writing 
on what went on in Darien, he says: "It contains many gold mines; but 
I wish that neither Pedro Arias nor any of those who seek gold to the 
everlasting hurt of the unfortunate natives knew anything of them. We have 
often agitated the question before your Holiness" (he is writing to the Pope), 
"and in our India Council it is now settled. The Indians are to be free, 
and may work in their own fields or at Christian trades. If any of them 
choose voluntarily to labor for wages they may be employed as paid work- 
men." It cannot be too strongly insisted on that the code known as the 
"Laws of the Indies" was both excellent and humane, and that both the Catholic 
kings, Charles V and Philip II, believed its provisions were being carried out. 
Scoundrels, anxious to get rich, disgraced the name of men as they have 
done today, hut that does not form any argument for a wild abuse of Spain. 

As Peter Martyr says, "When our compatriots reach that remote world 

carried away by love of gold they become ravenous wolves and heedless 

of the royal institutions." 

The Dc Orbc Xoro is a book no student of the conquest of the 
New World can do without, and we hope that it will find a wide 
circulation among the general reading public in America, where 
there still exists so much prejudice against the Spanish pioneers and 
the Catholic Church. 

Strangely enough, we cannot find Peter Martyr in our Catholic 
Encyclopedia. 

Religion in France 

Mr. C. E. d'Arnoux's article in No. 5 of this Rcvietv, on the 
"Material Element in Religion," has called forth a protest from the 
Rev. Ernest Bossus, "who has made all his studies in France, in a 
provincial seminary, was ordained in Paris, and practiced the holy 
ministry in a diocese (Chalons sur Marne) which is not in the best 
repute." Father Bossus writes: 



268 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW m3 

Such a condition of affairs may exist in some poor canton here and there, 
where indifference reigns supreme. But to generalize, e. g., to reproach the 
French clergy with never preaching, never giving catechetical instructions, 

is to slander them. 

The French priest has always been a man of study and of duty, bvery 
priest has his library of considerable size and makes use of it. Many work 
out their sermons pen in hand, and could exhibit manuscripts of enormous 
dimensions; and this is true especially of the clergy of the last twenty-five 
years, who are animated with an apostolic and combative spirit, which their 
predecessors did not possess in the same degree. _ 

Perhaps M d'Arnoux has never had occasion to see a priest administer 
the last sacraments; but does that permit him to say: "I do not remember a 
priest ever having gone to a sick call or administer the last sacraments. 

What sort of an opinion will the readers of the Review form of the 
French clergy when they read such abominations over a French name? 

Let them feel assured that the truth is quite different and that the French 
clergy remain what they have always been, one of the foremost in the world 
for piety and exactitude in the performance of their sacerdotal duties. Not 
only does the priest watch over the last moments of his parishioners, but he 
confers on them at the proper time the sacraments. All children receive 
baptism, at least in the country districts ;-the conditions in certain large cities 
being in this respect, very much sadder. First Communion used to be sur- 
rounded in France with too much rather than too little eclat, and civil mar- 
riages are now rather the exception. 

Evidently M. d'Arnoux has had experience in only an exceptional province, 
which cannot be taken as the rule. 

All readers know that France is still the nation that gives most liberally 
money and blood to the Church. 

The actual condition of France, social and religious, has been brought 
about by the revolutionary ideas of '93, disseminated and spread by a Jewish 
press, which is all-powerful under the aegis of a Masonic government. 

To which the Vicomte d'Arnoux replies : 

My argument was that religion in France is fast decaying, be- 
cause the practice is neglected. Perhaps it is dying from Gallicanism, 
Bossuetism, Pascalism, Rousseauism, and Freemasonry. But it is dy- 
ing- . A 

I hope Fr. Bossus is right about the great improvement made 

within the last twenty-five years ;— my experience is of the preceding 

twenty-five. 

On the face of it :— a preponderating^ Catholic population, head- 
ed by fervent priests, has allowed the country to stamp out religion. 
There must be a "nigger somewhere in the woodpile." The clergy 
evidently have lost their grip on the masses. They may be "full of 
apostolic zeal," subjectively ; but their zeal does not reach the people. 

Fr. Bossus appeals to the rule, "Ex particularibus won;" I can 
also invoke that rule against him. 



XX 9 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 269 

On my recent visit to France, (my home), I heard no sermon 
cither in Paris or in the provinces (except one read off hurriedly in St. 
Roch) ; and I remember distinctly how my American Catholic com- 
panion was shocked at what we saw everywhere (though not in 
Chalons sur Marne.) 

The recent "Appel" by the French episcopate confirms my ob- 
servation and goes beyond it. I have no copy at hand ; but it was 

published by the Catholic press. 

* * * 

We may as well finish the subject in this number by adding some 
"Reflections and Queries" submitted by the Rev. H. de la Rou- 
viere, S. J., of Montreal, Canada. He writes : — 

The article entitled "The Material Element in Religion," by Mr. 
C. E. d'Arnoux in No. 5 of the Fortnightly Review, has suggested 
to me the following queries and reflections. 

M. d'Arnoux says that he passed his "infancy, youth and early 
manhood" in France. Will he not kindly tell us in what part of 
France? I also passed my infancy, youth and early manhood in 
the same country, and my personal observations on many points 
clash with his. 

He says that "for twenty-five years the French peasantry have 
had no sermons, no catechism classes." Can he name one parish where 
there is never a sermon preached? Is he ignorant of the following 
associations, "The Dames Catechistes," the "Catechistes Volontaires," 
the many "Patronages," organizations having thousands of members 
in all parts of France? 

According to the same gentleman, French preachers read their 
sermons. Yes, in Protestant, but not in Catholic churches. Again 
he says that high mass, vespers, benediction, daily mass are unknown 
in France. For my part I have during many years assisted at all 
the above-mentioned ceremonies, and in France. 

"The church bells lost their tongues." In every province in which 
I have lived, I heard church bells ring three times daily, and oftener, 
calling the faithful to the services. Despite the chicanery of sectarians, 
the "Conseil d'Etat" has always sustained parish priests who persisted 
in ringing the bells, contrary to the formal prohibition of a few 
masonic mayors. (Cf. among others, the decrees of the Conseil d'fitat 
for November 24, 191 1, March 5, 1912, August 2, 1912, etc.) 

"Everybody worked on Sundays." M. d'Arnoux is ignorant of 
the fact that Catholics not only refrain from servile work on Sundays 
and holydays of obligation, but that they have obtained from Parliament 
the passing of the Sunday observance law. 



2-0 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

He speaks of a "lack of acolytes." Just buy a copy of "Le 
Sanctuaire," published weekly expressly for altar-boys. Admire the 
numerous "photos" of acolytes in every number, and then let us know 
if there is a lack of altar-boys. 

"First communion celebrations were a matter of ancient history." 
The only difficulty the French clergy saw in the decree on the Com- 
munion of Children, was that it made the ceremony less solemn. This 
did not prevent them from obeying our Holy Father. 

"There was so little stress laid on the annual Communion that 
practically no one observed the law regarding it." Has he never 
seen the crowds surging around the confessionals, especially in the 
cities, and hurrying to the altar-rail during the Easter season? Must 
I acquaint him with the fact that the first place in Europe where the 
movement of daily and frequent Communion was started, and that 
too ten years before the Decree appeared, was France? 

He says that there are no baptisms nor marriages celebrated in 
the churches. These are precisely the two duties which even the most 
indifferent make sure to perform. What about the marriage of M. Fai- 
lure's daughter, or the marriage of the son of the anticlerical M. Ker- 
guezec, or the recent marriage of the ex-minister M. Hanotaux, all 
three performed in church? 

"Seminaries large enough to accommodate two or three hundred 
students had probably eight or ten." Does he mean Preparatory 
Seminaries (Petits Seminaires)? If so, I can quote some which have 
a student-body of two or three hundred. "Grand Seminaires," .there 
are more than eighty. The majority could not accommodate one 
hundred students, but many of them, to my knowledge, have forty or 
fifty. The Seminaire de Saint-Sulpice at Paris and the French Sem- 
inary at Rome have a larger number. At any rate, if his insinuation 
as to the great dearth of priests be true, how can he account for the 
fact that France provides so many countries of the world with mis- 
sionaries? 

Again : — "The rubrics were utterly neglected." Where did he 
ever see a priest say mass "in cassock and surplice"? In such a case 
he should have informed the diocesan authorities. For my part, I 
prefer to take the testimony of our Holy Father, Pius X, who said 
that one of the reasons why France "will return to her premiere 
vocation," and "will never perish," is "the generous piety of so many 
of her sons who, not stopping at any sacrifice, provide for the dignity 
of the clergy, and for the splendor of the Catholic cult." (Consistorial 
address, November 29, 191 1.) 



XX 9 THE FORTNIC.HTLY REVIEW 271 

In my opinion, this is M. d'Arnoux's most grave accusation: "I 
do not remember a parish priest ever having gone on a sick call or 
administered the last sacraments." Which is equivalent to saying 
that the French clergy neglect the most sacred of their duties. Is 
M. d'Arnoux ignorant of the fact that the priests of France are not 
only most assiduous in assisting at the bed-side of the dying, but that 
they frequently succeed in snatching from Satan at the last moment, 
souls of bitter persecutors of religion ? Laws have been passed for- 
bidding the entrance of priests into the "laicized" hospitals, yet I 
know a priest who enters in spite of the law and daily prepares from 
20 to 30 patients for death. This is not an isolated case. 

In conclusion the writer adds: "Since the separation of Church and 
State conditions are, if possible, even worse." On the contrary, each 
number of the great Catholic daily papers tells of the progress of the 
Catholic religion. I recommend to whoever wishes to study the ques- 
tion, the following book recently published, entitled, Les Oeuvrcs 
Catholiques ait Lendemain dc la Separation, by M. Fourviere, journalist. 
The main subject of said book is the revival of Catholicism. 

Permit me to conclude with the words of our grand Pontiff 
Pius X, who on one occasion said: "She [France], the daughter of 
so many merits, sighs and tears, will never perish." (Consistorial ad- 
dress, Nov. 29, 191 1. ) The same Holy Father said last year to the 
Bishop of Rodez : "Monseigneur Touchet said that 'God has not yet 
found a substitute for the oldest daughter of the Church.' I shall 
say more : He is not looking for a substitute, but will always 
count on France." 



Popular Apologetics 

By the; Rev. A. J. Kelly, Richfield Springs, N. Y. 

The current number of Truth, the organ of the admirable and 
too little appreciated International Catholic Truth Society, of Brook- 
lyn, contains some curious statements. In a grandiose article which is 
entitled "Thy Kingdom come," and under the caption "The Catholic 
Church and Intellectual Progress," we find the Englishman Millais 
listed as one of the Catholic masters of painting, and among the 
princes of music Guido of Arezzo leads off as the "father of Plain 
Chant." Posthumous paternity is a phenomenal privilege. This 
carelessness of fact hardly illustrates the caption. 

It is, however, on page 33 that we meet with a truly amazing ex- 
hibition of "truth." A correspondent asks : "Why does the Catholic 



2n THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

Church retain Latin in her services?" Answer: "To put the easiest and 
best reason first : God understands Latin" — a discovery as over- 
whelming as the Omaha tornado. Again: "The Church has a brain 
and a judgment" (would that she could impart them to all her defend- 
ers) — "she understands her own business." We are next assured that 
"Latin emphasizes the fact that worship is essentially due to God 
alone" ; that the "sacred words are like the shekina" ; that God has 
a right to an unprofaned language ; that ambiguity of expression is 
foreign to Latin (if our apologist had only written in Latin!); that 
it "was the tongue of the stately Romans" ; that "the Catholic religion 
is historic and therefore loves the historic Latin" ; that "she is founded 
on mystery and therefore speaks a mysterious tongue." "But when 
all is said 'tis well to remember that the Church knows her own 
business best." 

We remember to have heard a cleric who boasted of a victory 
in his controversy with a minister: "I called him a d — fool and he 
couldn't answer my argument." 

A specimen of lay apologetics came under my notice a short time 
ago, when a member of the parish was asked by a Protestant neigh- 
bor : What is the teaching of your Church on Purgatory? None of 
your business, was the enlightened answer. This style of apologetics 
seems now popular enough to publish. 

We are assured by the editor of Truth that the "answers to 
these questions are for the most part prepared at several of our 
largest and most important theological seminaries in the United 
States." We wonder which one of them has the honor of being Alma 
Mater to this son who is "inebriated with the exuberance of his own 
verbosity"? 

A good head and good manners are important in apologetics. 
Non talibus auxiliis, non defensoribus istis. u 

A New Catechism 

By F. R. Gleaner 

For some time past the London (Ont.) Catholic Record has been 
publishing, seriatim, chapters of a new catechism, with a standing 
request to the public to suggest improvements. 

According to the Hartford Catholic Transcript (Vol. XV, No. 
40), these tentative chapters form part of a catechism which Bishop 
McDonald, of Victoria, is composing in the name of a committee 
of three bishops appointed by the Plenary Council of Quebec. 



XX 9 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 273 

Bishop McDonald has, of course, sufficient theological knowledge 
to undertake the work ; but has he the ability to write a catechism ? 
The Montreal Tribune criticizes some of his questions and an- 
swers and says that, while they are excellent theologically, pedagogi- 
cally they are wretched, because far above the understanding of the 
average child. 

The Transcript shares this opinion and in a discussion of the 
matter says : 

When a really successful catechism is composed, it will be the work of 
the teacher — one who knows what the child's mind is capable of taking 
in. The author of the masterpiece must know theology, but he need not 
necessarily be a professor of dogma. One of the Irish bishops, whose name 
could be mentioned, a quondam professor and president of Maynooth, was 
in the habit of calling upon the children whom he was about to confirm to 
explain the special kind of worship which was given to the Sacred Heart of 
Jesus. A shrewd curate, Father K — , anxious to have his class make a good 
showing before the Bishop, drilled them for weeks on the special subject of 
devotion to the Sacred Heart. The day of confirmation came and the Bishop 
according to schedule, submitted his darling question. The class failed in- 
gloriously and the prelate cast an inquiring look at the curate, whereupon that 
gentleman answered the implied question in a manner little expected by the 
Bishop. "Don't you see, my Lord," said Father K — , "that your question is 
beyond the comprehension of these children? Every priest in the diocese 
knows you are going to ask this very question. I knew it and I have been 
drilling these children on the correct answer for weeks. You see the result." 
And we see also that a successful professor of dogma is not necessarily a 
successful catechist. A bishop with the cares of a whole diocese upon his 
shoulders is about the last man that could be counted upon to produce the 
catechism for which we are all waiting. 

The Bishop of Victoria has brought to his work at least one excellent 
idea, that of publishing the chapters as they are composed and inviting criticism. 
His work, however, is slovenly and the chapters that we have seen are pitched 
far above the comprehension of the budding mind. No amount of criticism 
will redeem this book. 

The question interests us in the United States as keenly as it 
does our Canadian brethren. The Baltimore Catechism is acknowl- 
edged to be a failure, and the other catechisms in use among us are 
nearly all translations of books intended for other nationalities, and 
all more or less defective, some hopelessly so. We believe the Tran- 
script's idea is the true one. Where is the teacher with the ability, 
the patience, the humility, and the Christian ambition to undertake the 
composition of a really good catechism of Christian doctrine in the 
English language ? The text might be tentatively published, not chapter 
by chapter, as Bishop McDonald is doing, but question by question, 
first in the Ecclesiastical Reviezv and the Pastoral-Blatt, and later, with 



274 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

the corrections suggested there, for wider circulation in the Catholic 
weekly press, to give the nuns and lay teachers a chance to add their 
practical suggestions to those of the hierarchy and clergy. 

[In connection with this article see the note "The Question of 
a Uniform Catechism" under Flotsam and Jetsam. — Ed.] 



The Mystery of Naples 

By Arthur Pre;uss 

Not long ago (Vol. XIX, No. 23) we summarized the conclu- 
sions of Prof. Dr. C. Isenkrahe on the subject of the liquefaction of 
what is believed to be blood of St. Januarius in the Cathedral of 
Naples. Prof. Isenkrahe's main assertion, viz. : that it has not been 
proved that the substance contained in the phial is real blood, is ac- 
cepted unreservedly by Fr. F. X. Riif, S. J., who reviews Isenkrahe's 
Neapolitanische Blutzvunder in No. 2 of the current volume of the 
great German Jesuit periodical Stimmen aus Maria Laacli (pp. 209 to 
217). 

It will interest certain timid readers of Isenkrahe's book still 
more to learn, from an article contributed by the author himself to 
Pustet's high-class monthly, Der Aar (Vol. Ill, No. 4), that His Em- 
inence Cardinal Prisco, Archbishop of Naples, has expressed genu- 
ine pleasure at the publication and promised to help along further in- 
vestigations of the phenomenon to the best of his ability; that two of 
the official custodians of the relic {prelati del tesoro), Msgri. Carac- 
ciolo and Di Bagnoli, as well as Prof. Sperindeo, have expressed their 
gratitude to Prof. Isenkrahe; and that the ecclesiastical authorities of 
Naples have readily granted the imprimatur to an Italian translation of 
Neapolitanische Blutzvunder. 

These are encouraging signs which afford reason to hope that the 
"mystery of Naples" will ere long be investigated in accordance with 
the demands of science as formulated by Dr. Isenkrahe. 

The only serious obstacle still in the way seems to be the at- 
titude of the Italian government, which, as readers of Isenkrahe's 
work know, is largely responsible for the humiliating fact that no 
adequate critical investigation has yet been attempted. Perhaps the 
most effective way to overcome this stupid opposition, in these days 
when public opinion has grown so powerful, is to advertise and cir- 
culate as widely as possible the eminently scientific and thoroughly or- 
thodox book of the great German savant. {Neapolitanische Blutzvun- 
der. Beobachtet, beschrieben und kritisch erbrtert von Prof. Dr. C. 
Isenkrahe. Ratisbon : G. J. Manz. 1912. $2.00.) 



XX 9 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 275 

The Middleman 

The middleman (which term comprises all dealers between the 
producer and the consumer) has of late come in for much criticism. 
He is held chiefly responsible for the high prices of the necessaries 
of life, and not a few social reformers are consequently demanding 
his elimination. 

No doubt the middleman bears a share of the blame, and our 
new Secretary of Agriculture, Mr. David F. Houston, is right when 
he says in a letter recently published, that the middleman constantly 
aims to pay the producer less and charge the consumer more. 

But is this not the universal rule of business? Is not every 
merchant in the country intent on doing the same thing? 

Then there are some points to be considered in the middleman's 
favor, which the average writer overlooks, but which Mr. F. P. Ken- 
kel, Director of the Catholic Central Society's Social Reform Bureau, 
emphasizes in an able editorial in the St. Louis daily Amerika (Vol. 
41, No. 152). He says in substance: 

The middleman, who has latterly fallen into such disrepute, must 
pay for the store in which he does business, for the real estate he 
buys for storage purposes, for the material which he requires for 
the construction of new buildings, for space in cold-storage ware- 
houses, etc., on precisely the same principle which Secretary Houston 
blames him for following in his dealings with others. If he needs 
money for buying goods and keeping them in storage, he is obliged 
to pay the current rate of interest. This compels the cotton exporters 
of the South, for instance, to do business with one eye constantly 
fixed on the international money market. 

To buy cheap and to sell dear was the fundamental principle of 
business already in ancient times. St. Augustine declared it to be 
wrong and vicious, but modern free competition brought it into vogue 
again. To blame the middleman for acting on this principle, while 
admitting it as legitimate and proper in all other lines of business, is 
unjust and foolish. 

That the cost of the necessaries of life is increased by the oper- 
ations of the middleman is but one factor in the economic life of our 
time. It existed already twenty and thirty years ago, but nobody com- 
plained about it then. That this sore spot in our social organism is 
more keenly felt to-day than it used to be, is but another proof that 
conditions in general have grown worse. These conditions could not 
be much improved by eliminating the middleman. As long as capital- 



276 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

ism remains in control of affairs, we cannot hope for an effective cure 
of our economic evils. The only thing that can help us is a reorgani- 
zation of society on the basis of social justice and Christian solidarity. 

National Park Publications 

We are requested to announce that the following publications 

may be obtained free of charge from the Secretary of the Interior, 

Washington, D. C. : 

List of National Park Publications. An annotated list of books, 
government publications, and magazine articles on the national 
parks. 28 pp. 

National Park Pictures Collected and Exhibited by the Department 
of the Interior. A descriptive list of pictures exhibited at public 
libraries by the Department of the Interior. Contains short de- 
scriptions quoted from well-known writers but does not contain 
illustrations. 16 pp. 
The following information circulars contain data regarding hotels, 

camps, and principal points of interest, lists of books and magazine 

articles, sketch maps, and rules and regulations : 

General Information Regarding Yellowstone National Park. 32 pp. 

General Information Regarding Yosemite National Park. 22 pp. 

General Information Regarding Mount Rainier National Park. 20 pp. 

General Information Regarding Crater Lake National Park. 10 pp. 

General Information Regarding Mesa Verde National Park. 24 pp. 

General Information Regarding Sequoia and General Grant National 
Parks. 22 pp. 

General Information Regarding the Hot Springs of Arkansas. 8 pp. 

General Information Regarding Glacier National Park. 10 pp. 

We are also requested to announce that the following publications, 
issued by the Department of the Interior, are for Sale by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, 
D. C, at the prices quoted : 

Geological History of the Yellowstone National Park, by Arnold Hague. 

24 pages, including 10 illustrations. 10 cts. 
Geysers, by Walter Harvey Weed. 32 pages, including 23 illustrations. 

10 cents. 
Geological History of Crater Lake, Oregon, by Joseph S. Diller. 

32 pages, including 28 illustrations. 10 cents. 
Some Lakes of Glacier National Park, by M. J. Elrod. 32 pages, 

including 19 illustrations. 10 cents. 



XX 9 



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2/7 



Sketch of Yosemite National Park and an Account of the Origin of 
the Yosemite and Hetchy Hetchy Valleys, by F. E. Matthes. 
48 pages, including 24 illustrations. 10 cents. 

Analyses of the Waters of the Hot Springs of Arkansas, by J. K. Hay- 
wood, and Geological Sketch of Hot Springs, Ark., by Walter 
Harvey Weed. 56 pp. 10 cents. 

Proceedings of the National Park Conference held at Yellowstone 
Park, September 11 and 12, 191 1. 210 pp. 15 cents. (Contains 
a discussion of national park problems by officers of the Govern- 
ment and other persons.) 
Remittances for these publications should be by money order, 

payable to the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing 

Office, Washington, D. C, or in cash. Checks and postage stamps 

can not be accepted. 



FLOTSAM AND JETSAM 



Amending the Constitution 

Close upon the heels of the in- 
come-tax amendment, the amend- 
ment providing for direct election 
of United States Senators has se- 
cured its requisite quota of three- 
fourths of the States of the 
Union. It is less than ten months 
since the amendment was passed 
by Congress, and this rapidity in 
the process of confirmation will 
not fail to be remembered as dis- 
posing of whatever may yet be 
left of the long-standing notion 
that the difficulties in the way of 
an alteration of the Federal Con- 
stitution are almost insuperable. 
The truth, as brought out in the 
history of the two amendments 
that have just been ratified, is 
that changes in the Constitution 
can be made with reasonable 
promptness — indeed, it would 
hardly be too much to say with 
expedition — whenever there ar- 
rives that degree of general and 
fixed recognition of its desirability 
upon which a change of the or- 
ganic law ought to be based. 

The prompt incorporation into 



the Constitution of two popular 
amendments can hardly fail to 
have a disastrous effect upon the 
propaganda for the reversal of 
judicial decisions on constitutional 
questions by popular vote. The 
notion that the Constitution of the 
United States should be easily 
changed from year to year, and 
the proposition that the judicial 
interpretation of it by the courts 
should be subject to annulment 
by a count of noses on election 
day, is utterly devoid of political 
wisdom. 

The Question of a Uniform Catechism 
Much food for reflection is pro- 
vided by the Holy Father's Letter 
of October 18, 1912, to his Car- 
dinal Vicar prescribing the use of 
the new Catechism and the Cate- 
chism itself. Are we entering on 
the era of a uniform Catechism 
for the Church universal ? Pius 
X's wish that his text should be 
at once adopted throughout Italy 
need not be restricted to the ex- 
press words in which it is couch- 
ed. True, in Italy it can at once 



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1913 



be gratified, owing to uniformity 
of national customs; in fact, has 
already in some places been com- 
plied with as in the diocese of 
Cremona, whence this Lent issued 
that Bonomelli Pastoral which 
created a certain flutter in the 
European press. By eliminations 
and substitutions called for by lo- 
cal circumstances, and duly au- 
thorized, there seems no reason 
why the new Catechism should not 
before long become a general 
standard. Will the course of in- 
struction thus inaugurated be 
completed by the Pontifical issue 
of a Continuation Catechism for 
advanced pupils, such as is the 
French Catechisme dc Perseve- 
rance? Shall we eventually have 
the text illustrated, as was the 
Catechism used in Venice under 
the Patriarchate there of the pres- 
ent Pontiff? 

One thing is certain, in the 
making of Catechisms there can 
never be absolute finality, so long 
as the Church advances along her 
queenly way, and her history is 
told to her children usque ad 
praesentia tempora. The bibliog- 
raphy of catechisms, an interest- 
ing subject of which an alluring 
sketch may be seen in Canon 
Scannell's instructive article, 
"Doctrine, Christian," in the Cath- 
olic Encyclopedia, may yet add 
many a revision to its list. 

But for the time being the Holy 
Father's Letter and Catechism 
are epoch-marking. 

The Secret of the Divining Rod 

The question of the divining 
rod will not down. A correspon- 
dent of the Scientific American 
(Vol. 108, No. 15) suggests an 
explanation which will be new to 
some readers. It may be called 
the theory of mental expectancy. 
This correspondent says : 



The whole secret is in the way 
the stick is held. Get a forked 
stick with each limb about fifteen 
inches long, and small enough so 
as to bend easily. Take a firm 
hold of both limbs, one in each 
hand, with the palm up, so the 
limbs will enter the hand under 
the little finger and go out under 
the thumb. Now begin to explore 
for water. My first experiment 
was to walk over a water pipe 
about six feet underground. Just 
as I passed the pipe the end of the 
stick rose in the air, came over 
toward me, and pointed down and 
back in the direction of the run- 
ning water, but the pull was too 
strong to be accounted for by any 
action of the water. The rough 
knots would have cut the skin of 
my hand if I had not loosened my 
grip. I crossed the pipe repeated- 
ly, always with the same result, 
until I tried it with my eyes 
closed, so as not to know when I 
passed the pipe. In this case it 
failed to work at all. I also found 
that when the stick is held in any 
other way, it will never move. 
Meld in the way directed, the 
muscles of the hands and arms 
are in a strained position, and the 
limbs are bent outward, so that a 
very slight movement of the ends 
of the limbs will cause the end of 
the stick to move a long distance 
in either direction. 

In the opinion of this writer, 
which we are inclined to share, 
the natural efforts of the muscles 
to relieve the strain, and the au- 
tomatic action of the mind, ac- 
count for the working of the 
divining rod. 

The Idea of Nationality 

Mr. Norman Angell in The 
Great Illusion takes the ground 
that from various causes the idea 
of nationality and of nation as op- 



XX 9 



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2/9 



posed to nation is on the wane. 
Is not the exact contrary true ? 
There are causes which tend to 
cut across the divisions between 
nations, but in onr time those 
which tend to intensify these di- 
visions have obviously more force. 
What is more significant than the 
patent fact that the anti-militar- 
ism of the Socialists collapses and 
becomes impotent the moment tbat 
the mere rumor of war sets na- 
tions in conscious opposition? 

In his remarkable work The 
Foundations of the Nineteenth 
Century Air. Houston Stewart 
Chamberlain says : "Ranke had 
prophesied that our century would 
be a century of nationality ; that 
was a correct political prognostic, 
for never before have the nations 
stood opposed to each other so 
clearly and definitely as antago- 
nistic unities." 

This seems to us to be far near- 
er the truth than the position 
taken by Mr. Angell. 

Boys and the Cigarette Habit 

With scarcely a single excep- 
tion, all superintendents, school 
boards and teachers who have to 
do with the education of boys, are 
implacable foes of the cigarette 
habit. President David Starr Jor- 
dan, of Leland Stanford Univer- 
sity, even forbids college men to 
use cigarettes anywhere on the 
university grounds. A like rule, 
we believe, is in effect at Notre 



Dame and the several Jesuit uni- 
versities. 

Principal Seeley, of the Iowa 
State Normal School, lately said: 
"After making a study of several 
hundred boys, through a period of 
ten years, I have not met a pupil 
that is addicted to the habit that 
will go through a single day's 
work and have good lessons. So 
far as my observations have ex- 
tended not a single boy has passed 
the examination required for ad- 
mission to the high school after he 
had acquired the habit ; and not 
one has graduated from the high 
school who began the habit after 
beginning his course in the high 
school."' 

Pupils under the influence of 
the cigarette smoking habit are 
constant subjects of discipline, 
are untruthful, practice deception, 
and cannot be depended upon. 

Even more appalling than the 
wreck of health and mind, is the 
effect of the cigarrette on the 
boy's morals. 

judge Lindsey, of Denver, 
speaks emphatically: "I have," he 
says, "been in the Juvenile Court 
nearlv ten years, and in that time 
I have had to deal with thousands 
and thousands of boys who have 
disgraced themselves and their 
parents, and who have brought 
sorrow and misery into their lives ; 
and I do not know of any one 
habit that is more responsible for 
the trouble of these boys than the 
vile cigarette habit." 



ET CETERA 



The Central Bureau of the 
Catholic Central Society calls at- 
tention to the fact that the con- 
vent inspection bills recently intro- 
duced in the legislatures of Mis- 
souri and Arkansas are the result 



of an agitation inspired by the in- 
famous Menace, which not long 
ago issued a pamphlet advocating 
such a measure and proposing the 
text of a bill substantially iden- 
tical with those submitted to the 



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THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



two legislatures mentioned. In the 
face of the evidence as presented 
by the Central Bureau in a circular 
sent out to the Catholic press, no 
one will dispute the validity and 
propriety of Catholic opposition to 
a measure which might otherwise 
seem not unreasonable. 

Vice-President Marshall, speak- 
ing at the annual Jefferson dinner 
of the National Democratic Club, 
in New York, April 12th, stirred 
the 400 men present with an elo- 
quent prophecy of disaster that 
would befall the country if the 
Democratic party failed to support 
the principles of Jefferson and the 
policy of President Wilson. We 
do not believe that Mr. Marshall 
meant to intimate that the policy 
of Mr. Wilson is identical with 
the principles of Thomas Jeffer- 
son. This would be a serious 
misfortune. Our new President 
seems to have made up his mind 
to champion the cause of the com- 
mon people on a platform of en- 
lightened social reform. If he does 
this, it needs no prophet to predict 
that, in the words of Vice-Pres- 
ident Marshall, in case he fails for 
want of support, "Socialism will 
carry everything before it." 
* 

Mr. Joseph Schaefer, 9 Barclay 
Str., New York City, has pub- 
lished lithographs of Dr. Ludwig 
Windthorst, the famous leader of 
the German Centre Party, and 
Bishop von Ketteler, the father 
of the Catholic social reform 
movement. These portraits are 
beautifully executed, mounted on 
cardboard sheets 22 x 28 inches, 
and sell for one dollar each, post- 
paid. 

The St. Louis Globe-Democrat 
of April 13th reports the marriage 



of a great-grand-niece of Lord 
Baltimore. "The ceremony was 
performed in Third Baptist 
Church. . . .by Rev. Dr. W. J. Wil- 
liamson. The bride received her 
education at Sacred Heart Con- 
vent." We do not know for certain 
whether this young lady is, or was, 
a Catholic. But we do know that 
an alarmingly large percentage of 
convent-trained Catholic girls con- 
tract mixed marriages, and that 
their children, if they have any, 
are usually lost to the faith. There 
is something wrong here. Con- 
vent-trained girls ought to be 
shining models for others who 
have not had their advantages. 
Why do so many of them set such 
a bad example?? 
* 

It now appears that the Cubists 
and Futurists, before whom we 
have been expected to stand agape 
as the very latest of the late, are 
merely a lot of reactionaries in art 
that were fobbed off on us. They 
date from at least two or three 
years back. And they are already 
supplanted in Paris. There the 
real dcmicr cri is uttered by the 
Orphists. These painters have 
made the great advance of aban- 
doning drawing entirely. They 
convey their emotions simply by 
splashes of color. "This," says the 
N. Y. Nation, "is plainly one 
more step back towards the kinder- 
garten, and shows that artists are 
at last beginning to see that they 
must sit at the feet of babes and 
sucklings and watch the instinctive 
genius displayed in the manipula- 
tion of nursery color-boxes. Cu- 
bists the last word, indeed ! Paint- 
ing must be Four-Dimensional or 
be nothing worth." 
* 

Divorcing Lady Nicotine: Get- 
ting the Upper Hand of the 



XX 9 



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281 



Smoking Habit is the title of a 
recently published booklet by 
Henry Beach Needham. (Chica- 
go: Forbes & Co.) The end of 
the little monograph, the butt end, 
as it were, runs like this : Mr. 
Bing and his friends are discus- 
sing the difficulty of easing up on, 
if not entirely eliminating the 
smoking habit. The friend an- 
nounces to Mr. Bing that he 
(the friend) has quit smoking 
for good. Then the story runs 
this wise: Mr. Bing replied: 
"Have you quit smoking? That 
is what I did. "I did not 
know you smoked, Mr. Bing." 
"Smoked for forty-eight years," 
says Mr. Bing, rather proudly. 
"And then you quit?" "Yes, I 
quit after almost fifty years of 
smoking and chewing." "Why 
did you quit?" " 'Twas this way," 
said Mr. Bing. "I was sitting on 
my porch, sitting there in the star- 
light — alone with my pipe. All 
at once I took a puff and said to 
myself, 'I'm going to quit tobac- 
co, for if I'm not careful, this 
thing will fasten itself on me as 
a habit.' " 

Many people believe that the 
peace of nations is promoted by 
procuring and perfecting the 
deadliest instruments of war. A 
similar policy commends itself to a 
section of that ecclesiastical body 
which is so desirous of bring- 
ing about the peace of religion, 
unity. A letter signed by fifteen 
"prominent rectors" of the Prot- 
estant Episcopal diocese of New 
York, which has been addressed 
to the President of the House of 
Bishops, protests against a change 
of name, specifically against the 
suggested new name of American 
Catholic Church. Among the rea- 
sons is this innocent bomb of uni- 



ty. Such a name would turn away 
from the P. E. Church those Eu- 
ropean emigrants "who have a 
deep-seated antipathy to any name 
which suggests to them ecclesias- 
tical tyranny." We commend this 
letter of his confreres to Dr. 
Manning for incorporation in the 
literature on Religious Unity. As 
a sample of the unity, charity and 
good taste among the promo- 
ters, it will conduce unto edifica- 
tion.— A. J. K. 

During a visit to one of the 
flourishing industrial towns of 
mid-England (a correspondent 
writes ) I was told an interesting 
story about the distinguished wri- 
ter who in his plays and novels has 
given us so many vivid pictures 
of its life and characteristics. Like 
many clever writers and talkers, 
he is no orator, and when he con- 
sented to be the chief guest at the 
annual dinner of an important 
local trade association, people 
wondered how he would get 
through the after-dinner speech. 
The toast of the evening, proposed 
in facile and florid phrase, was 
enthusiastically honored, and as 
the great man reluctantly rose to 
reply, some of the guests doubt- 
less recalled the flashing epigrams 
in his plays. He paused a mo- 
ment, and then, glancing round 
the crowded room, pulled a foun- 
tain pen out of one of his pock- 
ets. "Mr. Chairman and gentle- 
men," he said, as he nonchalantly 
fingered the pen, "this is my only 
means of expression. I thank 
you." 

The Spaniards have a tradition 
that in every place where Mass 
has been said God puts an angel 
to adore Him till the end of the 
world. 



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1913 



LITERARY NOTES 



— Retreats for the People, by 
Charles Plater, S.J. (Herder, xv 
& 293 pp. $1.50) is indeed, as the 
Bishop of Salford remarks in his 
Preface, "a wonderful and in- 
spiring story." Aside from its 
own intrinsic value and its specif- 
ically spiritual aspect, the people's 
retreat movement, as presented in 
this volume, must elicit the keen- 
est interest of all those who are in 
any way seriously concerned about 
real, practical social work. The 
chapter titled "The Social Results 
of Retreats" needs only to be 
scanned to make this plain to the 
reader. But a short time ago 
most people had scarcely an ink- 
ling that there was such an insti- 
tution as the Layman's Retreat, 
much less had they any suspicion 
of the huge proportions the move- 
ment has of late years acquired, 
and the wonderful successes it has 
achieved in various parts of Eu- 
rope and elsewhere. Just a scrap 
of information here and there 
found its way into the press. Now, 
however, Father Plater's volume, 
though in no wise claiming to be 
an exhaustive history, furnishes 
ample data by which to gauge the 
true value of the work, to study 
its remarkable effects, and to make 
practical deductions toward utilis- 
ing so powerful a means for so- 
cial betterment in our midst. Fa- 
ther Plater indulges in rather flat- 
tering language when he comes to 
speak of the rise and possibil- 
ities of the people's retreat in the 
United States. If he fails to re- 
cord much valuable history in 
connection with the work here, we 
condone the omission in consider- 
ation of the promptness with 



which he has taken up the publi- 
cation of his valuable "sketch," as 
he modestly calls it. — Jam£s 
PrBuss, S. J. 

— Mensch and Ubermensch. Fiir 
gebildete Katholiken. Von Dr. 
J oh. Chrys. Gspann. (185 pp. 
i6mo. Benz.Bros. 70 cts.) Rev. Dr. 
Gspann is professor of dogmatic 
theology in the seminary of St. 
Florian, Austria. He possesses 
the gift of interesting cultured 
lay readers in the myster- 
ies of Catholic dogma. In the 
present treatise he draws a se- 
ries of luminous parllels between 
the natural and the supernatural 
life. We have read with particular 
interest and profit the section on 
the Sacraments and that on man 
as mikrotheos. The booklet can 
be cordially recommended to both 
the clergy and the laity. — A. P. 

— Geschiclite der Schopfung iin 
Lichte der Naturforschung una 
Offenbarnng. Genieinverstandlkh 
dargestellt von Hartmann Falbe- 
soner, Gymnasialp'rofessor. Mit 
eineni Titelbild und zahlrelchen 
Abbildungen im Text. (x & 
379 pages. 8vo. Fr. Pustet & 
Co. 1912. $1.50). Prof. Falbe- 
soner divides his interesting treat- 
ise into two parts, one almost 
purely scientific, the other pre- 
vailingly theological. His stand- 
point is that of Fr. Carl Braun, 
S. J., — in fact Falbesoner's book 
may be called a popular up-to-date 
adaptation of that eminent author's 
frequently quoted but, we fear, 
little read Kosnwgonie. F.'s text 
could be improved by condensation 
and careful proof-reading. — A. P. 



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283 



— Olive Katharine Parr has 
compiled a prayer-book of Daily 
Praise (Benziger Bros. 50 cts. 
net). It is intended primarily for 
religions, but the authoress hopes, 
(and we think her hope will be 
realized ) , that the collection may 
prove helpful also to many souls 
in the lay world, especially to 
spinsters leading secluded lives in 
the sanctuary of the home. — A. 
T. H. 

— The Rev. John Henry, C. SS. 
R., has compiled a Manual of Self- 
Knowledge and Christian Per- 
fection for all who wish to make 
progress in the spiritual life. (Ben- 
ziger Bros., paper 20 cts., cloth, 
40 cts.). With a view to facilita- 
ting self-knowledge, the character 
traits of the different tempera- 
ments are traced in the first part. 
The second treats of Christian 
perfection and is compiled mainly 
from the ascetical works of St. 
Alphonsus. If the style were pol- 
ished up a little, the book would 
be more acceptable to cultured 
readers. — A. E. S. 

— A dictionary of mediaeval 
Latin is to be the next great lex- 
icographical undertaking if plans 
now being formulated go through. 
The standard work in this field 
hitherto has been the Glossarium 
ad Scriptores Mediae et Infimae 
Latinitatis of Sieur Charles Du- 
fresne DuCange, a French phil- 
ologist who died in 1688. The 
latest edition of this work appear- 
ed in 10 volumes in 1883-8. The 
magnitude of the task of compil- 
ing an up-to-date lexicon of this 
kind is almost appalling. The 
books on theology, law, medicine, 
philosophy, science, history, and 
other subjects, written in medieval 
and modern Latin, constitute a 
most formidable array. Dr. Mur- 
ray and his colleagues of the Ox- 



ford Dictionary have the pro- 
ject in hand, according to the N. 
Y. Nation, but we fancy there is 
scarcely any probability of its be- 
ing seriously attacked until the 
great Thesaurus Linguae Latince 
has been completed. — A. P. 

— The latest volume of Benzi- 
ger's Naturzmssenschaftliche Bi- 
bliothek is devoted to an account 
of the glacial epoch and the del- 
uge (Eiszeit und Flut. Von P. 
Martin Gander 0. S. B. vii & 
156 pp. i6mo. Illustrated. 50 cts. ) 
Fr. Gander's account is based on 
the latest researches and written 
in language easily understanded 
of the multitude. He holds that 
the Biblical deluge was a local 
manifestation of the great geolog- 
ical diluvium. On page 13 he 
speaks of a Harvard expedition 
for deep-sea research under the 
leadership of Dr. Liar and Dr. 
Deluder. A liar and a deluder are 
suspicious authorities ; has Fr. 
Gander been made the victim of 
a practical joke? — A. P. 

— Confessions of a Convert. By 
Robert Hugh Benson (ix & 104 
pp. 121110. Longmans, Green & Co. 
1913. $1.20 net). This is a re- 
print, with some additions and 
corrections, of'Msgr. Benson's in- 
teresting articles published in the 
Ave Maria, in 1906-7. The author 
declares that he would not be able 
to write these "confessions" to- 
day, owing to the fact that the 
impression of Anglicanism is 
rapidly fading from his memory. 
Under these circumstances we 
must be thankful for what he has 
given us. The book is very read- 
able and contains some passages 
of touching pathos. Catholics will 
profit by reading it carefully. Put 
into the hands of wavering Prot- 
estants, especially of the Anglican 



284 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



persuasion, it may prove a means 
of enlightenment and grace. — A. P. 

— Father Ralph Francis Kerr, 
of the London Oratory, presents 
the twelfth volume of the English 
translation of Pastor's Geschichtc 
der P'dpste. (The History of the 
Popes from the Close of the Mid- 
dle Ages. Drawn from the Secret 
Archives of the Vatican and Other 
Original Sources. From the Ger- 
man of Dr. Ludwig Pastor. Ed- 
ited by Ralph Francis Kerr of the 
London Oratory. Volume XII. 
xxx & 707 pp. 8vo. London : Ke- 
gan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. ; 
St. Louis, Mo.: B. Herder. $3 
net). This instalment comprises 
the second and concluding portion 
of Vol. V of the German original, 
covering the pontificate of Paul 
III, and we were just going to say 
that the translators have now 
caught up with the author, when 
B. Herder laid upon our table Vol. 
VI of the original [Geschichtc 
der Pdpste im Zeitalter der katho- 
lischen Reformation und Restau- 
ration. Julius HI., Marcellus II. 
und Paul IV. (1550-1559). xl & 
■723 pp. 8vo. $3.50 net]. It is a 
pleasure to see this epochmaking 
work thus rapidly going forward 
in both its German and English 
editions. Messrs. Kegan Paul 
have at length been persuaded to 
send out the volumes of the En- 
lish translation with the leaves cut, 
which is a distinct improvement 
that will be appreciated by most 
readers. The translation continues 
to run along smoothly, and, so far 
as we have had occasion to test it, 
is faithful to the original. Of the 
sixth volume of the original work, 
which comprises the pontificates 
of Julius III, Marcellus II, and 
Paul IV, we shall have something 
more to say later. — A. P. 



— From the Loyola Press (Chi- 
cago) we have received a neat 
booklet, Memory Gems: A Book 
of J^erse for Memory Lessons. 
Some of the selections are old and 
well-known and often quoted — in 
fact, Kipling is the only "recent" 
name mentioned — but then, it 
seems that "old poems," like old 
wine and old friends, are the best. 
The first sentence of the Intro- 
duction to this collection, which 
we recommend to English teach- 
ers, contains a truth sometimes 
forgotten. "Although the present 
system of education has often 
been criticized for developing the 
memory at the expense of the 
power of reason, some exercise in 
memory work must always be a 
part of every well-constructed 
course in English." The booklet 
forms Number One of The Lo- 
yola Series. — A. M. 

— From Burns and Oates 
(London) we have received The 
Carol of the Fir Tree, by Alfred 
Noyes, a most delightful Christ- 
mas poem, and, in the sumptuous 
printing, with beautiful front- 
ispiece (Madonna and the Holy 
Child) well worth the price, 25 
cents net. (American agent, B. 
Herder, St. Louis, Mo.)— A. M. 

— The indefatigable Volksver- 
einsverlag of Miinchen-Gladbach, 
Germany, has begun to publish a 
collection of popular biographical 
sketches under the title "Fuhrer 
des Volkes." Xo. 2 of this series 
is devoted to Cardinal Melchior 
von 'Diepenbrock, Prince-Bishop 
of Breslau from 1845 — 53, to 
whom the Catholic Encyclopedia 
refers as "a champion of Catholi- 
city for the whole of Germany and 
an ornament to the entire Church." 
He was in a sense a precursor of 
the great Ketteler, who worked 



XX 9 



THE FORTXIGHTLY REVIEW 



285 



under him and whom he recom- 
mended for the see of Mainz. His 
life is worth reading. (60 Pf. ) 
— E. H. 

Herder's Booklist 

[This list is furnished monthly by B. Herder, 
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The book tells of a line of business that 
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complete facts and figures relating to this 
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The Four Men. A Farrago. By 
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286 



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for 
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(Unison Chorus) 

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by 

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10 

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A New Volume of Pastor's History of the Popes 

By Arthur Preuss 

We have already announced the publication of the sixth volume 
of Ludwig von Pastor's Gcschichtc der Plipste. 

In this volume Dr. Pastor enters upon the important, epoch of 
what has hitherto been generally called the "Counter-Reformation," 
— an appellation which he shows to be an error. The so-called 
Counter-Reformation was not born from a desire to counteract Prot- 
estantism ; it was a much farther reaching movement, which aimed 
at a thorough renovation of ecclesiastical life as the only means of 
offsetting the evil effects of the pagan Renaissance. 

This Catholic Reformation, which began without regard to Prot- 
estantism, in process of time quite naturally developed into a bul- 
wark of resistance against doctrinal innovations and became the 
groundwork of an all-around Catholic revival. 

Into this era, which has justly been called "the heroic age of the 
papacy in modern times,'' Dr. Pastor introduced us in his fifth vol- 
ume, which dealt with the lengthy pontificate of Paul III. Volume VI 
carries us into the midst of the restoration movement. 

Julius III (1550-1555), like his immediate predecessor, Paul III, 
was a man in whom the old and the new struggled for the supremacy. 
In many respects he was still a child of the Renaissance, yet he re- 
solutely put the spiritual affairs of the Church to the front. His pontifi- 
cate includes the second period of the Council of Trent and is marked 
by the partial reform of the Roman Curia, the spread of the Society 
of Jesus in Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Germany, the Catholic res- 
toration in England, and a vigorous missionary activity in the far 
East (Francis Xavier). 

Julius III was followed by Marcellus II, the first true-blue cham- 
pion of reform in the chair of St. Peter. Unfortunately this learned 
and pious pontiff died less than a year after his election. His name 
is deserving of high honor. Scholars remember him gratefully for 
his labors on behalf of the great Vatican library, and in the world 
of music his memory is kept green by Palestrina's classic "Missa Papae 
Marcelli." 

After the death of Marcellus the Sacred College elected Cardinal 

1 Gcschichte der Pdpste im Zeitalter und Paul IV. (1550-1559). xl & 723 pp. 
der katholischen Reformation und Re- 8vo. B. Herder. 1913. $3.50 net. 
stauration. Julius III., Marcellus II. 



2 9 o THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

Carafa, who assumed the name of Paul IV and ruled the Church from 
1555 to 1559. He was an able and well-intentioned pontiff, but made 
many serious mistakes, which Pastor, as a truth-loving historian, sets 
forth with impartial fidelity. Chief among these mistakes are the war 
with Spain, the cruelty of the Inquisition, and the favoritism which 
the Pope showed to his relatives and for which he was so severely 
punished. These errors are to a considerable extent outweighed by 
important reforms. Thus he broke with the tradition of appointing 
cardinals according to the pleasure of secular princes; he renewed 
the Sacred College by adding to its ranks a number of able and zeal- 
ous men ; he combatted simony in every form ; he abolished com- 
mends and other purchasable offices ; he reformed convents, the Da- 
tary, and the Penitentiary, and compelled bishops to observe the law 
of residence. 

What a Protestant historian said of the fifth volume of Pastor's 
great work may also be applied to the sixth : It is up to the high 
level of the preceding volumes. It shows the same marvelous knowl- 
edge of literature, the same mastery and penetration of the immense 
subject in all its aspects, the same power of style and description, 
and, if not absolute objectivity [which is beyond the power of man], 
at least the unmistakable endeavor to be just to one's opponents, es- 
pecially those of a different creed, to appreciate their motives and un- 
derstand their conduct; while on the other hand the author makes 
no attempt to blot out the black lines that disfigure the cause which 
he loves." (Prof. Friedensburg in the Historische Vierteljahrsschrift, 
Leipzig 191 1, p. 104). 

A Projected Catholic School of Social Science 

The Central Bureau of the Catholic Central Society, which has 
already done so much for the advancement of Catholic social reform, 
(see our last number), is at present carrying on a strenuous agitation 
for the erection of a Catholic School of Social Science. 

It has been pointed out time and again, in this Review as well 
as in other Catholic periodicals, and in lectures and books, that while 
our faith provides us with sound principles of social reform, with 
the highest of motives, and with supernatural helps of which other 
social reformers feel the lack, it does not, in the words of Father 
Plater, S. J., provide us with ready-made methods of giving effect to 
our charity. This demands study. We must take pains to equip our- 
selves with the very best scientific knowledge and to attack the great 
social problem at its very roots. 



XX io THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 291 

Mr. F. P. Kenkel, the director of the Central Bureau, who is 
perhaps the keenest and hest informed Catholic sociologist in the 
United States, saw the need of better means for social study from the 
very beginning. Through the Ccntral-Blatt & Social Justice he gradu- 
ally prepared the way for the agitation now on foot. 

The plan is to establish an institution providing general and special 
courses in sociology, political economy, the theory and practice of 
social service, labor problems, the principle and practice of co-opera- 
tion, problems of the different classes of society, etc., etc., based on 
the socio-economic system of Solidarism as distinct from Individualism 
on the one hand and Socialism on the other. 

This institution, which is to be called "Ketteler Academy,'' in 
honor of the famous Bishop Ketteler of Mayence, the founder of the 
Catholic Social Reform movement, will provide opportunities for 
study and research to priests, physicians, farmers, merchants, manu- 
facturers and business men generally, workingmen and labor leaders, 
men in public life, lawyers and students of law, social workers, settle- 
ment workers, charitable workers, organizers and officials of Catholic 
societies, organizers of co-operative associations of farmers and trades- 
men, etc. 

It will be the realization of the ideal of Pope Pius X, expressed 
in the Encyclical on Catholic Social Action, "a single and common 
centre" for "Catholics of all social classes, but especially the great 
masses of the people,'' "a centre of teaching, propaganda and social 
organization." 

At the Chicago convention of the Central Society (T911) the 
Committee on Social Propaganda was authorized to agitate and collect 
funds for the proposed "Ketteler Academy." This permission was 
reaffirmed and amplified in 19 12 at the Toledo convention. 

On the 27th of November, 1912, a building site was purchased 
for $16,000. Cash paid down $9,000. The balance ($7,000) was paid 
March 15, 1913. 

The Catholic Central Society now owns this site, unencumbered, 
after having raised $19,000. This sum was raised by donations large 
and small (25 cents to $5,000) from the German Catholic clergy, many 
individual laymen and a number of societies affiliated with the Central 
Society. 

The building site is 120x254 feet. It adjoins the campus of 
Loyola University in Chicago, on the Lake Front, an ideal location. 

The proposed academy is to be associated with Loyola University, 
and will enjoy special privileges, such as the co-operation of some 



2Q2 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

members of the faculty of that institution, patronage of some of the 
students, etc. , 

The purchase of the site, and the plan of founding the school in 
Chicago were warmly welcomed by Archbishop Quigley, of Chicago, 
as well as by the Jesuit Fathers. 

The steps taken in the matter have been taken with the knowledge 
of the Archbishop of Chicago and other prelates and prominent priests. 

Archbishop Quigley writes: "I will welcome your School and do 
all I can to promote its success." 

About $100,000 will be needed to carry out the admirable project. 

Gifts, cash and promissory, legacies, etc., should be made payable 
to the German Roman Catholic Central Verein, the title under which 
the Society is incorporated. 

The agitation is being actively conducted in and by German Cath- 
olic societies and by individuals, priests and laymen. Many societies 
are contributing $1 per member. 

An Undesirable "Exponent" of Catholic Social Principles 

By thk Rev. John A. Ryan, D. D., St. Paul Seminary 

In the October, 1912, issue of Coitral-Blatt & Social Justice I 
published a somewhat extended reply to a pamphlet against the mini- 
mum wage by E. F. Mc'Sweeney of Boston, formerly connected with 
the immigration bureau at the port of New York, and now a member 
of the Massachusetts Industrial Accident Board. The gentleman of- 
fered this production to the public for the first time something more 
than a year ago, when he read it before a commercial association of 
his home city. Since then, he has given it publicity at the annual 
meeting of the American Economic Association ( Boston, December 
1912) at the annual meeting of the National Civic Federation (New 
York, January 1913) and at a banquet of the Knights of Columbus 
in Providence (February, 1913 ). Finally, he has published a con- 
densed version of it in the April number of the Columbiad, the na- 
tional organ of the Knights of Columbus. 

The article referred to above contained these words: "Mr. Mc- 
Sweeney's production is a surprising combination of misleading as- 
sertions, irrelevant statements, and futile arguments.'' When I wrote 
this sentence, I realized very clearly that it was too mild, but at that 
time I had not met Mr. McSweeney, nor learned anything about his 
position or connections. Hence I practiced some "economy of truth'' 
in the interests of charity. Now I want to utter briefly the whole 
truth in the interests of enlightenment and justice. Confining myself 



XX io THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 293 

to the Columbiad version, I would summarize it as follows : The sec- 
ond, tenth, and twelfth to eighteenth paragraphs contain no positive 
misstatements, but are mostly irrelevant, and to some extent mislead- 
ing; of any two consecutive sentences in the remaining paragraphs 
at least one will be found to invert the truth, or to distort it, or to 
state it inadequately, or to suggest something that is untrue, or to 
embody a discredited prediction. In support of these assertions of 
mine, I shall bring forward only a few typical illustrations. Those 
readers who desire to get a more thorough conception of the Boston 
gentleman's methods should try to obtain a copy of his pamphlet, and 
then, if they choose, read my reply in the Central-Blatt & Social Justice. 

In paragraph 6, Mr. McSweeney refers to "a minimum wage en- 
actment, whereby it shall be decreed by the legislature the least wage 
employers must pay, regardless of whether employees are able to 
earn the legal minimum wage or not;...." If he means that such 
a law would compel an employer to pay the legal minimum to an em- 
ployee whom the employer does not regard as worth that wage, he 
asserts the thing that is not. If he merely wishes to convey the idea 
that some employees could not earn the minimum, and would lose 
their present jobs if it were established by law, he is stating what is 
probably true ; but he is using ambiguous and tortuous language. 

A little further on in the same paragraph, we find this gem : 
"The intelligent labor unionist objects to the minimum wage because, 
wherever it has been tried, it has reduced high wages down to a point 
slightly above the legal minimum." So far as I know, Mr. Gompers 
is the only labor unionist, at once intelligent and prominent, who op- 
poses the minimum wage. In my own State, the Federation of Labor 
officially endorsed the measure, and actively assisted in securing its 
enactment by the legislature of 1913. When, during the debate at 
the Civic Federation meeting, Mr. McSweeney tried to insinuate that 
the last convention of the American Federation of Labor had con- 
demned the minimum wage principle, he was sharply called to ac- 
count by Timothy Healy, International President of the Steam Fit- 
ters. He then admitted the inaccuracy of his assertion. In the sec- 
ond place, he has never given, and can not give, a particle of proof for 
the amazing assertion that, "wherever it has been tried, it has re- 
duced high wages to a point slightly above the legal minimum." Vic- 
toria, Australia, is the only country that has had a genuine minimum 
wage law long enough to test this question, and, so far as I know, all 
first-hand observers declare that no such effect has been produced in 
that country. At the very meeting before which Air. McSweeney 
read his paper in Boston, last December, Professor Hammond of the 



294 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

Ohio State University, who visited Victoria last summer, declared 
that on the whole no such effect or tendency existed. (Cf. American 
Labor Legislation Review, February, 1913, pages 1 11, 112). In the 
face of this and other evidence of the same kind, Mr. McSweeney 
continues to utter the same old misstatement. His opinion of the in- 
telligence of his readers and hearers is evidently not flattering. 

At the end of the same paragraph he says that if the State can 
fix a minimum it can also determine the maximum wage which em- 
ployers may pay or employees may receive. Why, so it can ; so it can. 
And by the same token, if the State can hang a man for murder it 
can also hang a man for petty larceny. This has been done in the 
past, just as maximum wages have been enacted in the past. The 
only prerequisite to the adoption of the practice to-day is to abolish 
the constitutional guarantee against the infliction of "cruel and un- 
usual punishments." This is not physically impossible. 

At the beginning of the next paragraph we find this dogmatic 
announcement: "The manufacturers of any State cannot pay a legal 
minimum wage until their competitors in Massachusetts or elsewhere 
do the same." Precisely the same argument was for a long time used 
against efforts to enact laws regulating child labor and the hours of la- 
bor for women; yet Mr. McSweeney's own State of Massachusetts ha? 
abundantly proved its falsity. He could have learned from the ad- 
dress, above referred to, of Professor Hammond that his assertion 
had been disproved by the experience of Victoria in competition with 
the other states of Australia. Apparently he has not been hungry 
for mere facts. 

In general his paper strives to convey the idea that the legal 
minimum wage is pagan, Socialistic, destructive of the home, pro- 
motive of State absolutism, and contrary to Catholic principles. In 
support of these audacious and astounding assertions, he submits not 
a shred of evidence, nor a semblance of genuine argument. It is the 
same story of reckless asseveration everywhere. One is at a loss to 
determine whether the fault is to be ascribed to his intellectual pro- 
cesses, or is to be explained by a hypothesis which is, from the moral 
viewpoint, less charitable. 

If Mr. McSweeney had confined his discussion to the economic 
and social phases of the minimum wage question, or if he had not 
published it in the official organ of the Knights of Columbus, I should 
not have felt justified in attacking it so severely, or in noticing it at 
all. But he poses as a defender of Catholic principles against what 
he calls a "pagan" device. At the meeting of the American Economic 
Association, he declared, by way of setting right a non-Catholic speak- 



XX io THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 295 

er who had referred approvingly to the living-wage pronouncements 
of Popes Leo and Pius, and of Cardinal O'Connell, that the living 
wage is Christian, but the minimum wage pagan. The great majority 
of those who heard this statement, and those who have read or will 
read it in the official journal of the Association, are non-Catholics. 
Many of them will assume that his assertion reflects the Catholic po- 
sition on this subject. Yet the great majority of Catholic social stu- 
dents who have given any attention to the minimum wage, both in 
this country and in Europe, are in favor of the measure, at least as 
applying to women and minors. None of the American laws or pro- 
posed laws extends to men. The first compulsory minimum wage 
law in the United States, that of Oregon, was more than to any oth- 
er person due to Father O'Hara of Portland. I myself wrote the 
minimum wage bill which has recently been enacted into law in Min- 
nesota. Neither Father O'Hara's nor my ecclesiastical superior, nor 
any other bishop, has suggested that the scheme is "pagan." If I 
am not greatly mistaken, the National German Catholic Central Yer- 
ein has endorsed the minimum wage principle, and the failure of the 
American Federation of Catholic Societies to do likewise at its last 
convention was mainly owing to the opposition and misrepresentation 
of a certain itinerant ecclesiastical journalist and politician. But that 
is another story, and a very sordid one. Some day I may tell it. In 
the meantime the reckless impertinence of Mr. Mc'Sweeney in set- 
ting himself up as the champion of orthodoxy in this matter, ought 
to be sufficiently clear. 

In the second place, the appearance of this production in the 
C olumbiad gives it a certain amount of authority which will mislead 
many Catholics. If all those who read the production were sufficient- 
ly acquainted with the various aspects of the minimum wage question 
to detect the innumerable errors and fallacies committed by Mr. Mc- 
Sweeney, they would realize that the thing carries its own refutation. 
But this subject is quite complex, and involves an extensive range of 
economic principles and facts. To the great majority of the Colum- 
biad's readers the article will appear clothed with the authority that 
is ordinarily ascribed to an address delivered before an important 
gathering of the Knights of Columbus, and published in the official 
organ of the order. Very few of them know that its author has for 
years been the political agent of certain "special interests" of Mas- 
sachusetts. At least, this is the information that I have received from 
men who ought to know. If it does Mr. Mc'Sweeney an injustice, I 
will retract and apologize. 

As a Knight of Columbus, I deplore the lack of editorial vigi- 



296 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

lance which permitted this article to appear in the Columbiad. As a 
Catholic, I regret that its publication in the official journal of our 
most prominent organized body, gives color to the charge that Cath- 
olics are opposed to definite and effective measures of social reform. 
The sanction of the Knights of Columbus has in some measure been 
thrown over the assertion that the minimum wage is Socialistic and 
contrary to Catholic principles. As a prominent Jesuit remarked 
after reading the article in the Columbiad: "No wonder so many Cath- 
olics are Socialists." Aye, verily. They are led to believe that spe- 
cial pleaders like Mr. Mc'Sweeney reflect the Catholic position on 
social questions. It is not the first time that we have been misrep- 
resented by "leading" Catholics of this class. 

The Case of Beulah Miller 

For some time the newspapers have been full of reports of a won- 
derful little girl at Warren, R.I., a school child of ten years, who, it was 
claimed, "is able to read in the mind of anyone present anything of 
which he is thinking; who can tell you which card out of a deck it is 
you have in your hand ; who will give you the date of any coin you 
have in your pocket ; who will tell you the particular word in the book 
at which vou are looking; who reads words at school with her back 
turned towards the blackboard ; who knows what any visitor is hiding 
in his pocket,"' etc., etc. 

Professor Hugo Miinsterberg, of Harvard University, has investi- 
gated the case and reports on it in the May number of the 
Metropolitan. 

It appears that the newspapers, as usual, have been guilty of ex- 
aggeration. This is what the Professor found : — 

I drew cards which she could not possibly see, while they were shown to 
the mother and sister sitting next to me, Beulah sitting on the other side of 
the room. The first was a nine of hearts; she said nine of hearts. The next 
was six of clubs, to which she said first six of spades; when told it was not 
spades, she answered clubs. The next was two of diamonds ; her first figure was 
four ; when told that it was wrong, she corrected herself two, and added dia- 
monds. The next was nine of clubs, which she gave correctly; seven of spades 
she called at first seven of diamonds, then spades ; jack of spades she gave 
correctly at once, and so on. One other series : We had little cardboard squares, 
on each of which was a single large letter. I drew any three, put them into the 
cover of a box, and while the mother, Gladys and I were looking at the three 
letters, Beulah, sitting beside us, looked at the ceiling. The first were R-T-O. 
She said R-T-I. When told it was wrong, she added O. The next were S-U-T; 
she gave S-U, and then wrongly R-P-Q, and finally T. The next were N-A-R; 
she gave G-N-A-S-R. The following D-W-O, she gave D-W, but could not find 



XX io THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 297 

the last letter. It is evident that every one of the cards gave her fifty-two 
chances, and not more than one in fifty-two would have been correct,. if it were 
only guessing, and as to the letters, not more than one among twenty-six would 
have been chosen correctly by chance. The given example demonstrates that of 
five cards she gave three correctly, two half correctly, and those two mistakes 
were rectified after the first wrong guess. The second experiment demanded 
from her four times three letters. Of these twelve letters, six were right at the 
first guess and five after one or two wrong trials. 

Taking only this little list of card and letter experiments together, we can 
say that the probabilities are only one to many billions that such a result would 
ever come by chance. Yet such correctness was not exceptional. On the con- 
trary, I have record of no series performed under these conditions which did 
not yield as favorable an outcome as this. Some were even much more start- 
ling. Once she gave six cards in succession correctly. It was no different with 
word experiments. The printed word at which the sister and I looked was 
"stall" ; she spelled E-S-T-O-A-R-I-L-L. And when the word was steam, she 
spelled L-S-X-K-T-O-A-E-A-M ; when it was glass, S-G-L-R-A-S. Whenever 
a letter was wrong, she was told so and was allowed a second or a third choice, 
but never more than three. It is evident from these three illustrations that she 
gave the right letter in the first place six times, and that the right letter was 
her second choice four times, and her third choice three times, while no letter 
was missed in three choices. Cases of this type again could never occur by mere 
chance. The number of successful strokes in this last experiment might be 
belittled by the claim that the last letters of the word were guessed, when the 
first letters had been found. But this was not the case. First, even such a 
guess would have been chance. The word might have been grave instead of 
grass, or star instead of stall. What is much more important, however, is that 
a large number of other cases proved that she was not aware of the words at 
all, but spelled the letters without reference to their forming a word. Once I 
wrote Chicago on a pad. The mother and sister gazed at the word, and Beulah 
spelled correctly C-H-I-C-A-G, but made eight wrong efforts before she found 
the closing O. In other cases she did not notice that the word was completed, 
and was trying to fish up still other letters from her mind. Everything showed 
that the word as a word did not come to her mind, but only the single letters. 

These phenomena are remarkable enough, especially in view of the 
Professor's assurance that fraud is excluded. 

A peculiar feature of the case is that the results stop when Beulah 
is blindfolded. 

Professor Mimsterberg thinks that she is gifted with an unusual, 
supernormal sensitiveness, together with an abnormal power to receive 
signs without their coming at once to consciousness, and that she is 
guided in her revelations by a system of simple signs made involuntarily 
and imperceptibly to others, by her mother and sister. 

This system has grown up in the course of several years. Its origi- 
nated in this way. At first Beulah recognized the queen in the hands of 
her sister and mother while they were playing "Old Maid." When 
they began to make experiments with cards, definite family habits 



298 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

developed. "There was much occasion to treat each card individually, 
to link some involuntary movement with the face cards and some with 
each suit, and slowly to carry this system over to letters." 

The case of Beulah Miller greatly resembles that of "der kluge 
Hans," the famous trick horse which was apparently able to calculate 
from unintentional signs made by its owner. 



What Led to the Invention of Printing? 

By the; Rev. John M. Lenhart, O. M. Cap., Victoria, Kans. 

V. 

This state of affairs in Imperial Rome cannot be regarded, as 
Kapp 86 and Weiss regard it, as praiseworthy ; it was decidedly ab- 
normal. Some scholars have conjectured that the Roman Senate 
suppressed the practice of manifolding books by way of printing, 
because the government was afraid of the enlightenment of the com- 
mon people. The Roman Senators did not need to suppress the 
printer's art; the unprofitableness of printing in Roman society suf- 
ficiently frustrated all attempts in that direction. We have a striking 
parallel in the academic and humanistic literary life of Europe prior 
to the invention of printing. The stationers of the university towns 
supplied enough books for the academicians during a period of two 
and a half centuries. Humanism had flourished in Italy for a full 
century before it began to feel the need of the printer's press; even 
later, printed editions of the classics were treated as inferior menial 
productions 87 which did not find a place in the libraries of the human- 
istic book-lovers. 88 Bisticci, in 1482, praised that great patron of 
humanism, the Duke Frederigo of Urbino, because his library did not 
contain a single printed book. 89 The literary wants of the common 
people, however, could be supplied by the printer's press only. To 
furnish every schoolboy with a primer, 90 every Christian with a prayer- 
book, the general public with popular literature, was beyond the power 
of the pen : typography had to be invented. Book-selling had flourished 
in Imperial Rome to a greater extent than at any time during the 
Middle Ages. 91 As soon as printing was invented 92 there arose a 
book-trade which had no precedent in history. 

Sfi Cfr. above. plains that he had no book when he 

87 The emissaries of Cardinal Bes- began going to school in 1484 (J. Knep- 
sarion ridiculed the printed book as per, Schul- u. U nterrichtszvesen im El- 
the product of a barbarous invention. sass, Strassburg, 1905, p. 366). The 
(Kapp, op. cit., p. 59.) curious custom of chaining school 

88 Kapp, op. cit., p. 59. books still prevailed (Knepper, 288). 

89 Kapp, 59. 01 Kirchhoff, op. cit., p. 35. 

90 The famous Conrad Pellican com- 92 Kapp, op. cit., p. 56. 



XX io THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 299 

China alone, of all ancient nations, had invented printing to supply 
the demand for books. As early as a. d. 175 the Chinese classics were 
printed. At an early period the Chinese invention migrated to Japan 
and later to other countries of Eastern Asia, 93 till about the IXth 
century it began to spread farther west into the Islamic realms/ 14 
This is the well-known plate-printing, carried on as early as the end 
of the YIth century by means of wooden, and later on of wood and 
metal plates. 05 The Chinese blacksmith Pi-Sheng invented printing 
with movable types made of clay, between 1041 and 1049. The oldest 
extant Eastern Asiatic print from movable types dates from the period 
between 13 17 and 1324. In 1403-4 we read of printing with movable 
copper types. 06 It is an established fact, therefore, that books had 
been printed with movable types long before Gutenberg. 07 But the 
history of both inventions tells of a decided superiority on the part of 
Europe. It took China just 900 years to take the step from plate- 
printing to printing from movable types, whereas this feat was 
achieved in Germany within the period of a few decades. os Still, this 
important invention "could not thrive," writes George Jacob, "in its 
own home, since the Chinese ideographic writing required such a large 
mass of type material that it almost outweighed the advantages of the 
innovation." 09 But in Europe typography formed the most important 
factor in civilization from the time of its invention to our own time, 
and that on account of the phonetic alphabet. 100 Indeed, while China 
can claim priority in regard to this invention, Gutenberg's glory is 
not obscured by the fact. Printing was invented in Germany in- 
dependently of its Oriental counterpart. Neither the clumsy art of 
xylography, nor still less the noble art of typography, was borrowed 
from China. All we can concede is that printing in the form of fabric 
printing came from the Orient to the Occident, 101 but this is not the 
art of printing books. The German invention surpassed the Chinese 
invention from the beginning. The Germans invented the printer's 
press, whilst the Chinese employed the unhandy and slow mode of 
using a brush or a rubber for printing. 102 But, above all, Europe 
showed its intellectual superiority by its rapid output of books. The 
scant references of Chinese and Japanese authors to book printing 103 
bespeak a rather small production for several centuries after the in- 
vention. Europe presented a different picture in the XVth century. 

93 Jacob, op. cit., p. 525. M Op. cit., p. 528. 

94 Jacob, 526 sq. 10 ° Jacob, op. cit., p. 528. 
t:i Jacob, 525. m Jacob, op. cit.. p. 524. 

x Jacob, 528. ,os Weiss, op. cit.. Vol. I, 5th ed., 

9T Jacob, 528. (1899), p. 99. 

88 Hartwig, op. cit., p. 15; Scbreiber, I03 Jacob, 525. 

op. cit., p. 42 sqq. 



300 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 



Typography spread from 1460 — 1500 104 over the whole of Europe. 
Thousands of editions and hundreds of thousands of books were pub- 
lished in a few decades. Even small towns, nay single monasteries, 
supported separate printing establishments. The trade carried the 
books beyond the confines of the clanking press. The world had never 
before seen a demand for books such as this. 

The fifteenth century cannot be regarded as the greatest of all ; 
its ecclesiastical and political conditions present too disconsolate a 
picture. 10 '"' Nevertheless, it was not a period of darkness, as it brought 
to light "the most important and most powerful invention for the 
civilization'' 10 ' 5 of mankind — typography. If we had no record of the 
intellectual life of those days, if all its splendid achievements in the 
domain of art and science were blotted from the pages of history save 
the two short sentences: "Printing was invented," "Printing spread 
over Europe," our mental vision would read in those short lines the 
record of people craving for intellectual nourishment, educated to value 
the blessings of books, eager to sacrifice their farthings to procure 
and store up those precious productions of the printer's press. These 
people were Catholics, reared in schools and universities originated 
and protected by the Church. 

The invention of printing is the most convincing vindication of 
the Church's mission as Teacher of the Mediaeval Nations, a vindica- 
tion so powerful that all charges made against it are divulged and 
spread, to this very day, by a mediaeval art (typography), 107 which is 
the outcome of the highest intellectual maturity of any people, an art 
which is still essentially 108 the same as when Gutenberg ushered it 
into existence in the shadow of the Mayence Cathedral. 

The Teaching of Religion in Our Schools 

By Observer 

C. D. U.'s article in your Mid-April issue on the teaching of re- 
ligion in our parochial schools has my most heartfelt approval. I 
think it was Fr. Yorke who made a similar complaint some years 
ago. 

P. Cathrein, S. J., reviews in the Stimmen aus Maria-Laach 
(1910, p. 209 ) a very instructive treatise by "Schulfreund" on relig- 
ious instruction in the Prussian common schools. (Paderborn, Schoe- 

n " 4 In 1460 no more than four print- cunabelnkunde, Leipzig, 1895, pp. 171, 
ing-offices existed: two at Mayence 279 sq., 370). 
(Gutenberg, and Fust and Schoffer), 10B Hasak, op. cit., p. 14. 

Mentelin at Strassburg, and Pfister at l0 Janssen, op. cit., p. 3. 

Bamberg (Reichart, Beitrage zur In- 1 " 7 Hasak, 10. 

108 Kapp, op. cit., p. 51. 



XX io THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 301 

ningh, 60 Pf.) From this we glean that before the Kulturkampf six 
hours were allowed for Catechism and four for Bible History every 
week, while now in many dioceses, apart of two additional hours a 
week for three or four months to prepare the children for first Com- 
munion, only two hours — or four half hours respectively — are given 
to each branch and a fifth hour is added for the explanation of the 
Sunday's Gospel, hymns, liturgy, etc. Catechism as a rule is taught 
by the priests, — who teach as many as 18 hours a week — Bible His- 
tory by the teachers. 

The author, a high dignitary of the diocese of Paderborn, depre- 
cates such a condition as the cause of the decline of religious life in 
Germany and proves from ministerial regulations that all dioceses 
might enjov the advantages enjoyed by Paderborn in having seven 
hours a week for both branches. 

The teaching of religion by the teacher under the surveillance of 
the priest is advocated by the author because this practice forces the 
teachers to study their religion better, to preach to themselves what 
they teach the children, and finally gives them a greater influence with 
the children and a better understanding with the pastor. (Cf. Eccl. 
Reviezv, April 191 1, p. 426). 

What lessons should we draw from the above for ourselves, who 
live under similar conditions? 

First, that in most of our schools we must teach more religion. 
How many of our schools give five full hours weekly to Catechism, 
Bible History, explanation of the Sunday's Gospel, hymns, liturgy etc., 
which even now is the minimum in Germany? 

Secondly, we must pay more attention to Bible History. The 
lack of a thorough knowledge of Bible History in our children is 
most alarming and deplorable. Crede Roberto e.vpcrto! The writer 
had for many years a good opportunity to observe. And what is the 
consequence of such neglect? To mention only a practical one, our 
people show by their indifference in listening to sermons that they 
do not understand what otherwise would interest them whenever the 
preacher draws from the Bible, especially the Old Testament. 

A third lesson is for our Sisterhoods to send out only such 
teachers as have mastered their Catechism and their Bible History. 
Besides every teacher should have familiarized herself (himself) with 
one of the many excellent commentaries for Catechism and Bible 
History. We mention Knecht's for the latter. A cursory knowledge 
is not enough. 

Unless we live up to these rules many of our schools will be 
Catholic in name but not in the full meaning of the term. 



302 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

P. S. After the above was written the writer received The Prac- 
tical Catechist by Niet-Girardey (Herder), an excellent book. 

Venus 

By the; Rev. William Earnshaw EtzEl, F. R. A. S., College of 
St. Thomas, St. Paul, Minn. 

I daresay there is not one of the readers of the Fortnightly Re- 
view who has failed to admire the planet Venus shining in all her 
splendor for the past few months. Apropos of this brilliancy of our 
sister planet several periodicals have recalled ludicrous examples of 
astronomical ignorance, notably that of an Eastern newspaper which, 
in 1897, gave out the story of a light attached to a balloon sent up 
nightly from Syracuse, and that of the inhabitants of Cherbourg, 
France, who claimed that a Nova had burst out above their port in the 
Western sky. 

The April number of the Observatory, which has just arrived 
from Greenwich, has a rather amusing paragraph which deserves a 
place in the collection of such absurdities and will please especially 
German readers. 

"The German airship scare of the past few days was scouted 
last night at a meeting of the Manchester Astronomical Association. . . 
The President (the Rev. Father Cortie, S. J.,) the well-known Stony- 
hurst astronomer, cynically called upon one of the members to show 
some lantern-slides of 'the mysterious German craft.' These photo- 
graphs turned out to be of the planet Venus, taken on one of the 
nights last week when the supposed airship was most noticeable. A 
number of exposures were given with a reflecting telescope, and in 
these, when the photograph was thrown upon the screen, the crescent 
shape of the planet was apparent. 'There is certainly the appearance 
of lights being attached to something,' one gentleman was overheard 
to remark. 'You think there has been a mistake in regard to this 
German airship?' Father Cortie smilingly asked of the exhibitor of 
the slide. 'Yes, undoubtedly,' came the sharp reply, 'all the circum- 
stances point to that.' (Laughter)." 

So the British patriots may quiet their fears, for a time at least. 

The Eucharistic Fast and the Sunday School 

By Sarah C. Burnett, San Francisco, Cal. 
Since the suggestions of "Pastor"' (Vol. XX, No. 5, p. 142), and 
of "P. B. J." (Vol. XX, No. 4, p. 122) have appeared in the columns of 
this Review, I have been wondering whether or not practical plans 



XX io THE FORTX T IGHTLY REVIEW 303. 

could be made to facilitate frequent Communion amongst the large 
number of Catholic children who are compelled to attend the public 
schools. 

That their number is very large in proportion to the general Catholic 
population, can easily be realized from these statistics, gathered in my 
immediate neighborhood : — 

Archdiocese of San Francisco : 
Parishes 117. 
Parochial Schools 46. 
Diocese of Los Angeles: 
Parishes no. 
Parochial Schools 31. 
Diocese of Sacramento : 
Parishes 47. 
Parochial Schools 9. 

I think I shall stand uncontradicted in the statement that the 
large majority of Catholic children not in our parochial schools are 
totally dependent upon the Sunday school for their religious instruc- 
tion. And, unfortunately, there is reason to beliebe that the Eucha- 
ristic fast is placing grave obstructions between the work of the 
Sunday school and the spiritual work of the Holy Sacrament. 

The difficulties in many cases are mainly such as I have already 
alluded to in my remarks about children attending the day school, 
(Vol. XIX, Xo. 7, p. 209. See also Rev. C. J. Pernin in the Eccle- 
siastical Review, May, 1912, p. 562). At one parish where I am 
acquainted, it is the custom to excuse young children from Sunday- 
school on their Communion days on account of the inconvenience of 
having to attend a Mass early enough to permit them to return to 
Sunday school after breakfast. In another, a suburban church served 
by but one priest, the Sunday school follows the earliest Mass so closely 
that children receiving Holy Communion must miss their instruction 
in order to return home for breakfast. Their religious education is 
thus cut off by at least twenty-five per cent from one end of the year 
to the other. 

I have also heard of cases where the self-sacrificing young women 
who devote themselves to Sunday-school work, are put to sore- 
straits in order to keep up their praiseworthy occupation without be- 
ing deprived of Our Lord's weekly visit. And I have it on good au- 
thority that certain religious engaged in parish work must forego 
Sunday Communion for the sake of their duties, — all on account of the 
Eucharistic fast. 



304 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

It can easily be seen that the suggestions of "Pastor" and "P. B. J." 
are of very little value in the cases which I have mentioned. For one 
thing, the churches unprovided with parish schools are also likely to 
be unprovided with assembly halls or other places where children 
could sit to eat their breakfast. Other objections occur to my instincts 
as a housekeeper, but, wishing to avoid the appearance of carping, 
I refrain from mentioning them. 

I have presumed, in the statements that I have already made, 
that the children attending the public schools are not attempting any- 
thing more than monthly Communion. How pastors and confessors 
can urge them to more frequent reception of the Bread of Life, when 
each Communion involves a loss of the Bread of God's Word, is a 
question which I dare not ask. 

The week-day communions of public-school children cannot, of 
course, be provided for by the parish authorities. Much depends upon 
geographical conditions. In some cases they may give the public- 
school pupil the advantage over the pupil at the parish school. The 
parish church and school may be so far from the home that it is 
practically impossible for the child to make the trip twice before 9 
A. M. But he may, if sufhcientely devout, and not in straitened 
financial circumstances, 1 make the trip to Mass, and return in time 
for breakfast and a short run to the nearest public school. Of course 
it would be easy enough for him to eat his breakfast and start for 
the parish school in time, not attempting to receive Communion on 
school-days. The choice between frequent Communion and religious 
education for their children thus often confronts Catholic parents on 
every day of the w'eek. Who can help them to decide? 

I frankly confess that I have made but a limited and local study 
of the overwhelmingly important question which I have raised. But 
my idea is to start investigation in other quarters, without waiting 
to complete my own. Again, I know that I am begging the question by 
assuming that all Sunday schools hold morning sessions, as is the 
practice in my neighborhood. The custom of afternoon Sunday school 
was abolished in San Francisco about thirty years ago, as inconvenient 
for teachers and pupils alike. Whether the reestablishment of the af- 
ternoon session would be more of an inconvenience than a moderation 
of the Eucharistic fast, I have not yet considered. (My readers of 
course understand that "inconvenience'' in the theological sense is a 
far more important matter than the word ordinarily implies.) But, 
should this method of reaching the difficulty be suggested by any of 

1 The street-railways of San Fran- children going to and from school, 
>cisco issue "half-fare tickets" for but not for other errands. 



XX io THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 305 

your readers living at a distance from California, I shall willingly as- 
sist him by studying the question here while he does the same in his 
locality. 

Not long ago the daily press of San Francisco announced the in- 
tention of a member of our legislature to put forward a bill compelling 
a course of "sex-education" in every school in the State! That this 
evil legislation will probably be strangled in its birth is the opinion of 
most of our conservative educators. But that it should even be seri- 
ously thought of shows the clangers to which the morals of our youth 
are constantly exposed through the well-meant blundering of educa- 
tional faddists. The only salvation for the Catholic children exposed 
to these influences lies in a thorough religious training, with frequent 
reception of the Sacraments. And, if it can be shown that the Eu- 
charistic fast is turning these two great powers against one another, 
is it not time that something be done in the matter? 



A Proposed Pension System for Public School Teachers 

By a Catholic Teacher 

The Carnegie Foundation is preparing to advocate a pension 
system for public school teachers. 

As this question has already come up before the legislatures of 
several States, we may safely predict that it is going to be an increas- 
ingly insistent problem. 

President Pritchett, of the Carnegie Foundation, in an article 
contributed to the New York Independent (No. 3355), emphatically 
declares that the demand for a State pension for public school teachers 
is justified on two grounds : ( 1 ) that of "a larger social justice" ; 
(2) as a necessary condition to an efficient public school system. 

Three plans for securing such a pension system are proposed: 
(a) one borne wholly by the State ; ( b ) one borne wholly by the teach- 
ers themselves, and (c) one borne by State and teachers conjointly, 
1. e. supported by their joint contributions. 

To a pension system borne wholly by the State, Dr. Pritchett 
objects that it destroys cooperation and the incentive to thrift. A 
pension system depending entirely on the contributions of the teachers, 
he says, would amount practically to a compulsory system of saving, 
and the contributions that would have to be imposed on the teachers, 
with their meagre salaries, would prove prohibitory. 

There remains the third system, which rests upon the joint con- 
tribution of both parties, and this Dr. Pritchett favors on the grounds 
of "general equity, increased efficiency, and a better social cooperation." 



3 o6 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

He suggests that the teacher should bear one-half of the cost, and the 
State the other half. 

There are very serious objections to the plan outlined by President 
Pritchett. I will mention only two. 

In the first place the proposed pension system would not be 
equitable, because it would increase the unjust burden already carried 
by Catholic and Lutheran tax-payers who are prevented by motives 
of conscience from making use of the public school system but are 
compelled to support it nevertheless. We need not go into details on 
this point. The Catholic position in the matter is sufficiently well 
known. 

Then there is the practical difficulty of administering such a 
pension system. We all know to what frightful abuses the civil war 
pension system has been subjected under political control. Will a 
State government and a State legislature administer justly a matter in 
which the general government and the chief executives have proved 
so lamentably weak? 

President Pritchett evades this objection by asking: "If our 
democracy can not learn from such an experience as that of the civil 
war pensions, it is helpless to solve the problems that confront it 
on every hand." 

But this rhetorical question does not remove a very material 
objection. 

At all events, this proposal of the Carnegie Foundation, like so 
many others of that insidious body, will bear close watching on the 
part of all who have at heart the interests of what a learned Jesuit 
not long ago has demonstrated to be "the only true American school 
system." 

FLOTSAM AND JETSAM 



A K. of C. Temple going to erect a building of that 

The Sacred Heart Review ( Bos- kind. There are five other defini- 

ton, Vol. 49, No. 18) says: "We tions of temple given in the same 

are informed by the daily press Dictionary none of which de- 

that work on a new 'temple 1 of scribes a building erected by a fra- 

the K. of C. will begin soon. Why ternal organization as a meeting 

can not we say what we mean? A place. The fact is, the word tem- 

temple, according to the first def- pie as defining such a building is 

inition given to that word by the borrowed from the Masonic 

Standard Dictionary, is 'an edifice fraternity. We have a 'Masonic 

consecrated to one or more deities Temple,' why not a 'K. of C. 

and forming a seat of their wor- Temple' or a 'Hibernian Temple'? 

ship.' Surely the K. of C. is not We borrow other ideas from the 



XX io 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



307 



Masons why not the name of a 
building erected as a head-quar- 
ters? We confess we are growing 
rather weary of these imitations. 
The Masons use the word more 
or less correctly since they are a 
distinct sect, and their ceremonies 
the rites of their sect. But it is 
altogether wrong as defining the 
meeting place of a Catholic so- 
ciety." 

Centenary of the "Stove-Pipe" Hat 

Social historians are disputing 
about the year which really marks 
the centenary of the "top hat." 
It may be that one reason for the 
warmth displayed is that the top 
hat is going so rapidly. Thirty 
years ago you could not have 
thrown a brick in any of our lar- 
ger cities without hitting a "stove- 
pipe" hat. To-day you seldom see 
one during business hours, and 
any person wearing one is in- 
stinctively set down as being on 
his way to some ceremonial oc- 
casion. The silk hat has, indeed, 
become something like a wedding- 
garment. It is kept in reserve for 
use when needed as a mark, not 
so much of personal dignity, as 
of deference to opinion. Thus 
President Wilson and Mr. Taft 
felt it incumbent on them to 
appear at the inauguration in a 
glistening "tile." But both sought 
speedily thereafter the relief of 
the soft hat or modest "bowler." 
The top hat may have a first 
centenary, if the authorities are 
able to agree upon the date, but 
it seems doubtful if it will be there 
to see its second. 

Cubismus 

Much ink has been spilled for 
and against the Cubist painters, 
says Colliers. To the mingled 
severity and hilarity of their de- 



tractors, the defense has opposed 
explications of the most specific 
and incomprehensible nature. 

So far a? the artist relies on the 
associated ideas of the objects which 
he represents, his work is not com- 
pletely free and pure, since romantic 
associations imply at least an imagined 
practical activity. 

Thus one of the British defend- 
ers of the faith. But Lewis Car- 
roll, years before, had expressed 
the craft philosophy of the cult 
in words at once simpler and no- 
bler : 

He thought he saw a kangaroo 

That worked a coffee mill : 

He looked again, and found it was 

A vegetable pill 

He thought he saw a rattlesnake 

That questioned him in Greek : 

He looked again and found it was 

The middle of next week. 

The Cubistic crux of the mat- 
ter is in the words "He looked 
again." If at first you don't suc- 
ceed in comprehending a speci- 
men of this art, look, look again. 
Remember always that the artist 
of this thrice-blessed school needs 
no idea for his picture. All that 
he needs is an emotion and an 
ambition. Unlike the rule-cramped 
craftsman of the effete schools, 
he does not say: "I will now paint 
a picture of a mountain" ; or a 
cow, or Lydia E. Pinkham saving 
suffering womanhood. Seizing 
his T square, he says merely: "I 
will now paint a picture." And 
he paints it. Pie doesn't worry 
about what it's a picture of. He 
lets the spectators do that. Thus 
it is delightfully easy to become 
a Cubist. We ourselves are not 
much of an artist. Yet with a 
pair of serviceable shears, a paste 
pot, and the Forty-first Proposi- 
tion of the late unlamented Pro- 
fessor Euclid, we recently pro- 
duced a masterpiece which was 
promptly and enthusiastically 



308 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



identified by three highly compet- 
ent critics as: (a) A suffragette 
riot in Noah's Ark; (b) sketch of 
a one-legged painter ascending an 
imaginary ladder backward; (c) 
impressions in dark blue of an 
argument between a trolley-car 
conductor and the holder of a 
time-expired transfer. In our own 
magnificent intention, the picture 
was to have been entitled: "Study 
in Profile of an Overdue Laundrv 
Bill for $2.16." (Observe the Cu- 
bistic quality of the amount.) But 
this didn't matter. Each of the 
critics had clearly perceived in the 
picture something which wasn't 
there. And this is the true test of 
Post-Impressionistic success. Any- 
one with a reasonable amount of 
assurance can achieve it. Doubt- 
less thousands will. So long as 
blank paper remains a temptation, 
and the sharpened pencil a stim- 
ulant to untrammeled and untu- 
tored self-expression, so long will 
the new school of revolt flourish 
and nourish richly upon its own 
abounding self-esteem. 

Catholics and the "New Morality" 

Some persons who wish to con- 
tinue true Catholics are apt, es- 
pecially under trying difficulties, 
to feel a preference for the "New 
Morality,'' and to break loose from 
the Church by not allowing child 
life its development in its early 
stages, and by not remaining faith- 
ful to the wife or husband, who 
seems no longer to afford the 
happiness which was bargained for 
on the marriage day. They are 
keen after "the better" mentioned 
in the service of the day, but 
revolt at "the worse," which 
they swore to bear up with, and 
they quite overlook St. Paul's 
words : "They shall endure the 
tribulation of the flesh" (I Cor. 



vii. 28). A married person deter- 
mined not to put up with or to 
escape this "tribulation of the 
flesh" and to seek only pleasure, 
is not up to the standard of a 
fairly respectable pagan. To-day 
the world is bad in this respect, 
and each generation seems to find 
it worse in its literature and its 
practices. Christian eugenics will 
have to take note of this sad de- 
clension, while persons of higher 
mind will see more than a defen- 
sible position in religious virginity, 
which is not merely an escape from 
evil but a very positive good. 

Industrial Problems of India ard China 

It is an interesting message that 
Professor C. R. Henderson, of 
the Department of Sociology of 
the University of Chicago, has to 
deliver to our people after his six 
months' study of industrial con- 
ditions in the Far East. The Pro- 
fessor pleads especially for a 
courteous, just and intelligent 
treatment of the people of China 
and India in the problems that 
may arise concerning our indus- 
trial relations. He foresees a great 
future for the teeming populations 
of India and China — 300,000,000 
in the former, and 400,000,000 in 
the latter country. The Professor 
in a recent lecture, which we had 
the pleasure to attend, had words 
of strong encomium for what 
Great Britain is doing to promote 
the industrial welfare of India. 
He told especially of the splendid 
work of the English government 
for the prevention of famines. At 
the first signs of the coming of the 
monsoons, which generally parch 
the grain-fields and leave misery 
in their wake, the officials prepare 
for the coming distress. 

The work of the British 
engineers in preventing de- 



XX io 



THE FORTXIGHTLY REVIEW 



309 



structive overflows, is remark- 
able. The speaker thought that 
our own government had much 
to learn in this regard, and 
that if some of the same foresight 
had been shown along the regions 
of the Mississippi that is display- 
ed in India, much less misery 
would have been caused. The 
people of China, he continued, still 
in the throes of revolutionary up- 
heaval, are looking to the United 
States for help and support. The 
great leaders of China believe in 
the republic and would be only 
too glad to have some kind of rec- 
ognition from the United States. 
A little over a hundred years ago 
we were in the same predicament 
that China is in now. European 
governments laughed at our at- 
tempts to become an independent 
republic, but history has shown 
that their forebodings were not 
justified. Professor Henderson 
therefore appeals to our people to 
lend the Chinese their moral sup- 
port, and thus gain a friend and 
new opportunities for commerce 
in a country which seems to be 
entering upon a promising future. 
—A. M. 

Since the above note was writ- 
ten, the U. S. government has 
formally recognized the new Chi- 
nese Republic. 

History of a Parish School 

In perusing the various parish 
histories that have come to this 
office we have often wondered why 
the jubilee anniversaries of our 
parochial schools are not oftener 
commemorated by adequate print- 
ed sketches. One such sketch has 
recently come to us. It is a His- 
tory of St. Mary's School in the 
city of Memphis, Tenn. The book- 
let contains some two hundred 
pages, is cleverly gotten up both in 



text and illustrations, and presents 
a splendid typographical appear- 
ance. St. Mary's parish, Memphis, 
is in charge of Rev. P. Leo Kal- 
mer, of the Franciscan Fathers of 
the Province of the Sacred Heart. 
Five of the alumnae of St. Mary's 
School gathered the materials for 
this history. Through their dili- 
gence ( they wrote letters to former 
pastors, interviewed old-time pu- 
pils, conversed with the pioneers of 
the parish etc. ) many a scrap of in- 
formation was saved that would 
otherwise surely have been lost. 
The principal chapters of the book 
were written by these contributing 
alumnae, who have done their 
work well under the editorial sup- 
ervision of the pastor. This 
method of compiling a parochial 
school history will no doubt reco- 
mend itself to busy pastors else- 
where. 

About Secret Societies 

Number 4 of the current vol- 
ume of the Revue Internationale 
des Socictcs Secretes continues 
the discussion on secret societies, 
their wide range of activities, their 
history, their constitutions, etc. It 
begins with an article on "Initia- 
tion into Masonic Mysteries," 
which contains strange revelations 
on the earlier sacrilegious cults of 
certain Masonic bodies. "The de- 
tails, very much toned down," says 
the author, "which follow are 
drawn from a small and very rare 
work. We know of only one other 
copy besides the one which is in 
the library of la Revue Internati- 
onale des Socictcs Secretes. Its 
title is : The Three High Myster- 
ious Grades of the Adonhiramite 
Masonry, Translated from the 
Danish by one Initiated, and con- 
tains only this indication : At Am- 
sterdam, the year 5802 of the 



3io 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



Y. L. M. The name of the print- 
er is not mentioned. It is not 
listed in any bibliography and I 
do not believe that it has ever 
been circulated." The Index 
Docnmentaire contains the usual 
interesting budget of Masonic 
news. The notes on high-school 
fraternities (pp. 711-714) are 
particularly interesting. The sec- 
tion entitled "Conferences clans 



les Loges de la Region Parisienne" 
gives an idea of the immense act- 
ivity displayed by Masons in 
spreading their principles and 
teachings. Extremely interesting — 
but at the same time extremely 
depressing — notes on Malthusian- 
ism and the efforts made to pro- 
mote race suicide are given on 
pages 779—791. 



ET CETERA 



A member of the Commission 
for the Codification of Canon 
Law advises us that nothing will 
be changed during the next three 
years. 

The Catholic Advance echoes 
the wish of the Pilot, that "the 
time will come when no respect- 
able newspaper will carry the ad- 
vertisements of quacks." The 
Catholic press should set a good 
example in this matter by closing 
its columns against all quack doc- 
tors and patent medicine venders, 
even though they be clergymen. 

One of our readers wishes to 
dispose of complete sets of the 
Fortnightly Review from 1901 
— 19 1 2 (12 years), all clean and 
in good condition. Also of one 
set of Wetzer and Welte's Kir- 
chen-Lexikon, first edition. Ap- 
ply to Ch. D., care of Fortnight- 
ly Review. — Adv. 

William Marion Reedy face- 
tiously remarks in the St. Louis 
Mirror: "The most interesting 
stuff you read in the Sunday sup- 
plements is usually not so. That's 
why they are so educational. 
That's why certain school teachers 
write to the editors and tell how 



they use the Sunday supplements 
as text books. Which, in its turn, 
explains why so much of our edu- 
cation these days is a fake." 

Some of the questions answered 
in our Catholic weeklies must con- 
firm the impression prevalent 
among many cultured non-Cath- 
olics that the children of the 
Church are very ignorant and su- 
perstitious. Do our people really 
address such silly queries to their 
newspapers? And if they do, 
would it not be better to answer 
these queries privately by letter? 

Now the Philadelphia Ledger 
announces that, under its new 
management, the Sunday "colored 
comic" supplement is to be dis- 
continued. Bravo! We sincerely 
hope this reform wave will soon 
reach the benighted West. 

Pope Pius X, on May 18, 1907, 
granted an indulgence of seven 
years and seven quarantines for 
looking at the Sacred Host when 
it is elevated during Mass or ex- 
posed on the altar, and saying: 
"My Lord and my God." The 
Abbot of Ampleforth, in his beau- 
tiful meditations on the Mass. re- 
cently published, speaks of this 



XX io 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



3ii 



upward look as "the consecration 
of our eyes, to preserve them from 
clanger throughout the day.'' Yet, 
even now, a glance round the 
church, at elevation, will show 
that of fifty people scarcely two 
will give to the Sacred Host the 
prescribed form of veneration or 
reap for themselves the rich re- 
ward of it. 

A Texas missionary writes : 
"1 must congratulate you on the 
last number (xx, 8 of your Re- 
view. It is exceptionally fine and 
interesting. I wish you would 
convey also my special thanks to 
the missionary Al. La Cr., who 
writes on the Mitigation of the 
Eucharistic Fast. I, too, have to 
attend several places and if it 



would not be for the Eucharistic 
Fast, I could do a good deal more 
and better work. But our Texas 
climate in summer is so exhaust 
ing and enervating that a man will 
break down unless he can build 
up. I agree with every line your 
missionary writes." 



Theodore Roosevelt, comment- 
ing in the Outlook (Vol. 103, No. 
13 ) on the pictures of the "Fu- 
turists," recently exhibited in Xew 
York, says that "the school would 
better be entitled to the name of 
'Past-ists,' " and adds that he was 
struck by the resemblance of 
these paintings to the later work 
of the palaeolithic artists of the 
French and Spanish caves. 



LITERARY NOTES 



—Father Robert Eaton of the 
Birmingham Oratory has added to 
his expositions of the Psalms a 
second series, comprising fifty 
more Psalms, selected at random. 
(Sing Ye to the Lord. Expositions 
of Fifty Psalms. Second Series. 
xi & 402 pp. 8vo. London : Cath- 
olic Truth Society ; St. Louis. 
Mo.: B. Herder. $1.50.) The vol- 
ume opens with Ps. 62, which the 
Rev. author fitly describes as "The 
Psalm of Daily Communion." The 
expositions are brief and purely 
devotional. They make excellent 
spiritual reading. — A. F. D. 

— Two recent leaflets of the 
Central Bureau of the Catholic 
Central Society are: A Program 
of Social Reform by the Bishop 
of Northampton, and The Need 
and Means of Social Study by Fr. 
Plater, S. J., and Mr. F. P. Ken- 



kel, Director of the Bureau. The 
last-mentioned two lectures to- 
gether constitute one six-page leaf- 
let. Both this leaflet and that con- 
taining Bishop Keating's program- 
me are admirably adapted as 
means of popular enlightenment 
on the social question. They can 
be had free, in any quantity de- 
sired, from the Central Bureau, 
307 Temple Bldg., St. Louis. Mo. 
— R. 

— Under the somewhat infelici- 
tous title The Roman Curia as it 
Now Exists Father Michael Mar- 
tin, S. J., of St. Louis LTiiversity, 
has republished in book form the 
series of articles which he con- 
tributed to the Ecclesiastical Re- 
view some years ago on the re- 
organization of the Roman Court 
in accordance with the Apostolic 
Constitution "Sapienti consilio," 



3^ 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



of June 29, 1908. These articles, 
now chapters, treat of the Sacred 
Congregations, Tribunals, and 
Offices of the Curia, the province 
assigned to each and the method 
of procedure peculiar to each in 
the management of ecclesiastical 
business. The information given 
is reliable and useful as far as 
it goes. But Father Martin has 
made a mistake, in our humble 
opinion, by not incorporating 
the later Congregational decisions 
and pontifical pronouncements 
regarding the competence of va- 
rious departments of the Curia in- 
to the text of the different chap- 
ters where they belong and where 
the reader naturally looks for 
them. He adds them in the form 
of Addenda (pp. 219 sqq. ). The 
second portion of the Addenda 
contains information with regard 
to the method of communicating 
with the different departments of 
the Roman Court and a number 
of formulae which will be found 
helpful in preparing petitions. 
Fr. Martin points out, inter alia, 
how, since the reorganization of 
the Curia, "every Catholic is free 
to have recourse to any depart- 
ment of it whenever he wishes. . 
He can do so personally, or he 
can employ an advocate. . .with- 
out the necessity of obtaining any 
permission or .commendation 
from his Ordinary ; nor does he 
need the assistance of a procura- 
tor." (pp. 262 sq.) The book is 
elegantly gotten up by the Ben- 
zigers. Price $1.50 net. — A. P. 

— Les Livres qui s'imposcnt 
(Ouvrage couronne par l'Acade- 
mie Franqaise) par Frederic Du- 
val. Paris : Gabriel Beauchesne, 
Rue de Rennes 117. 6 fr. There 
has been a remarkable activity on 
the part of French Catholics du- 



ring the last two decades in the 
writing and publishing of relig- 
ious, apologetic, and social re- 
form literature. \ The house of 
Beauchesne alone has published 
more than a score of useful vol- 
umes during the last few years 
— volumes dealing with present 
religious and social problems, and 
the study of which cannot but re- 
sult in immense good to the Cath- 
olics of France. One of the most 
unique books that has recently 
come from that enterprising firm, 
is that which bears the catching, 
but entirely appropriate title: 
"Books which force themselves 
upon you." We are surprised that 
Beauchesne can put forth this 
splendid work (in paper covers) 
at the small price of six francs. 
Verily French Catholic publish- 
ers teach those in our own country 
a lesson. It were hard to give 
within the limited space of a "book 
review" an adequate idea of the 
richness of this work. It is noth- 
ing less than an encyclopedic 
guide to the whole of contempo- 
rary French literature on "La Vie 
Chretienne, Vie Sociale, Vie Ci- 
vique." Short extracts and crit- 
ical comments are often added. 
The French episcopate has receiv- 
ed the work with expressions of 
delight. Cardinal Mercier wrote 
to the author: "Your bibliographic 
guide will, I have no doubt, be ap- 
preciated by our own men of ac- 
tion at its just value, and will take 
its place among 'les livres qui s'im- 
posentV Why can we not have 
such a work in English and at an 
equally reasonable price? — Albert 
Muntsch, S. J. 

— Christology, the fourth vol- 
ume of the Pohle-Preuss series of 
text-books of dogmatic theology 
(B. Herder, 1913, $1.50 net), is 



XX io 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



3i3 



thus reviewed by the Rev. Paul R. 
Conniff. S. J., in the New York 
America, Vol. IX, No. 3: "If a 

priest amid his ministerial cares 
can secure some time for reading 
and wishes to review his dogmatic 
theology in the vernacular, he will 
find in the Pohle-Preuss series just 
what he wants. In this country 
and in this age of money madness 
it is seldom that a layman takes 
a university course in theology. 
There are, however, not a few lay- 
men who have sufficient leisure and 
a taste for solid reading. Why 
should they not dip into the highest 
and best of all studies, the study 
of the God who made them? The 
catechism of their youth is rarely 
read over. Here is an opportuni- 
ty to read an advanced catechism, 
which will throw wondrous light 
on the meaning of those cate- 
chism answers which linger in 
the memory and whose sense 
no doubt has never been fully 
grasped. This series of books is a 
distinct addition to our dogmatic 
literature. It is printed in large 
sensible type, and edited in a 
scholarly manner with a copious 
index, numerous references to 
authors cited, and an abundance 
of solid proofs from the Sacred 
Scripture, the Councils and the 
Fathers. The present latest vol- 
ume is entitled "Christology,'' and 
hence treats of Christ, proves His 
divinity — a truth ever assailed by 
the enemies of the Church, His 
humanity, the union of the divine 
and human natures in one person, 
and the various attributes of 
Christ's human nature. Were it 
not that perhaps it would exceed 
the limits set himself by the au- 
thor, we would have liked even 
more objections against the theses 
presented for refutation, so that 
the positive doctrine would stand 



out in even bolder relief. How- 
ever, these may be found in fuller 
works, chiefly written in Latin. 
The present work is by no means 
jejune, as may be seen from the 
fact that such a minor point as 
St. Hilary's orthodoxy on the pas- 
sibility of Christ is here touched, 
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— Taunton's Law of the Church 
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—P. Moritz Meschler S. /., 
1830 — to 1 2. Bin Gedeukblatt von 
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ate rightly insists that "we must 
expressly formulate the desire to 
communicate ; and in order that 
this desire may be sincere, we must 
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— An up-to-date explanation of 
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— Eugenics, a lecture by Law- 
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ry.) 65 cts. 

Mullan. Elder, (J. J.), The Sodality 
of Our Lady Studied in the Docu- 
ments. New York 1912. $1.50. 

Rayneri, G. A., Padagogik in fwif 
Biichern. (tr. by F. X. Kunz.) Frei- 
burg- 1909. $1.50. (Bibliothek derkath. 
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Miller, A. V., Sermons on Modern 
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The Old Church at Caho 

By the Rev. Albert Muntsch, S. J., St. Louis University 

At the Centennial Celebration of St. Louis, four years ago, a 
pilgrimage was made to Cahokia, the site of the oldest Catholic church 
in what was once the Louisiana Territory. Several noted Catholic 
scholars delivered addresses on the history and development of the 
old Cahokia mission and parish. 

The present pastor at Cahokia, the Rev. Robert Hynes, is work- 
ing out plans for the restoration of the old church, established to- 
wards the end of the eighteenth century. Catholics, especially those 
of the West, ought to be interested in the restoration of this ancient 
religious landmark. For it marks the beginning of Catholicity in the 
Mississippi Valley. 

The ancient church still stands. But alas ! in a dilapidated con- 
dition. It is to be feared that if steps are not soon taken to pre- 
serve the venerable edifice from decay, it will fall into ruins. The 
plans, therefore, of Father Robert Hynes ought to meet with the hearty 
cooperation of all those who arc interested in the preservation of 
the Church of the Holy Family. The church is considered the earli- 
est Jesuit mission church in the Mississippi Valley, and it is the only 
example of early French Stockade Architecture. 

The permanency of Cahokia should not be deemed an empty 
honor. It was paid for at a high price. Its early evangelizers water- 
ed the soil of Illinois with their blood. Though none of those once 
laboring at Cahokia actually lost their lives on this mission, still sev- 
eral of the Fathers connected with it, suffered a martyr's death. Thus 
Fr. Gravier, who was appointed Vicar-General of the Illinois mission 
about 1690, and who had long planned a mission among the Tamarois 
or Cahokias, was shot by a Peoria medicine-man, and after two years 
of painful suffering from one of his wounds, died in 1708. Fr. Saint 
Cosme was slain in the Delta of the Mississippi two years earlier. 
Fr. Binneteau, after an attempt to follow his neophytes in their wan- 
derings over the fetid swamps and through the dense glades, died of 
exhaustion on Christmas Day, 1699. Fr. Pinet perished somewhat 
similarly at Chicago in 1704, and Fr. De Bergier at Cahokia in 1707. 
Fr. Foucault fell a victim to the fury of the Natchez in 1702. Thus 
the early days of Cahokia bring before us an assembly of good shep- 



322 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 



herds who were not only willing, hut actually did lay clown their lives 
for their Hocks in some part of the vast Illinois mission. 

Cahokia is directly across the river from the southern part of 
St. Louis, a mile and a half inland. The old Indian camp was on 
the banks of the river; but during one of the very early inundations 
the channel moved half a league westward, leaving the town toward 
the middle of what was afterwards known as the American Bottoms. 
Two tribes of the Illinois branch of the Algonquins, the Cahokias and 
the Tamarois, lived near each other here, from the time of the first 
advent of the white men. 

The time of the founding of Tamarois or Cahokia is in dispute, 
the date given varying from the time of LaSalle in 1683 to 1699. 
Though we do not know when the first priest came to Cahokia, we 
know who he was. It was Fr. Gravier, S. J., and in a letter of his, 
dated 1694, occurs the earliest mention of the word "Cahokia." When 
Fr. St. Cosme passed through the village in 1698 he was informed 
that no "blackrobe" had ever been there except Fr. Gravier. Fr. St. 
Cosine's party arrived at Tamarois about noon, December 7, 1698. 
We learn this from a letter of the Father himself, quoted in Shea's 
Early Voyages Up and Down the Mississippi. This letter was ad- 
dressed to the Bishop of Quebec. 

"The Tamarois," says Fr. St. Cosme, "were cabined on an island 
lower down than their village, perhaps to get wood more easily, from 
which their village, which is on the edge of a prairie, is somewhat 
distant. We could not well see whether they were numerous. They 
seemed to us quite so, although the greater part of their people were 
hunting. There was wherewith to form a fine mission by bringing 
together the Cahokias who are quite near, and the Michiagamias who 
are a little lower down the Mississippi and who are said to be quite 
numerous." 

It is certain that Cahokia is the oldest parish and permanent settle- 
ment in the State of Illinois. Fr. Binnetau, S. J., was the first to re- 
main some time at the post. This was in the winter of 1698. 

Fr. Pinet is considered the originator of the mission ; for he erect- 
ed a chapel and brought the natives in such numbers into it, that it 
was crowded soon after its erection. He left Cahokia in 1700. In 
a letter of Fr. Gravier we read: "Fr. Pinet discharges peaceably all 
the functions of missionary and M. Bergier, who gets along very 
well with us, has care only of the French, and this is a great relief 
for Fr. Pinet." 



XX ii THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 323 

The Fr. de Bergier here referred to, was a member of the Con- 
gregation of the Foreign Missions. Fr. St. Cosine was of the same 
Congregation. Fr. Montigny, O. F. M., was here in 1700. 

We append a list of the various fathers and missionaries attached 
to the Cahokia mission during the 18th century — a list drawn up chiefly 
with the aid of baptismal records and other authentic documents. 

1698 Pinct, S.J. 

1699 Saint Cosme, F. M. 

1700 de Montigny, F. M., Miss. Quebec. 
1 701-1707 de Bergier, Miss. Quebec. 
171 1 Varlet. 

1718 de la Source and Mercier, up to 1735. 
1730 Courier, 1739. 
" Gaston. 
" Gagnon (?). 
1754 Forget and Duvergier, F. M., up to 1763. 
1767-1777 Sebastian Meurin, S.J. 
1 777- 1 79 1 Gibault, except 3 years, 1 786-1 789. 

Fr. de Saint Pierre. Fr. Ledvin pays a single visit in 1789, and Fr. Fran- 
qois La Panie ministers during January, 1792. 
1 793- 1 796 Levadoux. 
1 796-1 797 G. Ricbard. 
1797 Didier (the pastor of St. Louis). 
1797-1798 C. Lusson ; 1798 Rivet et Marquillier. 
1799 Didier. 1799-1803 Donatien Olivier. 

When Fr. Duvergier saw the Jesuits carried off, their property 
wasted and desecrated, at the time of their suppression in the Missis- 
sippi Valley, he determined to go with them. Accordingly he sold all 
the property of the seminary, real estate, mills, 30 slaves, and much 
live stock, and returned to France. 

Fr. Sebastian Meurin, S. J., was permitted to return from New 
Orleans to the field of his former labors at Kaskaskia. He was for 
a time the only priest in the whole of Illinois. When Fr. Gibault, 
the well known patriot priest, came from Canada to assist him, Fr. 
Meurin took up his work at Cahokia, while Gibault ministered at the 
more important settlement. Meurin died in 1777; Fr. Gibault seems 
to have had complete charge until 1791, with the exception of two 
years, during which de St. Pierre was pastor. 

The church possesses several interesting relics of the ancien regime. 
Thus there is a missal, imported from Europe, bearing the date 1668. 
There is also a monstrance, saved from the fire of 17 17, which very 
much resembles the ancient ornaments still in possession of the old 
church at Jeune Lorette in the Province of Quebec. Among historic 



3^4 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 



documents of note may be mentioned a marriage license granted to 
Louis Rouillard and Rose Mallet, a widow, on the second of Decem- 
ber, 1805, by William Henry Harrison, who was at that time Governor 
and Commander-in-Chief of the Indiana Territory. 

The old French spirit has, of course, almost died out in Cahokia. 
Evidence of a former French occupation still exists in the names of 
some of the families whose descendants live near and in the old 
settlement. The writer had opportunity to talk to one of these sur- 
vivors of the old days, a certain Mme. Hebert, 89 years of age. She 
well remembers the disastrous flood of 1844 and said that many of 
the French and Canadians left after that event. This old lady af- 
fords an interesting proof how the old name of this settlement "Caho" 
is not forgotten, for she always spoke of the place of her residence 
as "Caho." That this was really a name sometimes given to the old 
mission is apparent from a letter of the English Captain Sterling to 
General Gage, dated December 15, 1765. He writes: "St. Ange with- 
drew on the 23d with all the French troops in this country to a vil- 
lage called St. Louis, on the Spanish side opposite to Caho." This 
Caho is none other than our Cahokia. 

A mention of Cahokia is not complete without reference to the 
famous Cahokia or Monk's Mound. These mounds are situated on 
the south boundary of Wamioka township, Madison County, six miles 
east of St. Louis, on the road leading to Collinsville. They form the 
largest prehistoric artificial earthwork in the United States. They de- 
rive their name "Monk's Mound" from the fact that in the early part 
of the last century a colony of Trappists dwelt on the main mound. 
Concerning this fact, the Rev. Fr. Obrecht, Abbot of the Trappist Mon- 
astery at Gethsemane, Ky., wrote to Mr. Clarke McAdams, the lead- 
ing authority on this noble ruin : "About the end of November, 1808, 
two Trappists — Father Urbain, Superior, and Father Joseph — looking 
for a favorable settlement for their colony of about 35 religious 
brothers and children, met M. Jarrot, formerly procurator of the Semi- 
nary of St. Sulpice, who, having settled at Cahokia, remained there 
several years. Fie offered to Father Urbain 400 acres of land, con- 
sisting chiefly of vast prairies surrounded by thick forests, on the 
border of a little river near the Mississippi. .. .On the first days of 
1 810, the Father bought on the Looking Glass Prairie the two highest 
of the forty ramparts which formed the ancient necropole of the 
Indians.'' 

The Illinois State Historical Society is making valiant attempts 
to preserve from ruin the ancient Cahokia or Monk's Mound. Why 



XX ii THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 3^5 

should not those interested in the early history of the Catholic Church 
in Illinois, undertake to preserve from decay the venerable edifice in 
which once preached Gibault and Meurin, and in which so many sett- 
lers received the waters of Baptism? 

H. E. Cardinal O'Connell has subscribed $25 for the purpose of 
restoring the old church. May this little article draw the attention 
of many Catholics to old Cahokia, whence the light of the Catholic 
faith went out to all Illinois and to other Western States beyond the 
Mississippi. 

A New English Translation of the Bible 

By Arthur PrEuss 

We have already called attention to the encouraging fact that the 
movement among English-speaking Catholics, especially in England it- 
self, in favor of a new translation of the Scriptures, which should be 
at once accurate, scholarly, and free from reproach in style, is spread- 
ing and growing in force. 

Discontent with Challoner's Douay Bible is of long standing — 
both with the Old Testament, which has remained practically un- 
altered since 1635, and with the New, which has suffered a contrary 
fate and been "rehandled so often that there are at present no less 
than four distinct varieties of text in use, differing from one another 
in hundreds of points, and all bearing a plentiful crop of misprints." 

Of recent years attention has repeatedly been called in the Lon- 
don Month to the resulting confusion, and the plea for desirable im- 
provements in form as well as matter has been repeated so often in 
the Catholic press that one has almost grown tired of reading it. 

In the Irish Theological Quarterly for October, 191 1, the Rev. J. 
J. O'Gorman describes the two chief editions of Challoner's Old Tes- 
tament, pleading earnestly for a revision. 

In the Dublin Rezicw for April, 1913, the Rev. Hugh Pope, O. P., 
shows how defective the Rheims version was in many respects, and 
how the successive retouchings of Challoner's revision have not im- 
proved it either in style or accuracy. Father Pope incidentally points 
out many of the faults of the Vulgate itself in respect to the Greek 
text, and concludes with an appeal to scholars to take up the work of 
revision at once, so as to get through, before the appearance of the 
revised Vulgate now in the hands of Abbot Gasquet's commission, the 
immense amount of preparatory work which will be necessary. 



3_>6 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

This revival of interest in the state of our English versions now 
leads the Month (No. 587) to suggest that "the time is opportune for 
attempting to remove what has acted for so long as a discouragement 
to Bible-reading amongst us — the lack of a thoroughly correct trans- 
lation, well printed, well equipped with explanatory adjuncts, ration- 
ally arranged and carefully edited." 

Our esteemed contemporary regards as a hopeful sign in this di- 
rection the forthcoming publication of a new rendering from the Greek 
of St. Paul's Epistle to the Thessalonians, to be followed by the other 
Epistles in separate fasciculi, which can be bound together into one 
or more volumes. The project has met with the approval of the Eng- 
lish hierarchy, and the cooperation of various scholars is being sought 
to carry it on. 

The Month does not say so, but we presume that this important 
undertaking is under the editorial direction of Father Joseph Ricka- 
by, S. J., whose Notes on St. Paul have shown him fully able to cope 
with the difficulties of the task, which are by no means small. May he 
find a sufficient number of trained collaborators, and may the reception 
accorded to the new translation of the Pauline Epistles be such as to 
encourage the editors in course of time to translate anew, into under- 
standable and flawless English, the whole Bible both of the Old and 
the New Testament. 

A Catholic Y. M. C. A. Club 

By the Rev. Timothy Brockmann, O. F. M., Cincinnati, Ohio 

The "Friars" is a local athletic and social organization for 
Catholic young men, patterned after the Y. M. C. A. It was founded 
by the Franciscan Fathers, who, recognizing the necessity of such an 
institution, endeavored to afford the Catholic youth of Cincinnati an 
opportunity for moral, physical, and social improvement. Every large 
city offers to its young men temptations and moral dangers, which 
they are unable to resist through ignorance, faulty education, or neg- 
ligence. Athletics and innocent and healthful recreation go far to off- 
set this danger, but the lack of these, under Catholic influence, fre- 
quently compels our young men to have recourse to institutions where, 
for some reason or other, indifference to everything religious soon re- 
places the zeal and piety fostered in the parochial school. It follows, 
therefore, that next to a good school, a gymnasium, or at least a club 
is of vital importance for the growing generation. 

That a large field is open to Catholic endeavor in this respect is 



XX ii THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 3?7 

evident from the wonderful success the Y. M. C. A. is meeting with ; 
its 1900 branches take care of nearly half a million members, and rep- 
resent an investment of nearly $50,000,000. Much as we admire and 
appreciate this activity, we cannot but deplore that so many of our 
Catholic young men are affiliated with this organization, which is un- 
compromisingly Protestant, and, by its very constitution, excludes Cath- 
olics from full membership. 

To afford our Catholic young men the same facilities as are af- 
forded them by the Y. M. C. A., is the ambition of the Friars. We 
have not yet attained this end, but our past success encourages us to 
look for a bright future. Founded in 1908, by Father Antonine and 
a number of Catholic young men, the Friars have gradually forged 
ahead, in spite of some adversities and much discouragement. To-day 
we can justly claim the distinction of being Cincinnati's foremost Cath- 
olic athletic and social organization. Besides this, we are gradually 
succeeding in making our institution the equal of many sectarian and 
secular institutions. 

All Catholics of this city are admitted to membership. We are 
not affiliated with any individual parish, and the Friars are frequently 
exhorted to be loyal, active members of the sodalities and societies of 
their parish church. Our location is central among the Catholic par- 
ishes of Cincinnati, and six car-lines pass within one block of our 
entrance. 

Our gymnasium and club-rooms occupy the greater part of the 
old St. Francis' parochial school, Vine and Liberty Sts. Before using 
the building for this purpose, it was thoroughly renovated, and many 
modern facilities were installed. The combined floor space, at present 
used by the Friars, approximates 9000 square feet distributed over 
the basement, second and third floors. 

The lounging room is a spacious apartment where the members 
meet regularly and read the magazines and newspapers. In this room 
smokers are held, during which the members are entertained free of 
charge. Efforts are continually made to have lectures on current his- 
torical and social topics by speakers of repute. Much good is de- 
rived from these lectures which usually are of an instructive nature, 
and tend to excite the ambition of the young men. 

The pocket billiard room is furnished with several first-class 
tables and exhibitions and tournaments are held here from time to 
time. In addition to the pool tables, there are several card tables at 
the disposal of the members. Young men under seventeen are not 
permitted in this room. Gambling is strictly prohibited. 



3 28 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 191 3 

The library was made a possibility through the munificence of 
Catharine Muhle, and is called the Muhle Memorial Library. It is 
furnished with modern and standard authors, and contains treatises 
on historical and scientific subjects as well as works of fiction. Be- 
sides the daily papers, a number of periodicals and magazines are 
offered to the members. 

Our gym-floor covers a space 40 x 96 ; in addition to this a gallery, 
20 x 40, is fitted out with the most modern and improved apparatus for 
all sorts of exercises. The gym-floor contains a double regulation size 
hand-ball alley, indoor base-ball diamond, and courts for basket-ball, 
volley and center-ball. Gym classes are conducted three times a week. 

In the basement two large rooms, 30 x 30, are used for baths and 
lockers. In addition to the tub-bath, we have nine showers and one 
needle bath, all kept in a most sanitary condition. 

The club rooms and gymnasium are open daily to members from 
3 until 10 P. M. Saturdays and on public holidays, the rooms are 
open at 9 A. M. 

Classes in athletics and physical deportment are held on Tuesday, 
Thursday and Friday evenings, from 8.15 until 9.30. Thus sufficient 
chance is given all members to exercise frequently in whatever branch 
of athletics they may prefer. 

To become a member of the Friars it is necessary that the young 
man be a member of a Catholic parish, and belong to the sodality, at 
least, of his respective parish. The good character of an applicant 
must be vouched for by at least one member. The dues are $8.00 
per year, payable $2.00 quarterly in advance, plus an initiation fee 
of $3.00, payable on admission to membership. This fee entitles the 
member to all privileges of the club, gymnasium, and baths. 

The "Six Friar Golden Rules" (selected from eminent au- 
thors ) are : 

1. Let Prayer be the key of the morning, and the bolt of the 
evening. 

2. Frequently Receive the Sacraments. It is the boast of the 
Church that she can offer her youth the immaculate body of Jesus 
Christ for nourishment, and a virgin for a mother. 

3. Avoid Late Hours. The Friars close daily at 10 P. M. Early 
to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise. 

4. Recreation is a necessity. The mind ought sometimes to be 
diverted, that it may return the better to thinking. 

5. Keep straight. The excesses of our youth are drafts upon our 
old age, payable with interest about thirty years after date. 



XX ii THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 329 

6. Avoid All Excess. Be sober and temperate, and yon will be 
healthy. 

A copy of a descriptive circular ( illustrated ) can be had free 
on application to the writer at 1608 — 10 Vine St., Cincinnati, O. 

A Need and How to Supply it 

By C. D. U. 

In the Month for January, 1913, a writer pleaded for the forma- 
tion of a "Catholic Subject Index," by means of which the valuable 
apologetic matter hidden away in back numbers of newspapers and 
magazines, or in books no longer within easy reach, might be made 
accessible to those who are zealous for the spread of the faith or 
distressed at seeing attacks upon it pass unchallenged and unrefuted. 

Efforts were made in England to realize the scheme, but they 
have not yet borne fruit, owing to various practical difficulties ; but, 
as the same excellent review says in its May issue, "the idea is too 
valuable to be lost sight of, if only as a means of preventing the 
wastage of a vast amount of excellent material."' We hope that in 
case it fails of realization in England, it will be taken up in this 
country, where we have the necessary apparatus ready to hand in the 
publishing company and the editorial staff that has given to the Eng- 
lish-speaking world our great Catholic Encyclopedia. It is with this 
purpose in view that we will reproduce in substance a recent appeal 
and suggestion from the English Jesuit review. 

The Month (No. 587) begins by pointing out that the attack 
is passing from the disintegrated remains of Protestantism into the 
more capable and energetic hands of a militant Rationalism, and that, 
to avoid serious injury, the mental poison emitted by the Rationalists 
through various channels, must be counteracted by an effective anti- 
dote. The flow of falsehood pouring through the public press is not 
sufficiently neutralized by the far less copious outpouring of truth 
from Catholic sources, which, being so much smaller in quantity, should 
be husbanded with great care and stored in handy reservoirs for con- 
stant use. 

"In other words, it is highly desirable that the Catholic reader, 
confronted with some historical or doctrinal statement reflecting on 
the Church as such, which he feels cannot be true but which is pre- 
sented with much parade of evidence, should be able to lay his hand 
upon a means of sifting the testimony offered, and exposing the errors 
of fact or inference on which the charge is founded. Of course, there 
are undoubted scandals from time to time, abuses occur of the highest 



330 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 191 3 



and holiest things, and, of course, there can he no question of denying 
facts substantiated by sound evidence, although the bearing of these 
facts on doctrine or discipline may need explanation. Still, those 
familiar with anti-Catholic controversy will recognize that one meets 
therein a constant recurrence of ancient charges, the answers to which 
have often been lost sight of because they were held to have served 
their purpose once for all. An imperative need, then, is the preserva- 
tion in some handy and accessible shape of the useful antidotal matter 
which is constantly to be found in our Catholic papers. One would 
like to see a periodical journal composed entirely of reprints of the 
various replies, explanations, denials, etc., which are made in our 
papers and even in secular prints to current calumnies, and which 
run the risk of being forgotten almost as soon as made. These ex- 
tracts should be carefully classified, condensed if necessary, and ac- 
curately indexed. Only the barest summary of longer papers, with a 
note of their origin, need be given. No original matter would be 
wanted except occasional explanatory comments by the editor, and 
inclusion should be made of notable books and pamphlets, with an in- 
dication of their scope. We believe that, taking our press as a whole 
and the writings of Catholics in non-Catholic papers, there would be 
found abundant material for a weekly magazine of fair size. And 
the bound volumes of this, adequately indexed, would form a handy 
source of controversial knowledge for the busy Catholic." 

The scheme outlined by the Month would require no staff of con- 
tributors, but "only a capable editor with leisure enough to scan and 
collect appropriate matter from the outpourings of the press. Paste 
and scissors could not be more usefully employed, and there would 
be no lack of occasion for their use. For proof, let the reader glance 
through the Catholic literary output of the current week and month, 
and note the articles, letters, paragraphs, and items of news which 
are worth preserving as clearing up some misunderstanding of Cath- 
olic doctrine or practice, as correcting some inaccurate report, as vin- 
dicating some point of policy, actual or historical, etc., etc." 

An undertaking somewhat along the lines suggested by our Brit- 
ish contemporary was made last year in Switzerland by the Rev. Alfred 
A. Laub. We described and recommended his Waffcn der Wahrheit 
in Vol. XIX, No. 22 of this Rtfvmw. Not having seen a copy of the 
little monthly, however, for some time, we much fear it has died for 
want of support. Our only apprehension in regard to the weekly 
Antidote suggested by the Month is that it might meet the same fate. 
Perhaps it could be subsidized, at least in the beginning, by our Truth 
societies. 



XX ii THE FORTXIOHTLY REVIEW 331 

Low Man Lost the Right to Labor 

By C. MeurKr, Editor of tiik "Arkansas Echo," Little Rock, Ark. 

In several previous articles, I have explained that the only value 
we can possibly measure is work. The created materials are gifts of 
God to all humanity. They are necessary for us, but we are unable 
to fix their value. Who, for instance, can reasonably fix a price on 
the substance of the wheat we eat? And so is it with all the gifts of 
the Creator. The man, therefore, who puts a price upon these ma- 
terials, usurps the right of God; and if he is consistent, will have to 
declare himself the equal of God. We find that this is what really 
happened in antiquity. 

Old documents found in Mesopotamia and Egypt testify that, per- 
haps a thousand years after the Flood, mankind had multiplied to a 
great number, and one man confiscated the lands and materials of the 
people, and with the help of his followers forced the people to pay 
for the use of their confiscated property. In order to justify his con- 
duct, the usurper proclaimed himself the vicar of the deity. All the 
ancient potentates declare in inscriptions that have come down to us 
that they are the executors of the will of God. This god was mould- 
ed according to their ideas and passions. The sun and the moon, the 
visible witnesses of God's power and goodness, became gods, and were 
endowed, like their makers, with human passions and faults. Pride 
and avarice caused the suppression of the right to labor, and this was 
the beginning of the old paganism. The first two capital sins are 
its progenitors. 

It seems that paganism did not progress as rapidly in the begin- 
ning as the rulers desired. We know from the inscriptions that tem- 
ples were built to Bel and Sin and other deities long before 3000 b c, 
but the knowledge of the true God and the old traditions were still 
unchanged when Abraham lived, and continued so for some time in 
the tribe to which he belonged. Abraham had emigrated to Canaan, 
and sent his servant to get a wife for his son Isaak, anxious that 
his son should have a wife who knew and adored the true God. About 
forty years later, when Jacob left his father-in-law to return to Pales- 
tine, his wife Rachel stole the idols of her father. This shows what 
progress paganism had made in a remarkably short time in Chaldea. 

Hamurapi, king of Babylon, lived in Abraham's time, and his laws 
have been found inscribed on a stone slab. They are very severe and 
even bloody, proclaiming the right of the king to act in the name of 
the gods, and punish violation of his laws with death The greater 



33? 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 



part of these laws are for the protection of property, from which we 
see that property had at that time already become absolute, just as 

it is today. 

We have a parallel in modern history in the laws of Queen Eliza- 
beth of England. Some time before her reign, the king and his noble-men 
had usurped the rights of the people to such en extent that Karl Marx 
in his Capital calls it a robbery of the nation. Elizabeth promulgated 
bloody laws in order to protect the usurpers and herself, and did this 
in the name of religion, just like the old Babylonian king. Both were 
successful. 

But llamurapi's power did not reach very far. We know from 
inscriptions found in Egypt that the Hyksos, who conquered that conn- 
try some time after Abraham, were monotheists. Whence it seems 
that the old kings for a time allowed their subjects religious free- 
dom for political reasons. In Egypt the Hyksos found polytheism, 
which they did not disturb. Cheops, the builder of the first and great- 
est pyramid, and first ruler of the fourth dynasty, was the first pharao 
who assumed the name Son of Ra (Sungod). The pyramid and the 
tower of Babel were embodiments of the same idea, and may have 
been built at nearly the same time. 

All these rulers aimed at gaining power and wealth without work. 
They would not submit to the commandment of God: "In the sweat 
of thy brow thou shalt eat bread." 

How did Moses, the greatest of law-givers, meet the social ques- 
tion of his time? Slavery had become so common that he could not 
abolish it. However, he found a way to protect the rights of the poor 
against the rich. His laws made it a crime to sell land, and thereby 
prevented speculation. The third commandment of God, thundered 
from Mount Sinai, was: "Remember that thou keep holy the sabbath 
day." To understand fully what this commandment means we must 
contemplate that Moses appointed not only the seventh day as sab- 
bath, but also fixed a sabbath-year and a jnbilee-year, both of which 
are included in the third commandment. In these sabbath-years all 
debts became null and void, and all slaves were set free. This pre- 
vented the wealthy from acquiring all the land and materials of the 
Jewish nation, and the people remained free. Moses solved the so- 
cial question of his time for the Israelites only, but under David and 
Solomon the Jewish, ideals must have exerted a great influence upon 
other nations. 

With the exception of the Israelites we find the wealthy of all 
nations striving to secure value without work. They would not sub- 



XX ii THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 333 

mit to the commandment of God that all men must labor. If it had 
been possible they would have shifted to the shoulders of the poor 
not only the work and fatigue, but also sickness and death. 

Before the year 2000 B. c. property rights had become abso- 
lute. The proprietor had advanced from the position of adminis- 
trator, which God had given to that of absolute master. The peo- 
ple had to pay for the use of land and materials, and also interest 
on debts. We find these conditions prevailing in Babylon and Egypt. 
The man who could not pay his debts had to work to pay them ; later 
on he was sold into slavery for his debts, as a great many deciphered 
tablets tell. That was the origin of slaver}-. Egyptians, Greeks, and 
Romans finally made all their prisoners of war slaves, and often the 
whole population of a conquered city was sold into slavery. 

By means of the deciphered clay tablets, inscriptions, and papyri 
we find that in the oldest times science and art were highly developed, 
but decayed later, which is quite natural. As long as all men were 
free they had a common interest to improve life and its conditions; 
as slaves they did not have this interest. Besides, the slaves had to 
work constantly and had no time to receive instructions or study. The 
masters did not care to better the condition of their slaves, who re- 
ceived in compensation for their labor only the bare means of sub- 
sistence. The only purpose of the masters was to obtain power and 
money, and all things, even religion, were made means to subserve 
this end. 

The pagan religions were devised for the purposes of the State 
only; they served political ends, as for instance in Babylon, Thebes, 
Ninive, and Rome. Many rulers changed the religion of their people. 
They deposed one god and raised up another, as it suited their pur- 
pose. An example of this kind is given on the clay cylinder found 
by Sir Rawlinson in Birs Nimrud. Nabuchodonosor there declares 
himself to be the rightful king and executor of the will of the gods 
and says that he raised Bel Merodach to the first place among the 
gods of Babylon. A thousand similar inscriptions could be quoted. 

Later on the kings became themselves gods, and as mythology 
tells us, begot sons with mortal women. In Egypt the high priest de- 
clared each pharao the son of a god as soon as he ascended the throne. 
The old Roman kings were declared gods only after their death, but 
the later emperors posed as living gods and demanded the adoration 
of their subjects. 

What progress did humanity make during all this time? The re- 
sult of the excavations shows us that science and art flourished most 



334 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 



in the remotest times. We have precious stones which were cut 
4,000 B. c. At that time the art of tempering steel and hronze was 
known, also the manufacture of artistic glassware. A relief found 
near Diahekir, (now in a museum in Constantinople), is pronounced 
to be one of the finest works of ancient art. It is hewn from black 
basalt and was erected, as the inscription says, in 3750 B. c. The great 
pyramids belong to a very remote age, and learned scholars assure us 
that undoubtedly machinery was used in constructing them. 

As slavery became universal, progress stopped. Man lost his 
power over nature ; no more labor-saving machinery was built ; water 
power was no longer used to drive mills. In Rome, at the time of 
the emperors, slaves had to grind the grain for bread on handmills, 
and Rome had two million inhabitants. Steam power was known 
ear ly — Archimedes used it to defend Syracuse. All the old rulers built 
powerful machines of war. The secondary purpose of creation, vis.: 
to promote culture and civilization, was lost sight of in the endeavor 
of man to become a god. At the time of Christ four-fifths of all 
men were slaves, scorned as the repudiated creatures of the gods and 
their natural rights trodden under foot. 

The underlying principle of the Roman law was the right of the 
strongest. This is the natural law of the beasts of prey, and it is good 
for them, because no animal can take more than it needs for its nour- 
ishment ; it cannot usurp land and materials and make other beasts 
work for it. 

The gods became numerous. There was a god or goddess even for 
each vice. The higher classes had lost all faith in the Divinity. Pagan- 
ism engendered the most brutal of all religions, atheism, which de- 
stroyed the sense of responsibility and created a pandemonium on 
earth. That was the consequence of the destruction of the right to 
labor. 

Dr. Fr. Kaulen writes : 

"Thus the researches in Babylonia as well as Egypt have es- 
tablished a fact which only the believing scholar is able to appreciate 
properly. Divine Revelation teaches us in the Holy Bible that the hu- 
man race most nearly approached perfection at the beginning of its 
terrestrial career, and was reduced to an inferior state only by gradual 
stages, in consequence of original sin. It was reserved for the shallow 
and arbitrary unbelief of modern times to excogitate the theory that 
the human race gradually evolved itself to its present perfection from 
ancestors who were mere brutes or like unto brutes. Genuine science 
can draw from the ascertained facts no other conclusion than that 
human ferocitv and cruelty do not mark the beginning but the end 



XX ii THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 335 

of an evolutionary process, and in this finds itself in complete har- 
mony with Divine Revelation." (Assyrien mid Babylonien, p. 271.) 

Religion in France 

By Arnoul Greban 

The New York Times in a recent number of its Saturday Book 
Review (May 11) summarizes the contents of a new book on the 
religious situation in France, past and present. The volume is entitled 
French Prophets of Yesterday and has for its author Albert Leon 
Guerard, a born Frenchman, now assistant professor of French in the 
Leland Stanford Junior University. (New York: D. Appleton & Co.) 
Prof. Guerard says that France is anti-clerical and that her present 
tendency is to grow away from Catholicism ; that the French attitude 
toward Christianity is not very different from its attitude toward 
Catholicism, with which, in the minds of the people, Christianity was 
for centuries almost inseparably allied ; that the majority of the 
politicians are confirmed agnostics and that there are many "blatant 
atheists" and "bitter anti-Christians" in the country. 

But what is going to happen in France in the religious way in, 
the next twenty-five, fifty, or a hundred years Prof. Guerard does not 
profess to know. The only thing he dares predict is that the French 
people will not cease to be a religious people ; they may fall off from 
Catholicism and even from Christianity, but they will not undertake 
to get along without a religion. He bases this conclusion largely on 
what he learns through study of the religious thought under the Second 
Empire, a critical moment that "saw the fall of the papacy as a tem- 
poral power and its exaltation as an absolute dogmatic authority" and 
witnessed a struggle between science and theology as fierce as the 
world has ever known. 

In the times of the Second Empire, it is pointed out, the same 
religious problems were under consideration that confront France now, 
and the conflict over them was far more intense than that of to-day. 
But while Catholicism and Christianity were bitterly attacked, other 
religions were urged upon the attention of the people, in place of the 
established religion, by men who were quite as sober-minded and 
spiritual as the best of the Churchmen (?). 

At the end of the Second Empire, Prof. Guerard reminds us, super- 
natural religion was losing ground steadily, and no form of natural 
religion "could aspire to spiritual hegemony" ; to-day, he says, con- 
ditions are substantially the same, for, though the old is weaker, the 
new is not stronger. And the supreme question for the Frenchmen 



336 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

is this: "Is the religion of the ideal bound up with any particular tra- 
dition, any metaphysical system, any ecclesiastical form? In other 
words, has mankind the means of salvation everywhere and at all time- 
within itself, or is it doomed to perdition, unless, abdicating its spiritual 
autonomy, it receives miraculous aid from above?" 

To judge intelligently the religious situation in France one must go 
back further than Professor Guerard does, and take into consideration 
a number of other factors besides those which he discusses in his book. 
For the Frenchman there is no middle ground between Catholicity and 
irreligion. We who know France and have studied her history not 
only during the Second Empire but from the beginning up to the 
present day, are convinced that Pius X was right when he prophesied 
that France "will return to her premiere vocation" and "will never 
perish." 

Pros and Cons in Regard to the Income Tax 

By F. R. Glkankr 

The Outlook has taken a poll of the press on the proposed in- 
come tax. 

It appears that the tax is supported by a portion of the press for 
one or more of the following reasons: 

( 1 ) It rests upon the just theory that the burdens of government 
should be borne, as nearly as may be, with some relation to the benefits 
enjoyed by the citizen and the cost to the government of protecting 
his interests. 

( 2 ) It satisfies the economic law that taxes should be proportioned 
to the ability to pay. 

(3) It cannot be shifted to other shoulders, as so many other 
taxes. 

(4) It will permit a reduction of tariff schedules that will make 
the ultimate consumer the beneficiary, and readjust tariff taxes. 

( 5 ) The personal knowledge of the amount of taxes required 
of the people will more closely enlist their sympathy and active co- 
operation in government affairs, especially with regard to revenues 
and expenditures. 

(6) Military expenses are so much increased by reason of the 
international competition in battleships that an income tax is simply 
social justice. 

( 7 ) The proposed income tax can be raised or lowered at short 
notice without business disturbance, such as would be occasioned by 
general tariff changes. 



XX ii THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 337 

The income tax is combattcd by other papers for these reasons : 

(i) It is not a tax on property, as all taxes should he, but on 

ability and industry, and it can be more easily collected from the 

salaried man than from the wealthy who derive their income from 

dividends. 

(2) It is insufficiently distributed, mulcting the well-to-do at the 
expense of the great mass. 

(3) It confers inquisitorial powers and leads to mendacity and 
perjury. 

(4) The bill, as passed, is inequitable in several particulars, e. g. 
in omitting to include the rental of a residence as part of the owner's 
income, etc. 

(5) There is no financial emergency that calls for it, but great 
danger that it will lead to reckless expenditures. 

(6) The tax will not arouse general interest in behalf of govern- 
mental economy, because, as projected, it would offer special incentives 
to only about two per cent, of the electorate, the great majority of 
incomes being below the $4,000 limit and therefore exempt. 

(7) To give the power of quickly raising or lowering an income tax 
to 98 per cent, of the voters would be unfair to the other two per cent. 

On the whole the opponents recognize that the new income tax 
responds to the prevailing public opinion of the time and that those 
who think the majority is wrong, have no recourse but to bow to the 
majority's judgment. 

Next to the inheritance tax, the income tax is theoretically the 
justest of all taxes, and if it can be successfully enforced, will prove 
more equitable than any other. 

That the existing governmental machinery is inadequate to enforce 
it honestly, is the only serious objection to the measure that we can 
think of, and whether this obstacle may be overcome, time alone can 
show. 

Astronomical Problems and Speculations 

Before the National Academy of Sciences at Worcester, Mass., 
recently, Dr. J. C. Kapteyn, of the Astronomical Observatory of Gron- 
ingen, Holland, spoke on "Stars and the Laboratory." 

The use of the word "laboratory'' is explained by the fact that 
Dr. Kapteyn never looks at a star himself, but discusses the results that 
have been obtained by actual observers with a view of finding out 
the general motions of ajl the stars of which we have any knowledge, 



33 8 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 191 3 

with respect to one another, by means of the only knowledge we have, 
namely, that of their motion relative to the earth. 

It should perhaps be stated for the benefit of the layman that such 
knowledge is obtained in two ways— first, by the so-called proper 
motion, that is to say, motion up and down or from side to side on 
the celestial sphere, which is determined by the classical observations of 
positional astronomy, and, secondly, by the motion in the line of sight, 
that is, towards or away from us, knowledge which is obtainable only 
by means of the spectroscope and which we have been able to reach 
only in the last few decades. 

Supposing all this knowledge has, however, been obtained by 
hundreds of accurate observers, it still remains by the construction 
of some plausible theory to coordinate the motions of these thousands 
of observable stars into some generalization, which will suffice to 
describe the motions of the universe from creation until now. 

To sum up briefly Dr. Kapteyn's description, we may say that if 
there had been created two great masses or "bubbles" of stars, in each 
of which all stars moved irregularly, like the molecules of a gas, and 
which in addition had a motion of streaming as a whole in parallel 
directions until the two masses had impinged upon each other, this 
would approximately represent the state of the universe. It is found 
that if stars are classified according to their spectra, the so-called 
helium stars being supposed to be the youngest, then these stars are 
found to have the slowest motion. As the stars grow older, they ac- 
quire greater velocity. The reason for this is difficult to give, but it is 
probably due to gravitational forces, these being almost the only forces 
with which the astronomer has had as yet to do. Studies have been 
made upon many nebulae which seem to be moving most slowly 
and are nearest to primordial matter. 

Such investigations give a good idea of the enormous problems 
of astronomical science to-day, together with the daring nature of 
the speculations required. 

When Portugal Was in Flower 

By the Rev. Albert Muntsch, S. J., St. Louis University 
The Kolnischc Volksseitung not long ago published an interesting 
note on the African travels of the learned Dutch physician Olfertus 
Dapper (f at Amsterdam 1690), who in his day compiled a number 
of geographical handbooks: These volumes are very valuable to-day, 
as they are based on sources now lost, or at least, not easily accessible. 
In his Umbstandlichen, und Bigentlichen Beschreibung von Afrika 



XX ii THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 339 

(German edition, Amsterdam, 1670) Dapper gives a detailed description 
of the great Negro kingdoms in Upper Guinea, west and north of the 
lower Nile. His accounts are of value even to-day, in as far as they 
show how conversant the world then was with the nature and even 
the history of those immense domains, which, when the natives began 
to realize the "white peril," sank back into oblivion and remained 
unknown until our time. 

Dapper gives a description of Benin, the principal city of the 
region above mentioned. "The palace of the king," he says, "is of the 
size of the city of Harlem, ami the beautiful, long, rectangular pleasure 
walks within compare in extent with the city-hall of Amsterdam. 
Its roof is borne by wooden pillars, covered from top to bottom with 
brass, whereon are represented many warlike deeds and battles. Ev- 
erything is kept very clean. Most of the royal dwellings are covered 
with palm leaves instead of square boards. Every gable is ornamented 
with a little tower.... and thereon stand birds made of copper, with 
outspread wings, which are very skilful imitations of the reality." 

It was to be expected that these and similar accounts of the 
advanced culture of a people which, in other respects, (as, for instance, 
in its bloody human sacrifices ) remained on so low a place of civili- 
zation, should be first accepted with strong doubt and afterwards be 
regarded as fantastic inventions. And yet after the run of centuries 
the doughty old Dutch doctor stands justified before the world. For 
in a punitive expedition against the city of Benin, on August 27, 1897, 
one of the greatest ethnologic surprises of which we have record fell 
to the lot of the invaders. For on that day, in that remote city of the 
blacks, were found many hundred works of ancient art, in brass and 
ivory, which had formerly been in the possession of the royal family 
and of the princes, but were now claimed by the conquerors from 
England. There began at once "a struggle and strife for specimens, 
the like of which is unheard of in the history of ethnographic museums, 
and will perhaps never be repeated." 

The attempts to evaluate these finds and to assign them to their 
proper place in the history of the Dark Continent, and in the general 
history of culture, have not yet been successful. Only this much is 
certain, that some foreign influence seems to have penetrated to these 
black-skinned aborigines and guided them in their representations of 
fetish-trees, native animals and plants, warriors and European mer- 
chants. It is the opinion of the learned Director of the Ethnographic 
Museum at Munich, Dr. Max Buchner, who has deserved so well 
of the ethnographic exploration of Africa, that this foreign influence 
was Portuguese. 



340 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 1913 

Portugal is now sunk to the rank of a secondary nation. But 
we know what a great colonial power it once was. As Buchner well 
says, in those days (when the people of these African regions first 
made the acquaintance of the white man ) "Europe" was almost syn- 
onymous with "Portugal." Pie is of the opinion that the sculptures 
of Benin in bronze, copper and brass, were executed about four hun- 
dred years ago, and that their makers had before them not only 
European models, but also specimens of the religious art of India. 
Now it is a matter of history that at that time the Portuguese 
were the great colonizers of India, being especially strong at Goa. 

"What a great and unique role," continues Buchner, "must be 
assigned to the Portuguese of old in the history of the world has never 
been realized by us, nor do we comprehend the great and unique ex- 
pansive power of a people which scarcely numbered three million. 
The nation is now in its decline. They have been plundered and re- 
duced to penury by English capitalism, calumniated and maligned by 
English missionaries, reviled by a servile press. But for this very 
reason we should be the more earnestly concerned in fully recognizing 
all that they have accomplished. The power leading on to the great 
discoveries was almost entirely Portuguese. In all the regions of the 
East it was the Portuguese who first manifested the might of Europe. 
The English, who came later, changed and mutilated the names given 
by Portuguese discoverers to places on the West African coast down 
to the Cape. 

This being the case, it is plain that through the Portuguese, Hindu 
influences may have been transmitted to Africa. We should recall 
what high rank the old city of Goa once possessed, that it was one of 
the most important of metropolitan towns, the centre of a power which 
reached from the Cape to China — a spot over which today unfortu- 
nately there has again grown up a wilderness. It will thus be easy 
to accept the opinion that the strange figurines and ornaments found 
among the antiquities of Benin (described by Doctor Dapper) and 
which, until now, could be traced neither to European influence nor 
to indigenous skill, are most readily accounted for by assuming Hindu 
prototypes. 



XX ii 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



341 



FLOTSAM AND JETSAM 



Sherlock Holmes in Real Life 

Sir A. Conan Doyle, in his 
latest book ( The Case of Oscar 
Slater. New York : Geo. II. Do- 
ran Co. 50 cts.), applies the 
method of his famous detective 
Sherlock Holmes to an actual 
murder case. 

Oscar Slater, it may be remem- 
bered, was suspected of having 
murdered a wealthy woman in 
Glasgow under mysterious cir- 
cumstances. He sailed for Amer- 
ica, and was arrested in New 
York. He waived extradition, re- 
turned to Scotland, and was tried 
and condemned to death. Two 
days before the date of execution 
his sentence was changed to im- 
prisonment for life. 

Sir Conan Doyle believes the 
man absolutely innocent. His pur- 
pose in this book is to have him 
restored to society. He tells the 
story of the mystery, examines 
the evidence after the manner of 
his famous detective, and recon- 
structs the action of the crime as, 
in his opinion, it probably hap- 
pened. He points to no one as the 
real murderer, but picks to pieces 
the evidence of certain witnesses. 
Also, in true Sherlock Holmes 
style, he occasionally pays a not 
very complimenlary tribute to the 
police. Comparing the Slater case 
with that of Edalji, Sir Arthur 
has this to say: "I must admit 
that they are not of the same class. 
George Edalji was a youth of 
exemplary character. Oscar Slater 
was a blackguard. George Edalji 
was physically incapable of the 
crime for which he suffered three 
years' imprisonment (years for 
which he has not received, after 
his innocence was established, one 



shilling of compensation from the 
nation. ) Oscar Slater might con- 
ceivably have committed the mur- 
der, but the balance of proof and 
probability seems entirely against 
it." 

It is upon this "proof and prob- 
ability against" that the reason- 
ing powers of the creator of Sher- 
lock Holmes are now directed in 
full force. 

"The Case of Oscar Slater" may 
well interest the legal fraternity, 
as well as lovers of detective sto- 
ries, as a remarkable example of 
the fallibility of evidence. 

The Rural Problem 

Professor John M. Gillette's 
lately published volume, Construc- 
tive Rural Sociology (Sturgis & 
Walton Co. $1.60) goes direct to 
the heart of the problem in several 
important phases and may be rec- 
ommended to all students of this 
important and interesting subject. 
In Prof. Gillette's view the two 
great problems confronting the 
agricultural class to-day are finan- 
cial and social — how the tiller of 
the soil can obtain better remune- 
ration for his work, and how ru- 
ral life can be made more cheer- 
ful and satisfactory. 

The author regards farm col- 
onies or the so-called "back-to 
the-farm'' movements rather un- 
favorably. Cheaper transportation, 
he says, too often takes urban 
workers into the country merely 
to live there, not to become farm- 
ers. The movement is more likely 
to build up new urban centres in- 
stead of developing genuine coun- 
try life. The grafting of city ways 
upon farming communities is a 
detriment rather than a help. The 



34-2 



THE FORTXir.UTLY REVIEW 



1913 



lasting benefit must after all come 
from the farmers themselves, and 
organized progress in this direction 
has been shown by the activities 
of the Grange, the Farmers' In- 
stitutes, and, more recently, by the 
American Society of Equity and 
the Farmers' Union in the South. 
The Church, too, has immense 
possibilities, but, unfortunately, as 
Prof. Gillette says, the rural 
Church has no organic connection 
with the life of the community. 

The "Lowest Bid" Nuisance 

The Central Blatt & Social Jus- 
tice, in its No. 2, protests ener- 
getically against the custom of 
awarding contracts to the lowest 
bidder, which "has been such a 
fruitful source of ruinous business 
practices, of graft and even gross 
political corruption." 

An example in point is the fol- 
lowing: The St. Louis Board of 
Education expert estimated the 
cost of the painting to be done in 
a certain school, at $6,000. A well 
known painting contractor, follow- 
ing the custom of "figuring close- 
ly" and contenting himself with 
a small margin of profit, submit- 
ted a bid for $4,800. Other bids 
were submitted also, and the con- 
tract was finallv let to the lowest 
bidder— at $1,800!! 

"Once the Board of Education 
had an expert estimate prepared," 
comments the Central Blatt, "one 
might have expected the allot- 
ment to be made as nearly as 
possible in harmony with it. 
Something is radically wrong in 
a system of bidding and awarding 
of contracts in which such vast 
discrepancies between bid and bid. 
and between bid and expert esti- 
mate are possible, and not only 
possible, but even officially sanc- 
tioned." 



Our esteemed contemporary 
points to the example of Dresden 
and other German cities, which 
have adopted the system of hav- 
ing estimates of work (material, 
cost, labor, etc. ) prepared by ex- 
perts, whose opinion is used as 
a standard by which the bidder's 
figures are measured. Various pre- 
cautions are taken to prevent col- 
lusion between expert and con- 
tractor, and the result of the ex- 
periment is said to be quite satis- 
factory. 

As to Vivisection 

Much nonsense is constantly be- 
ing put forth (sometimes, we re- 
gret to say, even in Catholic jour- 
nals ) on the subject of vivisection 
and the anti-vivisection movement. 

The following summary state- 
ment from the Month (No. 587) 
contains, as in a nutshell, about 
all there is to say on the matter 
and should be cut out and pre- 
served by those who have been 
swayed to and fro by hazy no- 
tions : 

"Undoubtedly a vast amount of 
cruelty, which is the wanton and 
unnecessary infliction of pain up- 
on sentient beings, is everywhere 
practised on animals by thought- 
less or malevolent persons, and 
all rightminded folk should do 
their utmost to lessen that tale of 
suffering. But why attacks should 
be primarily directed against scien- 
tific vivisection of which the ob- 
ject is avowedly the good of man- 
kind and the methods show a 
sense of the necessity of avoiding 
cruelty, whilst the various forms 
of 'blood sports,' for which there 
is much less justification, pass with 
little animadversion, it is not easy 
to conjecture. Opponents of vivi- 
section say that it throws no use- 
ful light on the study of medicine, 



XX ii 



THE FORTXir.HTLY REVIEW 



343 



but the weight of medical authority 
seems to be against them. Then 
they urge that the subjects of ex- 
periments are not properly anaes- 
theticized, — again a matter of evi- 
dence regarding which their case 
is unproven. However, the ex- 
istence of this agitation against 
vivisection has undoubtedly led to 
much greater care being shown in 
supervising the practice and, in 
so far as it is not tainted with 
the heresy of supposing animals 
to be on the same moral plane as 
human beings, differing from the 
latter not in kind but only in de- 
gree, it merits the sympathy of 
all humane persons." 

Schools of Journalism 

In speaking on the subject of 
personality in journalism, the ed- 
itor of Collier's not long ago said: 
"A newspaper in the long run can 
be no better, no braver, no more 
disinterested than its owner. If 



it remains a good newspaper, the 
owner is an essentially good man. 
If the owner lacks courage, or 
public spirit, or freedom from 
'pull, 5 the newspaper, whether 
flagrantly or slyly, must inevitably 
cease to serve the truth." 

This observation is quoted, with- 
out comment, in the "Journalist's 
Number" of the Notre Dame Scho- 
lastic (Vol. 46, No. 31). Notre 
Dame University, as our readers 
are aware, now has a School of 
Journalism similar to those estab- 
lished in several secular and at 
least one other Catholic institution 
of learning. The above-quoted ut- 
terance from Collier's is a good 
motto for all these schools. Their 
mission is to train writers who 
have character, courage, and pub- 
lic spirit. If they succeed in this, 
they will have demonstrated their 
raison d'etre which has been ques- 
tioned by many even within the 
journalistic ranks. 



ET CETERA 



Wanted, by the 1st of August. 
a Catholic male teacher and organ- 
ist for a German parish in Illinois. 
New Gregorian chant. Boys' and 
male choir. Cecilian music. Must 
teach 6th, 7th, and 8th boys' class- 
es. Guaranteed income, $900 per 
year. References required. Apply 
to "M," care of Fortnightly 
Rkviliw. — Adv. 

We have often wondered why 
the London Tablet persists in oc- 
casionally printing quotations in 
German. These quotations are al- 
most invariably inaccurate and 
distorted. Take these two, for 
instance, attributed to Fr. Bessmer 
S. J. (Philosophic und Theologie 
des Modernismus; Tablet, No. 
3,804, p. 527') : 



"Der Modernismus ist eister 
Leinie eine Richtung, eine Meth- 
od," and : "Der Ausgangspunkt des 
modernistischen System bildet der 
Agnosticismus." 

"Schuster bleib' bei deinem Lei- 
sten !" 

Father Herbert Thurston, S. J., 
in the April Month, traces the 
history of the Easter antiphon 
"Regina coeli" from its first ap- 
pearance in an antiphonal of about 
1200 A. D. and asserts that its sub- 
stitution for the Angelus during 
paschal tide dates only from the 
middle of the iSth century, but 
the rubric directing that it be said 
standing recalls one of the most 
ancient and venerable of Catholic 
customs. 



344 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



The Constructive Quarterly has 
received praise from some Cath- 
olic journals, especially in the East. 
To us this new review appears 
like a repristination, in permanent 
form, of the famous Parliament 
of Religions, which did so much 
harm to the Catholic cause that 
the plan of holding another was 
condemned by the Holy See. 
We cannot suppress our astonish- 
ment at the fact that members of 
the Society of Jesus have con- 
sented to contribute to this inter- 
denominational quarterly. 

The K. of C. are trying to get a 
bill passed in several state legisla- 
tures making it a criminal offense 
for any one to divulge the secrets 
of secret societies. One of our 
readers writes us to say that this is 
contrary to the spirit of the Con- 
stitution "Apostolicae Sedis," II. 
tit. iv. Xo doubt the Freemasons 
will be very thankful to the K. of 
C. for the protection they will en- 
joy under the new law, if it passes. 

In Convocation at Oxford the 
secularist statutes met with the 
fate they deserved. By a majority 
of two to one it was decided that 
the examiners in the Honor School 
of Theology must still be Christ- 
ians, and by an even greater maj- 
ority, that Buddhists and Hindus 
should not be eligible for divinity 
degrees. Strangely enough, the 
secularist cause was pleaded by the 
Dean of Christchurch and the 
Warden of Keble. These Anglican 
ecclesiastics might be better em- 
ployed than in giving their names 
and authority to the cause of 
secularism. 

The London Times has lowered 
its subscription price, but neither 
the quality of the paper nor the 



contents have suffered. The 
Times is a great journal, some- 
thing indeed of an institution, con- 
ducted on the whole with dignity 
and restraint. The Saturday Re- 
z'ieiv does not hesitate to call its 
power abroad "a national asset." 
Could this be truthfully said of 
any American newspaper, in spite 
of the vainglorious boasting of so 
many of them? 

Two professors of the State 
University of Texas, Shurter and 
Taylor, in a recently published 
book, Both Sides of Public Ques- 
tions Briefly Debated (Hinds, 
Noble & Eldridge) discuss the 
question whether "the principles 
of the American Protective As- 
sociation deserve the support of 
American citizens." The Notre 
Dame Scholastic (Vol. XLVL 
No. 31), from which we cull this 
information, censures these pro- 
fessors for taking up a question, 
which, it says, "is a public ques- 
tion only among the fortunately 
few Americans to whose benight- 
ed intellects the elements of re- 
ligious and historical knowledge 
have failed to penetrate." Well, 
taking public opinion as it is, the 
country over, the anti-Catholic 
principles incorporated in the A. 
P. A. and such journals as Wat- 
son's Magazine and the Menace, 
may fairlv be ranked among "pub- 
lic questions." It all depends how 
Professors Shurter and Taylor 
treat it. As we have not seen 
a copy of their book, we cannot 
answer this question. One might 
publish a strong apologia for the 
Catholic Church under a similar 
title. We don't like these whole- 
sale condemnations and censures 
of men and books without quota- 
tions and proofs to substantiate 
them. Let us not adopt the con- 



XX ii THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 345 

troversial methods of the A. P. A., There are still some mistaken 

brethren. notions current with regard to the 

* vote more than fifty per cent 

150 members of the sophomore e ]f tion - Th J Chicago Daily News 
class at Yale have banded them- ™» anac > wh , ch 1S g enera % re- 
selves together for the purpose of l ^ lt > 8 " lves the popular vote as 
combating secrecy in the senior Iollows : 

societies. They suggest that "se- Wilson 6,292,600 

crecy be reduced to a reasonable Roosevelt 4,120,101 

privacy." We will quote one of T < n - f t 3.481,632 

their resolutions from the Out- 
look (Vol. 104, No. 2): Instead of the vote being divided 

"It has been asserted that se- "early equally between Roosevelt 

crecy is essential in upholding a an( l Wilson, Wilson received a 

proper respect for the societies; vote more than fifty per cent 

we maintain that if the societies lar ger than Roosevelt, whereas the 

cannot command respect, with or vote TOr Roosevelt and Taft was 

without secrecy, purely through nearly equal, Roosevelt's being 

the esteem which people have for approximately twelve per cent 

their members, they have not then greater. The combined vote for 

chosen men most deserving of the Roosevelt and Taft was but ap- 

societies." proximately twenty per cent great- 

These sophomores have at least er tnan tlle vote Ior Wilson, 

an inkling of a truth which many * 

adult members of secret societies We Americans are getting a bad 

throughout the country — includ- reputation with regard to treaty 

ing, we are sorry to say, some obligations. Thus Sir Harry 

Catholics — still fail to grasp. Johnston, in a book entitled Com- 
mon Sense in Foreign Policy, 
recently published in London. 

The fact that practically all wo- says : "Treatises in fact only bind 

man suffragists are opposed to ask- the United States as long as they 

ing women whether they wish the are convenient. They " are not 

vote or not, confirms the conten- really worth the labor their nego- 

tion of the Outlook and other tiation entails or the paper they 

journals, that only a small majori- are written on. It is as well that 

ty of women favor this political this position should be realized, as 

revolution. Truly, it would be it may save a good deal of fuss 

neither democratic nor just to im- and disappointment in the future. " 

pose on woman the duty of shar- On which the New York Times, 

ing the responsibility involved in in its weekly Review of Books 

active participation in government (May 11), comments: "His 

without first ascertaining whether [Johnston's] views of the conduct 

or not she wishes to assume this of the United States are not al- 

responsibilitv, from which hither- together flattering, but it cannot 

to she has been mercifully exempt, be denied that they have some 

* basis." 






346 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



LITERARY NOTES 



— The Nature of Human Soci- 
ety. By Bernard J. Often, S. ./., 
Professor of Theology in St. Louis 
University ( B. Herder. 1913. 21 
pp. 5 ets. ). The social reformer 
"cannot understand the ills human 
society is heir to, nor devise suit- 
ahle remedies, if he does not un- 
derstand what human society is, or 
how it should operate when in a 
healthy condition." These words 
from the Introduction to Father 
Otten's pamphlet indicate the ob- 
ject for which it was written. Un- 
der the heads of Definition, The 
Social Unit, The Social Bond, and 
The Social End, he presents a brief 
but complete review of the nature 
and elements of society. No one 
who believes in organized society 
at all, could find fault with his 
treatment of the subject or with 
his main conclusions. His pamph- 
let is a convenient, clear, and mod- 
erate summary of the principles 
of civil society. There is, how- 
ever, one objection that might be 
made to his reasoning, or more 
properly, to his method of presen- 
tation with regard to a detail. He 
rightly insists that not the individ- 
ual but the family is the unit of 
society, but finds in the male bache- 
lor and in the institution of wo- 
man suffrage two difficulties con- 
fronting this principle. His solu- 
tion is that the unmarried male is 
merely an exception which does 
not destroy the rule, and that wo- 
man suffrage is not in accordance 
with the laws of society. The 
former explanation makes his main 
principle unnecessarily weak, for 
the exceptions in the form of un- 
married males are exceedingly nu- 
merous, while his three funda- 
mental reasons for designating wo- 



man suffrage as really unnatural 
will strike many readers as incon- 
clusive and far fetched. Why not 
interpret the family as the unit 
of society in a less rigid way, by 
declaring that the family is the 
primary concern of society, and 
that unmarried persons of either 
sex are likewise the objects of its 
solicitude, but not in the same 
manner nor to the same extent? 
After all, the insistence upon the 
family rather than the individual 
as the unit aims at no more than 
this. It does not imply that the 
family must be the voting unit. — 
John A. Ryan, D. D. 

— Spiritual Progress: IP Prom 
Pervor to Perfection (Wash- 
bourne, Ltd., London; Benziger 
Brothers, New York, Cincinnati 
& Chicago. 90 c. ) presents a minute 
analysis of the factors apt to in- 
crease or diminish spirituality. The 
paramount importance of self- 
knowledge and self-examination 
is emphasized throughout. In the 
first part confession is considered 
chiefly as an instrument of prog- 
ress. In subsequent chapters, 
which form a treatise on direc- 
tion, the terms "Fervor" and "Per- 
fection" are defined ; the causes 
that paralyze spiritual activity are 
shown to be want of effort, want 
of purification, and want of peace; 
the causes that lead spiritual ac- 
tivity astray are false notions in 
regard to principles and illusions 
in respect of ourselves. Finally 
some helps to fervor are enumer- 
ated. Reflections on "self-reform* 
through Jesus" close the book, 
which will prove helpful to spir- 
itual directors. — E. DannEggEr, 
S. J. 



XX ii 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



34/ 



— We have often wondered why 
the Catholic Book Notes of Lon- 
don has not a larger circulation 
among American Catholics. 
Among the few purely critical 
literary reviews that we Catholics 
have in English, it is far and 
away the best. Its book notices 
are judicious and sanely critical. 
It happens but rarely that some 
contributor fails to do his duty. 
We have in mind one conspic- 
uous instance of such failure in 
No. 182, which has just come to 
hand. But on the whole, and 
generally, the reviews published 
in the Catholic Book Notes can be 
depended upon. Another point in 
their favor is that they are writ- 
ten in terse and vigorous English. 
Still another, that they aim to be 
just and scholarly, no matter who 
the publisher of a work, or how 
exalted an author's station. To 
read such book reviews is a real 
"treat." The Catholic Book Notes 
is published monthly by the Cath- 
olic Truth Society, 69 Southward 
Bridge Road, S. E., London, Eng- 
land. We regret to see from the 
current number that the editor. 
Mr. James Britten, is dangerous- 
ly ill. We hope and pray that he 
will soon recover and live to con- 
duct the Book Notes with his old- 
time vigor for many years to 
come. — A. P. 

— A critic in the Nation, says of 
Jack London's latest volume of 
short stories {The Night-Born. 
The Century Co. ) : "The title of 
the sixth of these ten tales, 'Bunch- 
es of Knuckles' rather than that 
of the first, should have been 
chosen to indicate the character of 
the collection. With the excep- 
tion of the first story, and of one 
otner, which is silly, these tales are 
all deliberately brutal, in Jack Lon- 



don's worst and most popular man- 
ner. An American goes to a bull- 
fight, and, driven mad by the 
screams of a disembowelled horse, 
runs amuck, killing seven and 
wounding many others of the bull- 
fighting race before he is killed 
himself. A social reformer is 
'beaten up' by a dive-keeper, fails 
to get justice in the courts, and 
avenges himself by beating up a 
venial judge: both beatings re- 
ported in detail. A boy is bitten 
in two by a shark in full sight of 
a ship's company, as the result of 
a woman's whim. With such ma- 
terials this writer is wont to fas- 
cinate his especial public. I fe has 
the knack of the short story, and 
something more ; but we begin to 
despair of his ever escaping his 
obsession for bunches of knuckles 
and buckets of blood." 

— The Practical Catechist. Prom 
the German of Re:'. James Nist. 
Parish Priest of Birkenhoerdi. 
With an Introduction by Rev. 
James Linden, S. J. Edited by 
Rev. Perreol Girardey, C. SS. R. 
( xi & 556 pp. 8vo. B. Herder. 
1913. $1.75 net). No less an 
authority than Father Linden, S. 
J., calls this a "model work," and 
Father Meschler, S. J., in his 
preface to Part I, testifies that Nist 
teaches not merely, as a genuine 
priest, correctly and solidly, but 
he also speaks the language of 
children in its wonderful trans- 
parency and graceful naturalness." 
This is high praise indeed, which 
insures The Practical Catechist' a 
friendly reception and sympathet- 
ic trial in its English dress. That 
English dress is perhaps not as im- 
maculate as we should like to see 
it, but for the second edition, 
surely to be expected, the editor 
will no doubt excise all typogra- 



348 



THE FORTXIf.HTLY REVIEW 



1913 



phical errors and smoothe the 
literary style of what cannot but 
prove a useful volume for onr 
catechists. — O. K. 

— Der G old gr unci der Welt- 
geschichte. Zur Wicdcrgcburt 
katJwlischcr Gcschiclitschreibung. 
Von Dr. Albert von Ruville, Uni- 
versitdtsprofessor in Halle (xiii & 
236 pp. i6mo. B. Herder. 1912. 
90 cts. net). This is an essay in 
the philosophy of history. The 
author shows that Christ, our 
God and Savionr, and His grace, 
is the golden background upon 
which the historian must trace 
the picture of human development. 
Where this factor is neglected, 
and the supernatural element 
eliminated from universal history, 
an important link in the chain of 
causality is wanting. The author's 
confidence in the victoriousness 
of truth is refreshing: "Other 
world-views stand in need of il- 
legitimate assistance so as not to 
suffer from the facts ; the Cath- 
olic Church fares the better the 
less its, representatives try to 
bolster it at the cost of truth. 
Truth always squares with truth" 



(p. 108). This is the same cour- 
ageous faith that led Leo XIII to 
throw open the Vatican archives. 
"The more thoroughly historic 
truth is investigated," said the 
doughty Pontiff to Professor von 
Smolka, "the more clearly will the 
divinity of the Church stand 
forth." (p. 219). Dr. von Ruvil- 
le's little book contains many beau- 
tiful pages, but it is redundant in 
spots and lacks that crystal clear- 
ness which we have learned to ex- 
pect from the eminent Jena con- 
vert.— A. P. 

— Papal Program of Social Re- 
form. An Analysis. By Dr. Au- 
gust C. Breig. ( Milwaukee. Died- 
rich-Schafer Co. 1913. 72 pp.) 
The Encyclical of Pope Leo XIII 
on the "Condition of Labor" has 
been printed in many different edi- 
tions, and with many different 
helps in the way of arrangement, 
headings, analytical commentaries, 
etc., but none of them is as sug- 
gestive and attractive as the edi- 
tion now offered by Rev. Dr. Breig 
of Racine, Wisconsin. As he re- 
marks in the Preface: "The great 
difficulty in explaining the En- 
cyclical consists in pointing out to 



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XX ii 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



349 



ccnccs of Sister Elisabeth of the Trini- 
ty, Carmelite of Dijon igoi-1906. net 
$1.25. 

The Nature of Hitman Society. By 
B.J. Often. S. J. .05. 

The National Evil of Divorce. Bv 
B. J. Often. S.J. .05. 

Growth in the Knowledge of Our 
Lord. Meditations for every Day Adap- 
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the reader its divisions and sub- 
divisions in such a manner that he 
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unity and coherence, and thus be- 
come enabled to use the entire 
work with the best results." This 
difficulty Dr. Breig has solved 
satisfactorily by the simple device 
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different kinds of type, sufficiently 
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arranged in the same manner as 
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— John A. Ryan, D. D. 

Herder's Booklist 

[This list is furnished monthly by B. Herder, 
17 South Broadway, St. Louis, Mo., who keeps 
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should be sent. Postage extra on "net" books.) 

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350 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



The Book of the Foundations of 
S. Teresa of Jesus. Writ ten by herself 
net $2.25. 

Bodily Health and Spiritual Vigour 
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THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



35i 



BARGAINS IN OLD BOOKS 



Dziekonska, K., The Journal of the 
Countess Franqoise Krasinska, Great 
Grandmother of Victor Emmanuel. 
Chicago 1896. 50 cts. 

Three Acres and Liberty. By Bol- 
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Deterioration and Race Education. 
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45 cts. 

Marx, Karl, Capital. Untermann's 
translation. Vol. 1. Chicago 1908. 
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Pohle, Jos., Lehrbuch der Dogma- 
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$1.50. 

Becker, Wm,, Die Pflichten dcr 
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Freiburg 1895. 35 cts. 

Des Herrn Marins Geschichte Sa- 
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*Roscoe, W., The Life and Pontifi- 
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Tingle, E. W. S., Germany's Claims 
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Hosmer, James K, Short History 
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Berthe, P., C. SS. R., Jesus Chri- 
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* Bougeault, A., Histoire des Litera- 
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heit. Heilsgeschichte des alten u. neu- 
en Bundes im Gewande der Dichtung. 
Leipzig 1879. 65 cts. 

Peters, N., Bibel u. Naturwissen- 
schaft nach den Grundsatzen der kath. 
Theologie. Paderborn 1908. 25 cts. 

Stimmen aus Maria-Laach. 24. Bd. 
1883. 75 cts. 

Coler, Bird S., Two and Two Make 
Four. New York 1912. 75 cts. 

*Rawlinson's Ancient Monarchies. 
Chicago Reprint. Illustrated. 3 vols. 
$2.50. 

* Singleton, E., The World's Great 
Events. 5 vols, illustrated. New York 
1904. $2. 

Huonder, A. ( S. J.), Die Mission 
auf der Kanzel I. Freiburg 1912. 
28 cts. 

Hohn, H., Vocations. Conditions of 
Admission etc., into Religious Congre- 
gations of Women. London 1912. 
$1.07. 

Haggenmiller, F. S. (O. M. Cap.), 
Der goldene Zirkel. Eine praktische 
Denkmethode fiir Redner etc. Augs- 
burg 1904. 75 cts. 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



1913 



BARGAINS IN OLD BOOKS 



Mathews, Wm, Hours with Men and 
Books. 7th ed. Chicago 1878. 84 cts. 

*T'Serclaes, Mgr., Le Pape Leon XIII. 
2 vols, royal 8vo. Paris 1894. $1.50. 

Lury, Aug., fitudes Hist, et Jurid. 
sur lcs Origines du Droit Publique 
d'apres le Card. Satolli. Paris 1902. 
50 cts. 

*Rinieri, I. (S. J.), Napoleone e Pio 
VII (1804-1813). Relazione Storiche 
su documenti inediti. Torino 1906. 
2 vols. $2.50. 

Surbled, Dr., L'Amour Malade. Pa- 
ris s. a. 75 cts. 

Surbled, Dr., Le Reve. 2e ed. Pa- 
ris 1898. 25 cts. (Paper covers.) 

Theo. S. Fay, The Three Germanies. 
2 vols. New York 1889. $1.50. 

Abrege Chronologique de l'Histoire 
d'Espagne et de Portugal. 2 vols. Pa- 
ris 1745. Binding damaged. $1. 

St. Augustine, Bishop of Hippo. 
(Notre Dame Series of Lives of the 
Saints.) London 1912. 75 cts. 

J. T. Roche, Around the World. 
New York 1912. 75 cts. 

Hyde, Cath., Secret Memoirs of 
Princess Lamballe, Being her Jour- 
nals, etc., during her Confidential Re- 
lations with Marie Antoinette. Wash- 
ington 1901. (Universal Classics Libra- 
ry.) 65 cts. 

Mullan, Elder, (J. J.), The Sodality 
of Our Lady Studied in the Docu- 
ments. New York 1912. $1.50. 

Rayneri, G. A., Padagogik in fiinf 
Biicbern. (tr. by F. X. Kunz.) Frei- 
burg 1909. $1.50. (Bibliothek derkath. 
Padagogik.) 

Miller, A. V., Sermons on Modern 
Spiritism. London 1908. 50 cts. 

Carr, Abp., The Primacy of the 
Roman Pontiff. 2nd ed. Melbourne 
1897. 25 cts. (Paper covers.) 

*Grote's Geschichte Griechenlands 
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1850 sqq. $5. 

Dornbluth, Otto, (Dr.), Hygiene der 
geistigen Arbeit. Berlin 1907. 2. Auf- 
lage. 95 cts. 

Preuss, Arthur, The Fundamental 
Fallacy of Socialism. St. Louis 1908. 
67 cts. 



Jorg, Jos. E., Geschichte des Pro- 
testantismus in seiner neuesten Ent- 
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bound in one. $1.25. 

Hoyer, Joh. G., Geschichte der 
Kriegskunst seit der ersten Anwendung 
des Schiesspulvers zum Kriegsgebrauch 
bis Ende des 18. Jahrh. Gottingen 1797. 
2 vols. $1.50. 

Farber-Girardey, Commentary on 
the Catechism. St. Louis 1906. $1.13. 

A Hundredfold. (Novel.) By the 
Author of "From a Garden Jungle." 
New York 1913. 57 cts. 

Pohle-Preuss, The Divine Trinity. 
St. Louis 1912. $1.10. 

Mathews, Wm., Literary Style and 
Other Essays. 4th ed. Chicago 1882. 
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McKee, Th. H., The National Con- 
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Parties 1789-1904. 5th ed. Balto. 1904. 
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Weiss, A. M., O. P. (pseudonym: 
Heirich von der Clana). Protest. Po- 
lemik gegen die kath. Kirche. Frei- 
burg 1874. 40 cts. 

Wulllng, J. E., Was mancber nicht 
weiss. Sprachliche Plaudereien. Jena 
1905. 60 cts. 

*Saint Simon's Memoirs of Louis 
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Bagsbawe. F., History of the Royal 
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Kannamuller, L., Caveant Moniti. 
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Mohr, H., Der Rosengarten. Aus- 
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Cochem. Freiburg 1912. 65 cts. 

Gspann, J. Chr., Vernunft und 
Christentum. Ratisbon 1912. 28 cts. 
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